Chemistry & Water

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Chemistry & Water
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
Which of these is an example of an organelle?
a.
chloroplast
b.
muscle
c.
epidermis
d.
intestine
e.
maple leaf
 2.
Which of these is a correct representation of the hierarchy of biological organization from least to most complex?
a.
organelle of a stomach cell, digestive system, large intestine, small intestine, intestinal tissue, organism
b.
organelle of an intestinal cell, digestive system, small intestine, large intestine, intestinal tissue, organism
c.
molecule, intestinal cell organelle, intestinal cell, intestinal tissue, digestive system, organism
d.
molecule, small intestine, large intestine, intestinal tissue, digestive system, organism
e.
molecule, digestive system, digestive cell organelle, small intestine, large intestine, intestinal cell, organism
 3.
As a result of photosynthesis, plants release ____ into the atmosphere.
a.
methane
b.
carbon dioxide
c.
water
d.
minerals
e.
oxygen
 4.
Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material?
a.
animal
b.
plant
c.
archaea
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 5.
There are approximately ____ identified and named species.
a.
1,800
b.
180,000
c.
1,800,000
d.
18,000,000
e.
180,000,000
 6.
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have which of the following features in common?
a.
a membrane-bounded nucleus
b.
a cell wall made of cellulose
c.
ribosomes
d.
flagella or cilia that contain microtubules
e.
linear chromosomes made of DNA and protein
 7.
Which of the following are characteristics shared by members of both domain Bacteria and domain Archaea?
a.
cytosol
b.
nucleus
c.
DNA
d.
A and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 8.
Two species belonging to the same genus must also belong to the same
a.
kingdom.
b.
phylum.
c.
class.
d.
order.
e.
all of the above
 9.
Which of the following is (are) true of natural selection?
a.
requires genetic variation
b.
results in descent with modification
c.
involves differential reproductive success
d.
B and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 10.
Which of these individuals is most likely to be successful in an evolutionary sense?
a.
a reproductively sterile individual who never falls ill
b.
an organism that dies after 5 days of life but leaves 10 offspring, all of whom survive to reproduce
c.
a male who mates with 20 females and fathers 1 offspring
d.
an organism that lives 100 years and leaves 2 offspring, both of whom survive to reproduce
e.
a female who mates with 20 males and produces 1 offspring
 11.
In a hypothetical world, every 50 years people over 6 feet tall are eliminated from the population. Based on your knowledge of natural selection, you would predict that the average height of the human population will
a.
remain unchanged.
b.
gradually decline.
c.
rapidly decline.
d.
gradually increase.
e.
rapidly increase.
 12.
The statement “If you show your dog affection, then your dog will seek your company” is an example of
a.
a statement that can be tested.
b.
a statement derived from a hypothesis.
c.
a prediction.
d.
deductive reasoning.
e.
all of the above
 13.
Which of the following is not a theme that unifies biology?
a.
interaction with the environment
b.
emergent properties
c.
evolution
d.
reductionism
e.
structure and function
 14.
Calcium has an atomic number of 20 and an atomic mass of 40. Therefore, a calcium atom must have
a.
20 protons.
b.
40 electrons.
c.
40 neutrons.
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 15.
The atomic number of carbon is 6. Carbon-14 is heavier than carbon-12 because the atomic nucleus of carbon-14 contains ____ neutrons.
a.
6
b.
7
c.
8
d.
12
e.
14
 16.
Electrons exist only at fixed levels of potential energy. However, if an atom absorbs sufficient energy, a possible result is that
a.
an electron may move to an electron shell farther out from the nucleus.
b.
an electron may move to an electron shell closer to the nucleus.
c.
the atom may become a radioactive isotope.
d.
the atom would become a positively charged ion, or cation.
e.
the atom would become a negatively charged ion, or anion.

Use the figure below to answer the following questions.

nar001-1.jpg

 17.
Which drawing depicts the electron configuration of nitrogen (N)?
a.
Drawing A
b.
Drawing B
c.
Drawing C
d.
Drawing D
e.
Drawing E
 18.
What does the reactivity of an atom depend on?
a.
number of valence shells in the atom
b.
number of orbitals found in the atom
c.
number of electrons in each orbital in the atom
d.
presence of unpaired electrons in the outer valence shell of the atom
e.
presence of hybridized orbitals in the atom

Use the information extracted from the periodic table in the figure below to answer the following questions.

nar002-1.jpg

 19.
How many electrons does phosphorus have in its valence shell?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
5
 20.
Nitrogen (N) is much more electronegative than hydrogen (H). Which of the following statements is correct about the atoms in ammonia (NH3)?
a.
Each hydrogen atom has a partial positive charge.
b.
The nitrogen atom has a strong positive charge.
c.
Each hydrogen atom has a slight negative charge.
d.
The nitrogen atom has a partial positive charge.
e.
There are covalent bonds between the hydrogen atoms.
 21.
What do the four elements most abundant in life-carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen-have in common?
a.
They all have the same number of valence electrons.
b.
Each element exists in only one isotopic form.
c.
They are equal in electronegativity.
d.
They are elements produced only by living cells.
e.
They all have unpaired electrons in their valence shells.

Use the figure below to answer the following questions. .

nar003-1.jpg

 22.
What results from the chemical reaction?
a.
a cation with a net charge of +1
b.
a cation with a net charge of -1
c.
an anion with a net charge of +1
d.
an anion with a net charge of -1
e.
A and D
 23.
The atomic number of chlorine is 17. The atomic number of magnesium is 12. What is the formula for magnesium chloride?
a.
MgCl
b.
MgCl2
c.
Mg2Cl
d.
Mg2Cl2
e.
MgCl3
 24.
Explains most specifically the attraction of water molecules to one another.
a.
nonpolar covalent bond
b.
polar covalent bond
c.
ionic bond
d.
hydrogen bond
e.
hydrophobic interaction
 25.
In a single molecule of water, the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
a.
hydrogen bonds.
b.
nonpolar covalent bonds.
c.
polar covalent bonds.
d.
ionic bonds.
e.
van der Waals interactions.
 26.
Which bonds must be broken for water to vaporize?
a.
ionic bonds
b.
nonpolar covalent bonds
c.
polar covalent bonds
d.
hydrogen bonds
e.
covalent bonds
 27.
The formation of ice during colder weather helps moderate the seasonal transition to winter. This is mainly because
a.
the breaking of hydrogen bonds absorbs heat.
b.
the formation of hydrogen bonds releases heat.
c.
the formation of hydrogen bonds absorbs heat.
d.
there is greater evaporative cooling of lakes.
e.
ice is denser than liquid water.
 28.
Recall that when sodium chloride (NaCl) is placed in water the component atoms of the NaCl crystal dissociate into individual sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-). In contrast, the atoms of covalently bonded molecules (e.g, glucose, sucrose, glycerol) do not generally dissociate when placed in aqueous solution. Which of the following solutions would be expected to contain the greatest concentration of particles (molecules or ions)?
a.
0.5 M NaCl
b.
0.5 M glucose
c.
1.0 M NaCl
d.
1.0 M glucose
e.
1.0 M MgCl2

Use the figure below to answer the following questions:

nar004-1.jpg

 29.
How many grams of the molecule in the figure above would be required to make 1 L of a 0.5 M solution of the molecule?
(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)
a.
29
b.
30
c.
60
d.
150
e.
342
 30.
Which of the following ionizes completely in solution and is considered to be a strong acid?
a.
NaOH
b.
HCl
c.
NH3
d.
H2CO3
e.
CH3COOH
 31.
Which of the following statements is completely correct?
a.
H2CO3 is a weak acid, and NaOH is a weak base.
b.
H2CO3 is a strong acid, and NaOH is a strong base.
c.
NH3 is a weak base, and H2CO3 is a strong acid.
d.
NH3 is a weak base, and HCl is a strong acid.
e.
NH3 is a strong base, and HCl is a weak acid.
 32.
Buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by
a.
releasing H+ in acidic solutions.
b.
donating H+ to a solution when they have been depleted.
c.
releasing OH- in basic solutions.
d.
accepting H+ when the are in excess.
e.
both B and D
 33.

One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (H2CO3) Carbonic acid is a weak acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion (H+) Thus,

H2CO3 HCO3- + H+

If the pH of the blood drops, one would expect

a.
a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3 and an increase in the concentration of HCO3-.
b.
the concentration of hydroxide ion (OH-) to increase.
c.
the concentration of bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) to increase.
d.
the HCO3- to act as a base and remove excess H+ with the formation of H2CO3.
e.
the HCO3- to act as an acid and remove excess H+ with the formation of H2CO3.

 

        
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