Ap Biology Notebook

AP Biology Notebooks

Special Instructions:

1.    Use a 2″, 3-ring binder as your notebook.

2.    The cover of your notebook should have your name, subject, & period only!

3.    A master cover sheet with your name & period must be clipped into your notebook as the first sheet.

4.    Dividers with tabs labeled with the name of each section must be included.

5.    All papers must be clipped into the notebook in the correct order by units.

6.    Notebooks must be brought to class each day!

7.    Students will only receive credit for their notebook each nine weeks IF it is kept in order!

Notebook Sections:
SECTION 1 – SYLLABUS

SECTION 2 – HANDOUTS to BE SAVED ALL YEAR

  • Website sheet, class rules, notebook guidelines, safety rules, how to write abstracts and lab reports

SECTION 3 – UNIT WORK

  • Include a cover sheet for each unit with its number & title
  • Unit work should be in the following order — outlines, notes, worksheets, handouts, study guides, etc

SECTION 4 – COMPUTERIZED GRADE REPORTS

  • Printed from computer every 2 – 3 weeks

NOTE: A separate notebook will be kept for labs!
Click here for Lab Notebook instructions

 

Virus Worksheet

 

  Viruses Worksheet   

Structure of Viruses

1. Are viruses living or nonliving?

2. How can viruses be useful?

 

3. What odes a virologist do for a living?

 

4. Construct a Venn diagram comparing viruses and cells.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Explain how viruses were discovered and by whom.

 

 

6. Compare the size of viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic cells.

 

 

7. What must be true for viruses to be able to replicate?

 

8. Name the two main parts of all viruses.

 

9. Discuss the hereditary material of viruses.

 

 

10. Compare & contrast capsids and envelopes of viruses.

 

 

11. Name 2 enveloped viruses that cause sexually transmitted disease.

12. What type of virus causes flu?

13. Where are glycoproteins found & what is there purpose?

 

14. What characteristics are used to group viruses?

 

15. How are these viruses grouped — retrovirus, adenovirus, and herpes virus?

 

 

16. Compare & contrast helical & icosahedral viral shapes & diseases.

 

 

17. Explain how RNA viruses replicate.

 

 

18. Do viruses contain enzymes? Explain.

 

19. Compare 7 contrast viroids & prions by constructing a Venn diagram.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viral Replication

20. Why are viruses considered to be obligate intracellular parasites?

 

21. What is the best known bacteriophage, and what virus does it attack?

 

22. Sketch & label a bacteriophage and tell the function of each labeled part.

 

 

 

 

 

23. Name the steps of the lytic cycle & tell what happens to the host cell & virus at each stage.

 

 

 

 

 

24. What are temperate phages and how do they affect a cell?

 

 

25. Name the steps of the lysogenic cycle & tell what happens to the host cell & virus at each stage.

 

 

 

 

26. How does a prophage form?

 

27.Name a sexually transmitted virus that uses the lysogenic cycle to attack host cells.

28. Why is the influenza virus so hard to combat?

 

Viruses & Human Disease

29. Name some of the most common viral disease that attack humans.

 

30. How are shingles & chickenpox alike? How are they different?

 

31.What two methods are used to control viral diseases?

 

32. What is the CDC and what is its job?

 

33.What eradication program did the World Health Organization undertake in 1967, and what were the results?

 

34. What virus do we vaccinate our pets against each year?

35. How does AZT work?

 

36. What drugs prevent viruses from making capsids?

37. Why is rain forest clearing dangerous to humans?

 

38. Some lysogenic viruses can trigger certain types of _________________.

 


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Alien Invasion

 

Alien Invasion

Help! Aliens have landed on Earth from another planet. Before scientists can release the aliens, they want to identify and classify them. Use the dichotomous key on the next page to identify these creatures.

 

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   A Key to Alien Creatures:

 

1. a. The creature has a large wide head…………………………………….go to 2
b. The creature has a small narrow head……………………………….go to 11
2. a. It has 3 eyes ……………………………………………………………………………..go to 3
b. It has 2 eyes …………………………………………………………………………….go to 7
3. a. There is a star in the middle of its chest………………………….go to 4
b. There is no star in the middle of its chest ………………………go to 6
4. a. The creature has hair spikes ………………………………………..Broadus hairus
b. The creature has no hair spikes…………………………………………..go to 5
5. a. The bottom of the creature is arch-shaped ……………Broadus archus
b. The bottom of the creature is M-shaped ……………….Broadus emmus
6. a. The creature has an arch-shaped bottom ……………….Broadus plainus
b. The creature has an M-shaped bottom……………………Broadus tritops
7. a. The creature has hairy spikes ……………………………………………go to 8
b. The creature has no spikes…………………………………………………go to 10
8. a. There is a star in the middle of its body ………………..Broadus hairystarus
b. The is no star in the middle of its body ………………………..go to 9
9. a. The creature has an arch shaped bottom ……………….Broadus hairyemmus
b. The creature has an M shaped bottom ……………………Broadus kiferus
10. a. The body is symmetrical ………………………………………………Broadus walter
b. The body is not symmetrical……………………………………….Broadus anderson
11. a. The creature has no antennae ……………………………………….go to 12
b. The creature has antennae …………………………………………….go to 14
12. a. There are spikes on the face ………………………………….Narrowus wolfus
b. There are no spikes on the face ………………………………….go to 13
13. a. The creature has no spike anywhere ……………………Narrowus blankus
b. There are spikes on the right leg ………………………..Narrowus starboardus
14. a. The creature has 2 eyes…………………………………………………go to 15
b. The creature has 1 eye……………………………………………Narrowus cyclops
15. a. The creature has a mouth……………………………………………..go to 16
b. The creature has no mouth…………………………………………..go to 17
16. a. There are spikes on the left leg ………………………..Narrowus portus
b. There are no spikes at all ………………………………….Narrowus plainus
17. a. The creature has spikes ………………………………………………go to 18
b. The creature has no spikes ……………………………..Narrowus georginia
18. a. There are spikes on the head …………………………………..go to 19
b. There are spikes on the right leg……………………..Narrowus montanian
19. a. There are spikes covering the face ……………….Narrowus beardus
b. There are spikes only on the outside edge of head ……Narrowus fuzzus

 


Return to Earth

Alien Taxonomy Project

 

Alien Taxonomy

 

In the year 2525:

Humans, after hundreds of years of constant effort, have successfully polluted all bodies of water on Earth. As a result, almost all previously known species of plants, animals, and other life forms have become extinct. Through natural selection, genetic engineering, and selective breeding programs, a portion of the Earth has been successfully repopulated. The following organisms are all that remain:

  1. Photosynthetic humanoids with green chlorophyll-containing hair (autotrophs)
  2. Chemosynthetic dolphin-like organisms who derive their energy for food production from the contaminants in the water (autotrophs)
  3. Aquatic humanoids who work on the dolphin’s aquaculture farms (heterotrophic)
  4. Aqua wheat, a heterotrophic crop grown by the dolphins that feeds on bacteria
  5. Legless, photosynthetic humanoid space travelers with arm-like tentacles that visit the Earth every 6 weeks
  6. Anaerobic humanoids designed for space living, but when on Earth for space training, they must wear deoxygenated space suits (heterotrophs)
  7. Cockroach-like organisms that feed on humanoid and dolphin excrement (Decomposers)
  8. Heterotrophic giant squids that feed on humanoids & dolphins
  9. Green-skinned, photosynthetic rats
  10. Parasitic mosquitoes that feed on humanoids

Your Assignment:

As an alien taxonomist, it is your responsibility to classify these existing organisms.

  1. Create Latin-sounding Genus and species names for each organism. Remember that the species name should reflect a characteristic of the organism.
  2. Create a taxonomic scheme for each organism including a kingdom, phylum, and the genus and species name you created. Use only two kingdoms that you create. Be sure to also include the number of the organism with the scheme
  3. Illustrate your interpretation of each organism’s appearance including all the characteristics given to you.  All illustrations should be numbered and colored on a single sheet of unlined paper.
  4. Prepare a dichotomous key using the scientific names for these organisms so that your fellow aliens can also identify them when they come to Earth for summer vacations. 
  5. Make a cover sheet with your name, date, and period and paper clip your sheets together.

 

CLICK HERE FOR PRINTABLE COPY OF ACTIVITY & WORKSHEET

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Amylase on Starch Lab

 

Enzyme Amylase Action on Starch

INTRODUCTION:

In this experiment you will observe the action of the enzyme amylase on starch. Amylase changes starch into a simpler form: the sugar maltose, which is soluble in water. Amylase is present in our saliva, and begins to act on the starch in our food while still in the mouth.
Exposure to heat or extreme pH (acid or base) will denature proteins. Enzymes, including amylase, are proteins. If denatured, an enzyme can no longer act as a catalyst for the reaction.
Benedict’s solution is a test reagent that reacts positively with simple reducing sugars like maltose, but will not react with starch. A positive test is observed as the formation of a brownish-red cuprous oxide precipitate. A weaker positive test will be yellow to orange.

MATERIALS:

Cornstarch
Distilled water
Saliva
Vinegar
Benedict’s qualitative solution
3 graduated cylinders (10mL)
250-ml beaker
Stirring rod
3 test tubes (16 x 125mm)
Test tube rack
Wax pencil
Water Bath

PRE-LAB:

Add 1g of cornstarch to a beaker containing 100ml of cold distilled water. While stirring frequently, heat the mixture just until it begins to boil. Allow to cool.

PROCEDURE:

1. Fill the 250-mL beaker about 3/4 full of water and place on the hot plate for a boiling water bath. Keep the water JUST AT BOILING.

2. Mark 3 test tubes A, B and C. “Spit” between 1 and 2 mL of saliva into each test tube.

3. Into tube A, add 2 mL of vinegar. Into tubes B and C, add 2 mL of distilled water. Thump the tubes to mix.

4. Place tube B into the boiling water bath for 5 minutes. After the five minutes, remove from the bath, and place back into the test tube rack.

5. Add 5 mL of the starch solution to each tube and thump to mix. Allow the tubes to sit for 10 minutes, occasionally thumping the tubes to mix.

6. Add 5 mL of Benedict’s solution to each tube and thump to mix. Place the tubes in the hot water bath. The reaction takes several minutes to begin.

OBSERVATIONS:

Tube A: Starch + saliva treated with vinegar (acid)

    • Was the test positive or negative? _______________________

What does this indicate?__________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

Tube B: Starch + saliva and water, treated in a boiling water bath

    • Was the test positive or negative? _______________________

What does this indicate?__________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

Tube C: Starch + saliva

    • Was the test positive or negative? _______________________

What does this indicate?__________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

QUESTIONS:

1. What is the function of an enzyme?

 

2. Where does a substrate attach to an enzyme?

3. If an enzyme is present in a reaction, less ________________ _________________ will be needed to get the reaction started.

4. What is a common suffix found at the end of most biological enzymes?

5. Most enzymes are macromolecules called ________________.

6. Define denaturation of proteins.

 

 

7. Name 3 things that can denature or unfold an enzyme.

 

8. In this lab, what weak acid denatured the protein?

9. What was the purpose of placing one test tube in a hot water bath?

 

10. What happens to enzymes in your body whenever you run fever?

 

 

 

Bacteria Virus Worksheet Bl

 

Bacteria Worksheet    

 

 

 

Bacterial Cell Evolution

1. Bacteria are microscopic _____________.

2. Fossils evidence shows bacteria are about __________ years old, while eukaryotes are about __________ years old.

3. Discuss where bacteria can be found.

 

4. Ribosomal differences have put bacteria into what two kingdoms? Which is the older group?

 

5. What is absent in the cell wall of Archaebacteria? Describe this substance.

 

 

6. Describe the environments in which you would find Archaebacteria.

 

 

7. Compare & contrast these tree groups of Archaebacteria — methanogens, extreme halophiles, and thermoacidophiles.

 

 

 

 

8. Most bacteria are found in what kingdom?

9. Name & describe the three shapes of Eubacteria.

 

 

10. Are Eubacteria aerobic or anaerobic? Explain.

 

11. Eubacteria may be heterotrophic or photosynthetic. Explain what this means & give an example of each type.

 

 

12. What type of staining is used to group Eubacteria?

13. Describe the appearance of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria under a microscope.

 

14. Explain why Eubacteria do not all stain the same color during Gram staining.

 

15. Describe, in detail, cyanobacteria.

 

 

16. Cyanobacteria, also known as ______________ bacteria lack a membrane bound __________ & _____________.

17. How are heterocysts helpful to cyanobacteria?

 

18. What is eutrophication?

 

19. Explain the role of cyanobacteria in eutrophication.

 

 

20. What bacterium causes syphilis? Describe this bacteria.

 

21. Streptococci bacteria causing strep throat are in what group?

22. Why are actinomycete bacteria important?

 

23. Compare & contrast these three groups of Proteobacteria — enteric bacteria, chemoautotrophs, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

 

 

 

 

24.Name a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria found on the roots of soybeans in our area.

 

Characteristics of Bacteria

25. Name the three main parts of all bacteria.

 

26. Describe the cell wall of bacteria. How does this differ from a plant cell wall?

 

 

27. Compare & contrast the cell membrane of Eubacteria with that of other eukaryotes.

 

 

28.Are Gram positive or negative bacteria more protected against antibiotics & why?

 

29. Where does cell respiration take place in eukaryotes? in bacteria?

30. Describe how the cell membrane of photosynthetic bacteria are adapted for this process. Where does this process take place in plants?

 

 

31. Compare & contrast the cytoplasm of bacteria with that of eukaryotes.

 

 

32. Describe the DNA (hereditary material) found in bacteria. Make a sketch of what you think this would look like.

 

 

 

33. Where is the capsule of a bacteria, what is it made of, and give two ways it helps a bacterium?

 

 

34. Where is the glycoclayx of a bacteria, what is it made of, and how does it help a bacterium?

 

35. How do pili help the bacteria that have them?

 

36. How do Gram positive bacteria protect themselves against harsh environments?

 

37. Describe two methods of locomotion in bacteria.

 

 

38. Compare & contrast saprophytic and photoautotrophic bacterial nutrition.

 

 

39. Distinguish among these three bacteria & give an example of each — obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, & obligate aerobes.

 

 

 

 

40. Compare & contrast these three methods of bacterial reproduction — transformation, conjugation, and transduction.

 

 

 

Bacteria and Humans

41. What does a pathologist do for a living?

 

42. Compare & contrast the two types of toxins bacteria produce.

 

 

43. Besides injuring the body by releasing toxins, how else do bacteria hurt the body?

 

44. Describe four antibiotics against bacteria.

 

 

 

45. Explain how antibiotic resistance occurs.

 

 

46. Name two  bacterial diseases carried by ticks.

47. name two bacterial diseases caused by eating contaminated food.

48. Name a sexually transmitted bacterial disease.

49. Name a bacterium that can cause disease whenever it gets into deep wounds.

50. Name a bacterium that is transmitted by coughing & infects the lungs.

51. Describe, in detail, how bacteria can be useful to humans.

 


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DNA & Protein Synthesis Chapter 10 Worksheet

 

    DNA & Protein Synthesis

 

Section 10-1 DNA

1. What does DNA stand for?

2. What is DNA’s primary function?

3. What is the function of proteins?

4. What are the repeating subunits called that make up DNA?

5. Name the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide.

6. Sketch and label a DNA nucleotide.

7. Name the 4 nitrogen bases on DNA.

8. What is the difference between a purine & a pyrimidine?

9. Name 2 purines.

10. Name 2 pyrimidines.

11.Who is responsible for determining the structure of the DNA molecule & in what year was this done?

12. The model of DNA is known as a ____________________________ because it is composed of two ___________________ chains wrapped around each other.

13. What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule?

14. What makes up the “steps” of a DNA molecule?

15. How did Rosalind Franklin contribute to determining the structure of DNA?

16. What type of bonds holds the DNA bases together? Are they strong or weak bonds?

17. What makes up the “backbone” of the DNA molecule?

18. On DNA, a ____________________ base will always pair with a __________________ base.

19. What is the most common form of DNA found in organisms?

20. How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule?

21. Name the complementary base pairs on DNA.

22. How many hydrogen bonds link cytosine & guanine? adenine & thymine?

23. How does the nucleotide sequence in one chain of DNA compare with the other chain of DNA?

24. Why must DNA be able to make copies of itself?

25. Define DNA replication.

26. What is the first step that must occur in DNA replication?

27. What acts as the template in DNA replication?

28. What is a replication fork?

29. What enzymes help separate the 2 strands of nucleotides on DNA? What bonds do they break?

30. What is the function of DNA polymerases?

31. ____________________ are joined to replicating strands of DNA by ________________ bonds.

32. If the sequence of nucleotides on the original DNA strand was A – G – G – C – T – A, what would be the nucleotide sequence on the complementary strand of DNA?

33. Does replication of DNA begin at one end and proceed to the other? Explain.

34. Why does DNA replication take place at many places on the molecule simultaneously?

35. When replication is complete, how do the 2 new DNA molecules compare to each other & the original DNA molecule?

36. Is DNA replicated (copied) before or after cell division?

37. Sketch & label DNA replication. (Figure 10-5, page 188)

38. What is the error rate in DNA replication? What helps lower this error rate to 1 in 1 billion nucleotides?

39. What is a mutation?

40. Name several things that can cause DNA mutations.

 

Section 10-2 RNA

 

41. What sugar is found on DNA?

42. What base is missing on RNA, & what other base replaces it?

43. Uracil will pair with what other on DNA?

44. Is RNA double or single stranded?

45. Name the 3 types of RNA and tell the shape of each.

46. Which type of RNA copies DNA’s instructions in the nucleus?

47. Which type of RNA is most abundant?

48. What does tRNA transport?

49. What 2 things make up ribosomes?

50. Define transcription.

51. In what part of a cell are proteins made?

52. What is RNA polymerase & tell its function.

53. What are promoters?

54. Where does RNA polymerase bind to the DNA it is transcribing?

55.What makes the beginning of a new gene on DNA in eukaryotes?

56. What do promoters mark the beginning of on prokaryotic DNA?

57. When a promoter binds to DNA, What happens to the double helix?

58. Are both strands of DNA copied during transcription?

59. As RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template strand, what is being added?

60. What bases pair with each other during transcription?

61. What is the termination signal?

62. What happens when RNA polymerase reaches the termination signal?

63. What are the products of transcription called?

64. Transcripts are actually ____________________________ molecules.

65. In transcription, ________________________’s instructions for making a protein

are copied by _______________________.

66. Which RNA molecules are involved in the synthesis (making) of a protein?

67. What happens to the newly made mRNA molecule following transcription in the nucleus?

 

Section 10-3 Protein Synthesis

 

68. What makes up proteins, what are the subunits called, & what bonds them together?

69. How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?

70. What determines how protein polypeptides fold into 3-dimensional structures?

71. Why does a protein need a 3-dimensional structure?

72. What is the genetic code & why is it important?

73. What is a codon & what does each codon code for?

74. How many codons exist?

75. Name the amino acid coded for by each of these codons:

a. UUA

b. AUU

c. UGU

d. AAA

e. GAG

f. UAA

76. What codon starts protein synthesis?

77. What codons stop protein synthesis?

78. Proteins are synthesized (made) at what organelle in the cytosol?

79. Sketch and label a tRNA molecule & tell its function.

80. Define translation & tell how it starts.

81. Where are amino acids found in a cell & how are they transported?

82. What is an anticodon & where is it found on tRNA?

83. What codon on mRNA would bind with these anticodons: (use table 10-1, page 194)

a. AAA

b. GGA

c. UAC

d. CGU

84. What are ribosomes made of and in what 2 places can they be found in a cell?

85. What is the difference between proteins made by free ribosomes & those made by attached, membrane proteins on the ER?

86. How many binding sites are found on the ribosomes and what does each site hold?

87. To start making a protein or _________________________________, a ribosome attaches to the ______________________________ codon on the __________________ transcript.

88. The start codon, AUG, pairs with what anticodon on a tRNA molecule?

89. What amino acid does the start codon always carry?

90. What type of bonds are the ones that attach amino acids to each other in a growing polypeptide?

91. __________________________ are linked to make proteins as a ______________________ moves along the mRNA transcript.

92. What ends translation?

93. Can more than one ribosome at a time translate an mRNA transcript? Explain.

94. What determines the primary structure of a protein?

95. What would the translation of these mRNA transcripts produce?

a. UAA CAA GGA GCA UCC

b. UGA CCC GAU UUC AGC

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