Biochemistry Study Guide

 

Biochemistry Study Guide

 

1. Molecules with a slightly negative end and a slightly positive end are called ___________________  _____________________________.

2. A monomer of protein is called an __________________  __________________.

3. An attractive force between like particles is called ___________________________.

4. Organic molecules that catalyze reactions in living systems are ______________________.

5. The compound found in living things that supplies the energy in one of its chemical bonds directly to cells is ______________________.

6. Enzymes lower activation energy by___________ to the ____________________ and ______________________ bonds within the ________________________.

7. The monomers that make up nucleic acids are called __________________________.

8. The type of attraction that holds two water molecules together is called __________________________  __________________________.

9. The sharing of three pairs of electrons is called a ___________________  _____________.

10.  The structural building block that determines the characteristics of a compound is called the _____________________________  _______________________.

11.  Large carbon compounds are built from smaller molecules called ______________________________.

12.  What is the type of reaction that forms large molecules from smaller ones? _________________________________  _____________________________.

13.  What type of reaction breaks large molecules into smaller ones? _______________________

14.  What is the by product of a condensation reaction? __________________________

15.  The attractive force between unlike particles is called ____________________________.

16.  A compound that is stored as glycogen in animals and as a starch in plants is ____________________________________.

17.  Lipids are good energy storage molecules because they have many _________________-___________________ bonds.

18.  What are the components of many lipids? ________________________  ______________________

19.  What is the monomer of many polysaccharides? ______________________________

20.  What kind of reaction allows amino acids to become linked together? ________________________________  _____________________________.

21.  Nucleic acids function primarily to carry __________________________  ____________________ and direct _____________________  ______________________.

22. Tends not to react with water, “Water Fearing”  ________________________________

23. Attracted to water molecules, “Water Loving” _________________________________

24. Water is called a ___________________________  ___________________________.
DIRECTIONS: Read Chapter 3, Biochemistry, and Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams or pictures to supplement your answers, but a diagram or picture alone without appropriate discussion is inadequate.

1. Describe the structure of a water molecule, and explain how the electrical charge is distributed over the molecule.

2. Describe the structure of amino acids and proteins.

3. What are the structural differences between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides?

4. What is capillarity? Include defining Adhesion and Cohesion.

5. How does a condensation reaction differ from a hydrolysis reaction?

6. Give Three reasons why water is an effective solvent.

7. What is an organic compound?

8. What property allows carbon compounds to exist in a number of forms?

9. The presence of four electrons in the outermost energy level of a carbon atom enables
carbon atoms to form what THREE Things.

10. Living things contain many different proteins of vastly different shapes and functions.
What determines the shape and thus the function of a particular protein?

11. How does the structure of a phospholipid, linear molecules with a polar end and a
nonpolar end, relate to their function in the cell membrane?

 

Biochemistry Study Guide BI

 

Biochemistry Study Guide
A molecule that has a partial negative charge on one side and a partial positive charge on the other would be what type of molecule?
Give several reasons why water is so important to life.
Does a molecule of water have a charge? Explain.
Explain why water is a polar molecule.
What element do all organic compounds contain?
Name the 3 elements most often found in organic compounds.
What organic molecules are considered to be carbohydrates?
Animals store glucose in their liver in what form?
What type of macromolecule would polysaccharides be?
Amino acids are the monomers for what polymers??
Proteins are made of long chains of what molecules?
Sketch a fatty acid.
Sketch a molecule of glucose.
Give several examples of lipids.
Long carbon-hydrogen chains linked by double covalent bonds make up what type of fats?
Name the 4 main types of macromolecules found in living thins.
What are the monomers of nucleic acids called?
Name 2 nucleic acids.
Explain why water’s polarity makes it useful for living things.
If an atom has four outermost electrons, how many covalent bonds can it form?
What type of molecule has a carboxyl “head” and makes up cell membranes?
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Arthropod Study Guide

Arthropod Study Guide

Know the class & phylum for each of these arthropods:

  • horseshoe crab
  • crayfish
  • tarantula
  • barnacle
  • scorpion
  • butterfly
  • Daphnia
  • millipede
  • centipede
  • pillbug

Be able to tell the habitat (marine, freshwater, or terrestrial) each of these arthropods would be found:

  • shrimp
  • pillbug
  • horseshoe crab
  • centipede
  • crayfish
  • honeybee
  • trilobite
  • crab

List the 3 main characteristics of all arthropods

List the steps in complete metamorphosis & name insects that use this method.

Know the main characteristic of all mandibulates.

Know the main characteristic of all chelicerates.

Be able to recognize pictures of:

  • grasshopper
  • barnacle
  • millipede
  • centipede
  • scorpion
  • pillbug
  • trilobite
  • crayfish
  • tarantula
  • horseshoe crab

Be able to tell which arthropod fits the following characteristics:

  • marine with chelicerae or fangs
  • live in damp soil & can roll into ball for protection
  • 6 legs and head, thorax, & abdomen
  • 8 legs & eats insects
  • extinct 
  • lives in limestone case 7 attached to rocks
  • predator with poison stinger on abdomen
  • scavenger with 4 legs per body segment

Bacteria

Bacteria & Virus Study Guide

1. What were the earliest known living organisms?

2. Name 3 ways bacteria can be classified.

 

3. Name two structures found around the outside of ALL bacterial cells.

4. What is the shape of these bacteria — coccus, spirilla, & bacillus?

5. What is the only non-membrane bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of bacteria?

6. Bacteria have how many chromosomes?

7. Other than the cell membrane, name one thing that bacteria and eukaryotes have in common.

8. What is a pathogen?

9. Name 3 places where archaea can be found.

10. Viruses are only active when?

11. What can some bacteria form to survive harsh environmental conditions?

12. What two things make up a virus?

13. What color do Gram + bacteria stain?  Gram -?

14. Why are bacteria considered prokaryotes?

15. Give 3 reasons bacteria are considered nonliving.

 

16. What is the protective protein coat of a virus called?

17. Name 3 things used to classify viruses.

 

18. Do viruses have cellular parts?

19. Which are smaller, a bacterial cell or A VIRUS?

20. Can viruses be crystallized for study?

21. What virus did Wendell Stanley study & what plant did it attack?

22. What makes up the coat of a virus?

23. What makes up the core of a virus?

24. If viruses are too small to be seen with a light microscope, why did early scientists begin to study them?

25. What do you call viruses with the enzyme reverse transcriptase?

26. What makes up a viroid?

27. Describe the chromosome of a bacterial cell.

28. When a bacteriophage attacks a bacterium, what is injected into the cell? what remains outside the cell?

29. In what life cycle does viral DNA become integrated into the host cell’s DNA?

30.What human activity is responsible for the outbreak of many new viruses?

31. Viruses know which host cell to attack because of ___________ on the surface of the host cell.

32. Did viruses appear before or after living cells?

33. What structures are used by some bacteria for movement?

34. List a variety of conditions in which bacteria can live.

 

35. What are prions made of?


Bacteria & Virus Study Guide B1

 

 

Bacteria & Virus Study Guide

What color do Gram + bacteria stain?   Gram-?

How do bacterial cells differ from other types of cells?

How are chickenpox & shingles alike?

Why do people get the flu more than once?

What scientist discovered that viruses aren’t cellular?

Name several things used to classify viruses.

What are the 3 shapes for bacteria & give the name for each shape?

Can bacteria survive without oxygen? with oxygen?

How does the size of bacterial cells compare to the size of eukaryotic cells?

If a virus enters the Lysogenic cycle, can it change to the lytic cycle? Explain.

What 2 things make up a virus?

Why don’t antibiotics kill some bacteria?

What is necessary for a virus to reproduce?

Are viruses cellular?

Which bacteria are least responsive to antibiotics — Gram+ or Gram-?

What are prions?

What is a capsid?

How does forming an endospore help bacteria?

Describe the DNA of a bacterium.

What are pili?

What whiplike projections do some bacteria for movement use?

What occurs during conjugation?

What are retroviruses & what enzyme do they contain?

What is a viroid?

A protein coat & a nucleic acid core make up what typical structure?

In what cycle(s) does viral DNA get injected into host cells?

Is the Ebola virus linked to cancer?

Where would you find RNA in retroviruses?

 

Notes Study Guides

 

Ap Unit 6 Heredity Study Guide

 

 

Unit 5    Molecular Genetics  Study Guide 

 

ü     Be able to describe & explain the experiments of the following scientists:
Frederick Griffith
Erwin Chargraff
Alfred Hershey
Martha Chase
Watson & Crick
Meselson & Stahl
Beadle & Tatum
“Dolly” experiment

ü     Know how DNA replicates including steps & the enzymes involved, energy required, nucleotides, leading & lagging strands, proofreading

ü     Be able to describe the ultrastructure of each component of the DNA & RNA molecules

ü     Know the steps of transcription, enzymes involved, etc

ü     Know the steps of translation, enzymes involved, etc.

ü     Be able to describe the structure & function of free and bound ribosomes

ü     Know the processing steps of newly made mRNA

ü     Know the types of mutations and their effects

ü     Know viral structure, reproduction, host recognition, viral genome, etc

ü     Be able to describe the prokaryotic genome, mechanisms for genetic recombination, & defenses against phages

ü     Differentiate between hetero- & euchromatin

ü     Know the function and use of restriction enzymes

ü     Be able to describe genomic differentiation

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AP Unit 2 Cell Study Guide

Unit 2    Cells Study Guide

How do bacterial cells differ from animal cells?
Cells that make proteins would have a large number of ________?
What protein makes up the cytoskeleton & gives a cell its shape?
How do phospholipids in the cell membrane move?
If a body cell had 24 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would be in the gamete?
If chromosomes have the same genes in the same location & the same banding pattern, they are said to be ___?
What chemical in animal cell membranes maintains their fluid nature?
Facilitated diffusion & active transport both require what molecules in cell membranes?
Name the 3 stages of cell signaling.
How does a sexual life cycle increase genetic variation?
What organelle converts light energy into chemical energy?
What will happens to the chromosomes in a cell that passes the restriction checkpoint?
What type of scope is needed to study the internal structure of a cell?
Does the cytoskeleton limit cell size?
Describe the signal-transduction pathway in animals.
What type of cells do not reproduce more cells by mitosis & cytokinesis?
Is diffusion active or passive transport?
How can you determine if a cell is in an isotonic solution?
What organelle makes lipids?
What is the function of these cell structures — mitochondrion, chloroplast, ribosome, lysosome, cell wall, & chromosomes?
How does CO2 move into a cell?
Name the parts of the cytoskeleton.
What cell organelles have two membranes?
What is active transport?
How does potassium move into & out of a cell?
How does one rotting piece of fruit affect the ripening of others?
Name all structures in a cell responsible for movement.
In what organisms is cell signaling less important?
If a cell has 92 chromosomes at the start of mitosis, how many will be in the daughter cells?
Describe paracrine signaling.
When do tetrads from in a cell?
What is the function of tyrosine-kinase receptors?
At what point are chromatids attached to each other?
What is the function of glycolipids & glycoproteins in animal cell membranes?
How does telophase of mitosis differ in plant & animal cells?
When the signal molecule changes the protein receptor, what process begins?
What is membrane potential?
What effect would calcium deficiency have on a plant?
Besides the nucleus, where else can DNA be found in a cell?
Do plant cells have mitochondria? Why or why not?
Which proteins in the cell membrane function in active transport?
Why would bacterial cells not be capable of phagocytosis?
Why are eukaryotic cells larger than prokaryotic cells?
What is the purpose of cell fractionation?
Through what type of junctions do ions travel between cells?
How can you determine if a karyotype is from a male or female?
How do genetic differences in clones occur?
If the spindle can not form, at what stage will mitosis no longer proceed?
What will be true of cells that undergo mitosis but not cytokinesis?
What cellular structure helps form the cleavage furrow in animal cells?
How do receptor proteins in a membrane act like enzymes?
What occurs during prophase of mitosis?
By what process do large solids move into a cell?
Does the movement of oxygen & carbon dioxide across cell membranes require energy?
Describe the interior of chloroplasts & mitochondria.
How is synaptic signaling different than hormone signaling?
What is a karyotype?
How do daughter & parent cells compare with each other?
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AP Plant Study Guide-8b

 

 

Unit 8B – Plants
Know the following:

  • water potential of a turgid plant cell in pure water
  • adaptations of hydrophytes
  • what occurs if guard & surrounding epidermal cells are K+ deficient
  • how stomata are opened & closed
  • what must the plant expend for bulk flow of water in the root apoplast
  • which part of an oat seedling detects the direction of light
  • effect of gibberellins on the aleurone layer of seeds
  • how plant hormones determine the bending of plants toward light
  • what hormone might produce normal growth in a mutant dwarf plant
  • what can function as a sink in plants
  • why does photosynthesis decrease in wilting leaves
  • what are epiphytes
  • what is chlorosis
  • what soil characteristics would be the least productive to plant growth
  • what happens to most water taken up by a plant
  • how solutes move in plants according to the pressure-flow hypothesis of phloem transport
  • what causes guttation to occur
  • why does most of the water in xylem move upward in a tree
  • what property of water causes cohesion of its molecules
  • function of companion cells
  • what 2 elements make up most of the dry weight of plants
  • what could be the harmful effect of spraying a fungicide on a woodlot
  • what do carnivorous plants supplement by eating insects
  • why is nitrogen fixation so important
  • what would be characteristics of soil well suited for plant growth
  • what is the function of micronutrients in plants
  • what elements are micronutrients needed by plants
  • what elements are macronutrients needed by plants
  • what is meant by double fertilization
  • what are some “vegetables” that technically are fruits
  • why is sexual reproduction an advantage to plants
  • what  is the megaspore mother cell & what does it do
  • what do male gametophytes produce in plants
  • name 4 flower parts that are modified leaves
  • what is the function of a seed’s radicle
  • what forms pollen on a plant
  • what do the 2 sperm nuclei fertilize in plants
  • what causes seed germination
  • what floral parts are involved in pollination & fertilization
  • what things can function in signal transduction in plants
  • what is needed by a short-day plant for it to flower
  • what type of tropism do vines use to grow toward tropical trees
  • why do plants use changes in photoperiods instead of air temperature changes to trigger dormancy
  • what is needed to get poinsettias to bloom  early in December
  • do plant hormones act the same on all root & stem tissues
  • what hormone is involved in the rapid opening & closing of stomata
  • what effect do auxins have on stem cuttings that are to be rooted

 

Amphibian Study Guide BI

Amphibian Study Guide

Describe what happens to a tadpole during its metamorphosis.
Explain why amphibians must return to the water to reproduce.
What characteristics of the frog’s skeleton make it adapted for jumping.
What is a series of body changes during an amphibian’s life cycle called?
Does a frog’s heart pump oxygenated or deoxygenated blood? Explain.
Are adult frogs omnivores, herbivores, or carnivores? tadpoles?
Tell some unusual ways some frogs undergo their metamorphosis.
Where  must frogs lay their eggs?
Give the order for amphibians without tails.
Where do toads lay their eggs?
What does the word “amphibian” mean?
What is the earliest known amphibian fossil?
Where does fertilization take place in most amphibians?
Describe the skin of amphibians. How does this compare to reptiles?
Describe caecilians.
What is the purpose of the cloaca in amphibians?
Amphibians with slender bodies and no limbs are _____________.
Why do amphibians need thin, moist skin?
Name the 2 ways gases are exchanged in amphibian adults.
Give the order for newts & salamanders.
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1st Semester Test Review 2004-05

 

First Semester Review  2004-05      

 

What are the smallest units that can carry on life functions called?
Living things are composed of ______________.
Give an example of a scientific observation.
What is a hypothesis?
What 3 things compose an atom?
Matter is made of ________________.
When atoms gain energy, what happens to electrons?
Do  cells contain a few or thousands of different kinds of enzymes?
__________________ reactions are important in organisms because they allow the passage of energy from one molecule to another.
What is a polar molecule?
Water molecules break up other polar substances. Give an example of such a polar molecule.
What happens to ionic compounds in water?
Which is not a carbohydrate —– glycogen, steroids, cellulose, or sugars?
Amino acids are the monomers for making ________________.
Is ice an example of an organic molecule?
The type & order of the amino acids determines the ___________ of a protein.
Very active cells need more of which organelle?
What organelle is the packaging & distribution center of the cell?
What membrane surrounds the nucleus?
What is the function of mitochondria. Sketch their shape.
Where is chlorophyll found in plants?
Diffusion takes place from ________________ concentration to ___________.
If a cell has a high water content, will it lose or gain water?
Ink dispersing in a beaker is an example of ________________.
Very large molecules enter cells by a process called ________________.
Endocytosis and exocytosis occur in ______________ directions across a cell membrane.
What is photosynthesis?
Where do the dark reactions of photosynthesis take place?
When chlorophyll absorbs light energy ATP is made and what other energy carrying molecule?
When chlorophyll absorbs light energy, what happens to its electrons?
_______________ molecules are responsible for the photosystems.
Electrons that have absorbed energy & moved to a higher energy level enter what chain?
When cells break down food molecules, energy is temporarily stored in what molecule?
When muscles do not get enough oxygen, what acid forms during exercise?
If you are growing bacteria in a culture and lactic acids starts to form, the bacteria are not getting enough of what gas?
The 2 stages of cellular respiration are _____________ & oxidative respiration.
Citric acid forms in which cycle during cellular respiration?
ATP molecules are formed inside what cellular organelle?
What is the study of life called?