Chapter 1 Introduction

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Chapter 1 Introduction
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
Biology is the study of
a.
minerals.
c.
the weather.
b.
life.
d.
energy.
 2.
All organisms possess DNA. DNA
a.
creates energy for cells.
b.
allows sensitivity to environmental stimuli.
c.
contains information for growth and development.
d.
captures energy from the sun.
 3.
Instructions for traits that are passed from parents to offspring are known as
a.
a species plan.
c.
genes.
b.
organ codes.
d.
natural selections.
 4.
Homeostasis means
a.
a change over long periods of time.
b.
keeping things the same.
c.
rapid change.
d.
the same thing as evolution.
 5.
Ecology
a.
refers to change in species over time.
b.
refers to a delicate internal balance within organisms.
c.
is inconsistent with evolution.
d.
is the study of communities or organisms in relation to their environment.
 6.
Which of the following is not necessarily a characteristic of living things?
a.
homeostasis
c.
complexity
b.
metabolism
d.
reproduction
 7.
The smallest units that can carry on all the functions of life are called
a.
molecules.
c.
organelles.
b.
cells.
d.
species.
 8.
Living things
a.
need energy for life processes.
b.
have the ability to reproduce.
c.
are composed of cells.
d.
All of the above
 9.
All organisms are composed of
a.
diatoms.
c.
cells.
b.
cellulose.
d.
None of the above
 10.
All living things maintain a balance within their cells and the environment through the process of
a.
growth.
c.
homeostasis.
b.
development.
d.
evolution.
 11.
Which of the following is a characteristic of all living things?
a.
movement
c.
development
b.
photosynthesis
d.
cellular organization
 12.
Which of the following is not a partial explanation for our lack of understanding of many of the living things on Earth?
a.
Many organisms are microscopic in size and therefore difficult to observe.
b.
Many organisms are so different from other organisms that it is difficult to understand them.
c.
Many organisms live in areas of the world that are difficult to explore.
d.
Tropical rain forests contain many species, and it is difficult to find all of them in these dense forests.
 13.
A scientist noticed that in acidic pond water some salamanders developed with curved spines. This was a(n)
a.
hypothesis.
c.
observation.
b.
theory.
d.
control.
 14.
Which example of scientific methodology is incorrect?
a.
observation—a number of people in a certain place dying of a disease outbreak
b.
measurement—a record of the number of people with symptoms of a disease and the number of people who had died from the disease
c.
analysis of data—comparison of the effects of mixing monkey cells with virus-containing blood in test tubes and the effects of mixing liquid from these test tubes with fresh monkey cells
d.
inference making—identification of the Ebola virus as the cause of a disease by taking electron micrographs of substances found in the blood of persons affected with the disease
 15.
The English physician Ronald Ross wanted to try to find the cause of malaria. Based on his observations, Dr. Ross suggested that the Anopheles mosquito might spread malaria from person to person. This suggestion was a
a.
prediction.
c.
theory.
b.
hypothesis.
d.
scientific “truth.”
 16.
The English physician Ronald Ross knew that the parasite Plasmodium was always found in the blood of malaria patients. He thought that if the Anopheles mosquitoes were responsible for spreading malaria, then Plasmodium would be found in the mosquitoes. This idea was a
a.
prediction.
c.
theory.
b.
hypothesis.
d.
scientific “truth.”
 17.
Scientific hypotheses are most often tested by the process of
a.
communicating.
c.
experimenting.
b.
inferring.
d.
analyzing data.
 18.
A hypothesis is
a.
a definite answer to a given problem.
b.
a testable possible explanation of an observation.
c.
a proven statement.
d.
a concluding statement.
 19.
A unifying explanation for a broad range of observations is a
a.
hypothesis.
c.
prediction.
b.
theory.
d.
controlled experiment.
 20.
A hypothesis that does not explain an observation
a.
is known as an inaccurate forecast.
b.
often predicts a different observation.
c.
is rejected.
d.
None of the above
 21.
Scientists usually design experiments
a.
with a good idea of the expected experimental results.
b.
based on wild guesses.
c.
in order to develop new laboratory tools.
d.
All of the above
 22.
A scientific theory
a.
is absolutely certain.
b.
is unchangeable.
c.
may be revised as new evidence is presented.
d.
is a controlled experiment.
 23.
The word theory used in a scientific sense means
a.
a highly tested, generally accepted principle.
b.
a guess made with very little knowledge to support it.
c.
an absolute scientific certainty.
d.
None of the above
 24.
observation : hypothesis ::
a.
theory : observation
c.
hypothesis : experiment
b.
guess : hypothesis
d.
theory : control
 25.
Which of the following components of a scientific investigation would benefit from communication between scientists?
a.
observing
c.
analyzing data
b.
measuring
d.
All of the above
 26.
Typically, the order in which the steps of the scientific method are applied is
a.
observations, predictions, hypothesis, controlled testing, theory, verification.
b.
predictions, observations, hypothesis, theory, controlled testing, verification.
c.
observations, hypothesis, predictions, controlled testing, theory, verification.
d.
observations, hypothesis, predictions, controlled testing, verification, theory.
 27.
A light microscope that has an objective lens of 10 and an ocular lens of 20 has a magnification of
a.
30.
c.
300.
b.
200.
d.
2000.
 28.
Which of the following is not a correct association between an SI base unit abbreviation and its base quantity?
a.
A—area
b.
m—length
c.
s—time
d.
mol—amount of a substance
 29.
Which of the following is not an example of good laboratory practice?
a.
working alone in the lab
b.
asking permission before using equipment
c.
working with a partner in the lab
d.
wearing goggles in the lab
 30.
Scientists share their research results by
a.
publishing in scientific journals.
b.
presenting at scientific meetings.
c.
avoiding conflicts of interest.
d.
Both a and b
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 31.
____________________ is the study of the interaction of organisms with their environment and with each other.

 32.
To function properly, all living things must maintain a constant internal environment through the process of ____________________.

 33.
An educated guess, or a(n) ____________________, may be tested by experimentation.

 34.
Stating in advance the result that may be obtained from testing a hypothesis is called ____________________.

 35.
A unifying explanation for a broad range of observations is a ____________________.

 36.
A ____________________ experiment is one in which the condition suspected to cause the effect is compared to the same situation without the suspected condition.

 37.
The base unit for length in the Système International d’Unités (International System of Units) is the ____________________.

 38.
A ____________________ electron microscope passes a beam of electrons over a specimen’s surface, whereas a ____________________ electron microscope passes a beam of electrons through a thin slice of a specimen.

 

Problem
 39.
Some scientists conducted an experiment in which they evaluated various measurements of human health in people who drank at least one cup of coffee a day. They found no significant differences in these health indicators between the subjects who drank only one cup of coffee a day and those who drank as many as 20 cups a day. They concluded that coffee has no adverse effects on human health. Write your answers to the following in the spaces below.
a. What were the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?
b. Was this a controlled experiment? If so, what were the control and experimental groups?
c. Do you agree with the conclusion the scientists drew from their results? Why or why not?

 

Essay
 40.
Briefly discuss some of the major themes in biology that we will examine this year. Write your answer in the space below.

 41.
Name five characteristics that are considered distinct properties of all living things. Write your answer in the space below.

 42.
Toads that live in hot, dry regions bury themselves in the soil during the day. How might this be important to the toad? Write your answer in the space below.

 43.
The results of an experiment do not support the hypothesis that the experiment was designed to test. Was the experiment a waste of time? Explain. Write your answer in the space below.

 44.
Why is it important to study biology even if you are not planning a career in biology? Write your answer in the space below.

 

        
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