If you need to prep for a mitosis quiz in AP Biology, you are going to need to understand the difference between mitosis and meiosis thoroughly.
Many students fail to be able to identify the difference between the two biological processes accurately. So, you don't want to get disappointing results on your mitosis quiz; there are a few key points you are going to want to study.
Remember to acquaint yourself with the following before you think you are prepared enough for a mitosis quiz.
- There are six different stages of mitosis.
- You want to be able to visualize and analyze diagrams displaying the stages of mitosis confidently.
- It is good to be aware of any irregularities during mitosis and resulting genetic consequences
Give yourself ample time to take comprehensive notes when studying your AP Biology material. Don't try to memorize everything, but seek to understand and make connections between the information. It may also be helpful to draw out the processes of mitosis, labeling each stage with a description that you can understand easily.
Ask yourself questions about what step comes next, and predict if something were to go wrong in the process what would be the result?
Taking steps to interact with your material will help you make more sense of things. You don't want to only memorize and regurgitate the material without having a clear visual understanding of the what and why of the process.
What Is Mitosis?
Mitosis is the name given for the process of a cell's duplication. When there is one cell with a single set of chromosomes, it goes through a step-by-step process where you end up with two cells that have identical sets of chromosomes.
When there are breakdowns or problems with the mitosis process, genetic diseases or anomalies are created.
Check Out These 10 Questions To Study For A Mitosis Quiz
Out of all the information covering mitosis and meiosis, you may want to consider the following questions to help prepare you for an upcoming mitosis quiz. Choose to break down the information as you see fit and in a language, you can understand. Again, drawing images to help you better conceptualize the process is helpful, as well as using correct terminology.
Which Structure Is Responsible For Moving Chromosomes During Mitosis?
The centromere is a region of DNA that holds together the two chromatids of a duplicated chromosome. Centromeres are responsible for attaching microtubules and direct the movement of chromosomes in both the process of mitosis and meiosis.
First, the chromosomes move toward the center of a cell during metaphase, and then they proceed to opposite directions during anaphase.
Why Do Chromosomes Fail To Separate Within Mitosis?
Nondisjunction is when a pair of homologous chromosomes fail to separate. There are three forms of nondisjunction, and two happen during the process of meiosis I and meiosis II.
When the sister chromatids fail to separate during the process of mitosis, the number of chromosomes is abnormal, resulting in aneuploidy.
If a single chromosome is lost from a diploid genome, it is called monosomy. If a chromosome is gained, it is called a trisomy.
When chromosomes fail to separate correctly, it can lead to a genetic disorder such as Downs Syndrome or Turner Syndrome. In the most extreme cases, aneuploidy can be lethal. The risk of nondisjunction taking place increases exponentially with the rising age of parent cells.
Typically disjunction is found during the process of meiosis.
At Which Phase Do Chromosomes Become Visible And Of What Do Chromosomes Consist?
Before chromosomes become visible during the prophase stage, the chromosomes are long strands called chromatin. The chromatin is tightly wound up into chromosomes.
Chromosomes are made up of DNA which is coiled tightly around histones. Histones are proteins which support the structure of the thread-like structures. Chromosomes are not visible under a microscope if the cell is not dividing, and it is not visible in the nucleus of the cell.
The short arm of a chromosome is the ‘p arm,' and the long arm is known as the ‘q arm.'
What Is Cytokinesis?
Cytokinesis is the process when cells physically divide. The cytoplasm of a parent cell splits into two daughter cells. This process starts during anaphase and doesn't stop until the telophase. Cytokinesis takes places during both mitosis and meiosis.
When and Why Will Cells Divide, How Many Chromosomes Will They Have, And What Triggers This Process?
Cellular division during mitosis may be triggered because of the need to replace or repair dead or lost cells or to grow in size. As part of the cell cycle, a cell will prepare to divide at interphase and begins its division process during mitosis.
A single cell will divide and reproduce copies of its DNA into two identical cells. The number of chromosomes will be the same as in the parent cell.
What Is The Difference Between A Diploid And A Haploid?
Diploid cells have a set of chromosomes from two different parents, with two homologous copies of each chromosome of their parents. Diploid cells reproduce by mitosis, and somatic cells are examples of diploid cells.
Haploid cells are created because of the meiosis process. Gametes or sex cells are a common type of haploid cells. Haploid cells only have one complete set of chromosomes.
Define Polyploidy And Aneuploidy?
When there is a variation in the number of chromosomes, it is described as being either aneuploidy, monoploidy, or euploidy. Depending on whether one part of a chromosome is lost, an entire set of chromosomes is lost, or one or more than one complete set of chromosomes is gained the term changes.
With chromosomes, conditions can either be double monosomic or double tetrasomic.
What Is An Allele And The Law Of Independent Assortment?
A gene is a single unit of information that is hereditary. Except in the case of some viruses, genes are made up of DNA which transmits traits. An allele is a genetic sequence which is a variant of a gene. When there are differences among copies of a gene, they are called alleles. At the locus of a gene, there are only two alleles present.
Gregor Mendel has been credited with our enlightened understanding about genetics, heredity, and what happens when there are variants in genetic transmission. According to Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment, a pair of alleles will separate independently when gametes are forming. Traits are transmitted to offspring independently.
The Law of Independent Assortment was formed on principles uncovered when Gregor Mendel conducted experiments creating dihybrid crosses between plants which had two different traits. As a result of Mendel's experiments, a ratio developed to reinforce this concept.
What Type Of DNA Damage Occurs When Cytokinesis And Mitosis Fail?
If a cell fails to separate during cytokinesis, it may have multiple nuclei.
During the prometaphase and metaphase stage, if a cell fails, it enters the G1 phase of a cell cycle, or it results in cell death. The checkpoints within the cell cycle help to regulate the process of cell division and will signal to different pathways if there is a failure.
Steps are automatically taken to prevent any damaged DNA from being reproduced or transmitted to a new generation of cells, to protect integrity.
When mitosis fails to carry out is process an abnormal number of chromosomes is created. To prevent continuous cell division, abnormal cells may be removed. A failure in mitosis typically activates cell death and consequent DNA damage.
What Are The Cell Checkpoints And What Are Their Functions?
Depending on if certain conditions are met cellular division may be inhibited, such as in the instance that growth hormones are released. When there is cellular growth, cells have to divide to prevent cell crowding.
If there is a release of specific hormones or a lack thereof, cell checkpoints may not allow the progression of a cell to the next stage in the cell cycle until there are viable conditions.
At the G1 checkpoint, any damage to DNA and relevant external stimuli are evaluated before a cell can move forward to interphase.
The G2 checkpoint is needed to make sure that all chromosomes have been replicated without any damaged DNA. Until this is assured, a cell will not be able to enter mitosis.
The M checkpoint is responsible for making sure every chromosome is attached to the spindle, and will not allow the separation of duplicated chromosomes if there is a problem.
Cell checkpoints are part of the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Additional Helpful Pointers
Before your quiz make sure that you can break down any pertinent information in easy to understand terms. However, be aware of the correct terminology and the sharp differences between mitosis and meiosis to reduce any unwanted confusion. Make sure to get enough sleep, eat well, and give yourself enough time to study the material before attempting to complete a quiz.
Don’t underestimate or disregard the power of drawing out your own diagrams to fully grasp the concept of each stage of mitosis. Visuals can have a stronger influence than reading words alone about the process.