DNA and Genes
1. What are genes and what do they code for?
2. Proteins are made of chains of _______________.
3. How do cells use proteins?
4. The subunits making up polypeptides are called _________________.
5. How many amino acids exist?
6. Sketch and label the basic structure of an amino acid.
7. The group that makes amino acids different from each other & gives the amino acid its unique properties is called the ___________ group.
8. DNA is found in the ____________ of a cell and begins the process of making a _______________.
9. Where are proteins made?
10. Describe the two types of ribosomes.
11. The first step in making a protein is to make a copy of ___________ in the nucleus.
12. What nucleic acid contains the master code for making proteins?
13. What nucleic acids acts as a blueprint in copying the master code?
14. Compare and contrast the sugars on DNA and RNA.
15. Compare and contrast the nitrogen bases on DNA and RNA.
16. RNA is made of a ____________ strand, while DNA is a ___________ stranded molecule.
17. What base replaces thymine on RNA?
18. Name the 3 types of RNA molecules.
19. What is the function of mRNA?
20. What is the function of rRNA?
21. What is the function of tRNA?
22. Describe the shape of mRNA.
23. How does mRNA get out of the nucleus once it has copied DNA’s instructions?
24. What bases pair together on RNA?
25. How long is mRNA?
26. What is a codon?
27. Methionine is called the __________ codon & is represented by the bases ________.
28. Name the 3 stop codons.
29. How long in rRNA?
30. What is the shape of rRNA?
31. What two things make up ribosomes?
32. What process occurs at the ribosomes?
33. Each codon stands for an _______________.
34. Can amino acids have more than one codon?
35. There are ______ amino acids and ______ possible codons.
36. How do you read the circular genetic codon table?
37. Use the genetic codon table and name these amino acids:
38. Name the complementary bases on DNA.
39. Name the complementary bases on RNA.
40. What is the shape of tRNA?
41. What can attach to one end of a tRNA molecule for transport?
42. Opposite the attachment site on tRNA are 3 nucleotide bases called the ______________.
43. Make a sketch of a tRNA molecule with its attachment site and anticodon labeled.
44. A codon on mRNA is complementary to an _____________ on tRNA.
45. What anticodon is complementary to the codon – ACU?
Transcription and Translation
46. Sketch the pathway to making a protein.
47. define protein synthesis.
48. Name the 2 phases of protein synthesis.
49. Before mRNA can leave the nucleus it must be _______________ in order to correctly make proteins.
50. Define transcription and tell where it occurs.
51. What RNA copies DNA?
52. Are both strands of DNA copied?
53. What enzyme is required to copy DNA?
54. The DNA strand that is copied is called the _____________ strand.
55. What would be the complementary RNA sequence for the DNA sequence- 5′- GCGTATG-3′?
56. What enzyme separates the DNA strands in transcription?
57. RNA polymerase adds complementary ____________ to the DNA template strand.
58. ___________ are regions on DNA where RNA polymerase binds to start transcription.
59. The promoter contains a sequence called the _________ box.
60. Other sequences on DNA called __________ signals tell the RNA polymerase when to stop transcribing.
61. Newly made mRNA must be _________ to make the nucleic acid functional.
62. What are introns & what happens to them during mRNA processing?
63. What are exons and what happens to them during mRNA processing?
64. Describe the cap that is added to the new mRNA transcript.
65. What type of tail is added to the mRNA transcript?
66. The new mRNA transcripts is made of _____________ with a 5′ _________ and a 3′ ____________ tail.
67. What happens next to the newly made mRNA?
68. Define translation & tell where it occurs?
69. How do ribosomes read mRNA?
70. Describe the structure of a ribosome.
71. Ribosomes are composed of ________ rRNA and ________ protein.
72. Ribosomes have 2 tRNA sites called _______ and ______ along with an exit site.
73. The first part of translation is called ____________.
74. The small ribosomal subunit attaches to what codon on mRNA?
75. Once the mRNA and small subunit attach, what happens next?
76. Sketch an label a ribosome with both its subunits, its 2 tRNA sites, and the attached mRNA transcript.
77. The ______________ moves along the mRNA strand ________ codon at a time.
78. How many tRNA’s will fit into a ribosome at one time?
79. What happens to the two amino acids carried by the 2 tRNA’s inside a ribosome?
80. The joining of amino acids by ___________ bonds is the second part of translation called ______________.
81. Once an amino acid is joined to the growing polypeptide chain, the tRNA leaves the _______________ to pick up another ________________.
82. When a tRNA leaves the ribosome, the ribosome moves down the _________ strand allowing another ________ and its amino acid to enter.
83. each time the ribosome moves, it moves over _________ codon.
84. The last stage of translation is called _______________.
85. Name the 3 termination codons.
86. The sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain is called the ____________ protein structure.