Cell Respiration


Cell Respiration

In this experiment, you will work with seeds that are living but dormant. A seed contains an embryo plant and a food supply surrounded by a seed coat. When the necessary conditions are met, germination occurs, and the rate of cellular respiration greatly increases. In this experiment you will measure oxygen consumption during germination. You will measure the change in gas volume in respirometers containing either germinating or non-germinating pea seeds. In addition, you will measure the rate of respiration of these peas at two different temperatures.

Before doing this laboratory you should understand:

  • how a respirometer works in terms of the gas laws; and
  • the general processes of metabolism in living organisms.

After doing this laboratory you should be able to:

  • calculate the rate of cell respiration from experimental data.
  • relate gas production to respiration rate; and
  • test the effect of temperature on the rate of cell respiration in ungerminated versus germinated seeds in a controlled experiment.

Cellular respiration is the release of energy from organic compounds by metabolic chemical oxidation in the mitochondria within each cell. Cellular respiration involves a series of enzyme-mediated reactions. The equation below shows the complete oxidation of glucose. Oxygen is required for this energy-releasing process to occur.

C6H12O6 + 6O2 —–> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 686 kilocalories of energy / mole of glucose oxidized

By studying the equation above, you will notice there are three ways cellular respiration could be measured. One could measure the:

1. Consumption of O2 ( How many moles of oxygen are consumed in cellular respiration?)

2. Production of CO2 ( How many moles of carbon dioxide are produced by cellular respiration?)

3. Release of energy during cellular respiration.

In this experiment, the relative volume of O2 consumed by germinating and non-germinating (dry) peas at two different temperatures will be measured.

Background Information:
A number of physical laws relating to gases are important to the understanding of how the apparatus that you will use in this exercise works. The laws are summarized in the general gas law that states:

PV = nRT


P is the pressure of the gas,

V is the volume of the gas,

n is the number of molecules of gas,

R is the gas constant ( its value is fixed), and

T is the temperature of the gas (in K0).

This law implies the following important concepts about gases:

1. If temperature and pressure are kept constant, then the volume of the gas is directly proportional to the number of molecules of gas.

2. If the temperature and volume remain constant, then the pressure of the gas changes in direct proportion to the number of molecules of gas present.

3. If the number of gas molecules and the temperature remain constant, then the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume.

4. If the temperature changes and the number of gas molecules is kept constant, then either pressure or volume ( or both ) will change in direct proportion to the temperature.

It is also important to remember that gases and fluids flow from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure.

In this experiment, the CO2 produced during cellular respiration will be removed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and will form solid potassium carbonate (K2CO3) according to the following reaction.

CO2 + 2 KOH —-> K2CO3 + H2O

Since the carbon dioxide is being removed, the change in the volume of gas in the respirometer will be directly related to the amount of oxygen consumed. In the experimental apparatus if water temperature and volume remain constant, the water will move toward the region of lower pressure. During respiration, oxygen will be consumed. Its volume will be reduced, because the carbon dioxide produced is being converted to a solid. The net result is a decrease in gas volume within the tube, and a related decrease in pressure in the tube. The vial with glass beads alone will permit detection of any changes in volume due to atmospheric pressure changes or temperature changes. The amount of oxygen consumed will be measured over a period of time. Six respirometers should be set up as follows:

Respirometer Temperature Contents
1 Room Germinating seeds
2 Room Dry Seeds and Beads
3 Room Beads
4 100C Germinating Seeds
5 100C Dry Seeds and Beans
6 100C Beads

 1.Prepare a room-temperature bath (approx. 25 degrees Celsius) and a cold-water bath (approx. 10 degrees Celsius).

2.Find the volume of 25 germinating peas by filling a 100mL graduated cylinder 50mL and measuring the displaced water.

3.Fill the graduated cylinder with 50mL water again and drop 25 non-germinating peas and add enough glass beads to attain an equal volume to the germinating peas.

4.Using the same procedure as in the previous two steps, find out how many glass beads are required to attain the same volume as the 25 germinating peas.

5.Repeat steps 2-4. These will go into the 10-degree bath.

6.To assemble 6 respirometers, obtain 6 vials, each with an attached stopper and pipette. Number the vials. Place a small wad of absorbent cotton in the bottom of each vial and, using a dropper, saturate the cotton with 15% KOH (potassium hydroxide). It is important that the same amount of KOH be used for each respirometer.

7.Place a small wad of dry, nonabsorbent cotton on top of the saturated cotton.

8.Place the first set of germinating peas, dry peas & beads, and glass beads in the first three vials, respectively. Place the next set of germinating peas, dry peas & beads, and glass beads in vials 4, 4, and 6, respectively. Insert the stopper with the calibrated pipette. Seal the set-up with silicone or petroleum jelly. Place a weighted collar on each end of the vial. Several washers around the pipette make good weights.

9.Make a sling of masking tape attached to each side of the water baths. This will hold the ends of the pipettes out of the water during an equilibration period of 7 minutes. Vials 1, 2, and 3 should be in the room temperature bath, and the other three should be in the 10 degree bath.

10.After 7 min., put all six set-ups entirely into the water. A little water should enter the pipettes and then stop. If the water continues to enter the pipette, check for leaks in the respirometer.

11.Allow the respirometers to equilibrate for 3 more minutes and then record the initial position of the water in each pipette to the nearest 0.01mL (time 0). Check the temperature in both baths and record. Record the water level in the six pipettes every 5 minutes for 20 minutes.

Table 5.1: Measurement of O2 Consumption by Soaked and Dry Pea Seeds at Room Temperature (250C) and 100C Using Volumetric Methods.

Beads Alone Germinating Peas

Dry Peas and Beans

Reading at time X Diff* Reading at time X Diff* Corrected Diff. ^ Reading at time X Diff* Corrected diff ^
Initial – 0
5- 10
10 -15
Initial – 0
5- 10
10 -15

* difference = ( initial reading at time 0) – ( reading at time X )

^ corrected difference = ( initial pea seed reading at time 0 – pea seed reading at time X) – ( initial bead reading at time X).

Analysis of Results:
1. In this investigation, you are investigating both the effect of germination versus non-germination and warm temperature versus cold temperature on respiration rate. Identify the hypothesis being tested in this activity.



2. This activity uses a number of controls. Identify at least three of the control, and describe the purpose of each control.







3. Graph the results from the corrected difference column for the germinating peas and dry peas at both room temperature and 100C.

a. What is the independent variable? ____________________________________________________

b. What is the dependent variable? ______________________________________________________

Graph Title: _____________________________________________________________________

Graph 5.1


4. Describe and explain the relationship between the amount of oxygen consumed and time.





5. From the slope of the four lines on the graph, determine the rate of oxygen consumption of germinating and dry peas during the experiments at room temperature and 100C. Recall that rate = delta Y/delta X.

Table 5.2

Condition Show Calculations Here Rate in ml.O2 / min
Germinating Peas/100C  




Germinating peas /Room Temperature  





Dry peas/100C  




Dry Peas /Room Temperature  





6. Why is it necessary to correct the readings from the peas with the readings from the beads?





7. Explain the effect of germination ( versus non-germination) on peas seed respiration.





8. What is the purpose of KOH in this experiment?





9. Why did the vial have to be completely sealed around the stopper?





10. If you used the same experimental design to compare the rates of respiration of a 25 g. reptile and a 25 g. mammal, at 100C, what results would you expect/ Explain your reasoning.







11. If respiration in a small mammal were studied at both room temperature (210C) and 100C, what results would you predict? Explain your reasoning.





12. Explain why water moved into the respirometer pipettes.







1st Semester Test Review 2004-05


First Semester Review  2004-05      


What are the smallest units that can carry on life functions called?
Living things are composed of ______________.
Give an example of a scientific observation.
What is a hypothesis?
What 3 things compose an atom?
Matter is made of ________________.
When atoms gain energy, what happens to electrons?
Do  cells contain a few or thousands of different kinds of enzymes?
__________________ reactions are important in organisms because they allow the passage of energy from one molecule to another.
What is a polar molecule?
Water molecules break up other polar substances. Give an example of such a polar molecule.
What happens to ionic compounds in water?
Which is not a carbohydrate —– glycogen, steroids, cellulose, or sugars?
Amino acids are the monomers for making ________________.
Is ice an example of an organic molecule?
The type & order of the amino acids determines the ___________ of a protein.
Very active cells need more of which organelle?
What organelle is the packaging & distribution center of the cell?
What membrane surrounds the nucleus?
What is the function of mitochondria. Sketch their shape.
Where is chlorophyll found in plants?
Diffusion takes place from ________________ concentration to ___________.
If a cell has a high water content, will it lose or gain water?
Ink dispersing in a beaker is an example of ________________.
Very large molecules enter cells by a process called ________________.
Endocytosis and exocytosis occur in ______________ directions across a cell membrane.
What is photosynthesis?
Where do the dark reactions of photosynthesis take place?
When chlorophyll absorbs light energy ATP is made and what other energy carrying molecule?
When chlorophyll absorbs light energy, what happens to its electrons?
_______________ molecules are responsible for the photosystems.
Electrons that have absorbed energy & moved to a higher energy level enter what chain?
When cells break down food molecules, energy is temporarily stored in what molecule?
When muscles do not get enough oxygen, what acid forms during exercise?
If you are growing bacteria in a culture and lactic acids starts to form, the bacteria are not getting enough of what gas?
The 2 stages of cellular respiration are _____________ & oxidative respiration.
Citric acid forms in which cycle during cellular respiration?
ATP molecules are formed inside what cellular organelle?
What is the study of life called?


2006 1st Semester Test Guide

First Semester Test 2006 Study Guide


1. What is the study of life called?

2. Instructions for traits passed from parent to offspring?

3. Keeping things stable or the same in cells?

4. Smallest units that can carry on life?

5. All living things require _________ for metabolism.

6. All living things are made of __________.

7. Salamanders with curved tails in polluted water are an example of which part of the scientific method?

8. The smallest part of carbon with all the same properties is called?

9. Where are electrons found in an atom & what is their charge?


10. When electrons gain energy they move to _____________________.

11. How many covalent bonds can carbon form?

12. Compounds may form from the transfer or __________ of electrons.

13. What happens to ionic compounds when placed in water?


14. Ionic bonds form from the ____________ of electrons.

15. Covalent bonds form from the ___________ of electrons.

16. What element do all organic compounds contain?

17. Give several examples of carbohydrates.



18. In what from do animals store glucose?

19. What are the monomers for proteins?

20. Is the following model a carbohydrate, lipid, or protein?

21. Sketch a fatty acid chain found in lipids.

22. What type of fatty acids contains double bonds?

23. Name the 2 nucleic acids.

24. When the volume of a cell increases, what happens to the surface area?



25. How does a prokaryotic cell differ from a eukaryotic cell?



26. What’s the job of the plasma membrane?


27. Parts of cells performing specific functions are called?

28. The ER sends proteins & lipids it makes to the __________ to be modified.

29. The Golgi ships & receives cell products in transport ___________.

30. In what organelle is ATP produced?

31. Ribosomes make ____________.

32. All eukaryotic cells have a ___________ containing the genetic material.

33. Diffusion occurs in what direction?

34. What is osmosis?

35. Ink dissolving in water is an example of _____________.

36. Riding of cell wastes in sacs is called _____________.

37. What is the effect of placing a plant into a hypertonic solution?


38. What is the ultimate energy for life on Earth?

39. Grana are suspended in the _________ of chloroplasts.

40. ____________ absorbs light energy for plants.

41. What happens to chlorophyll’s electrons when they absorb sunlight?

42. What is the source of oxygen in photosynthesis?

43. What gas is a byproduct of photosynthesis?

44. What type of skeleton do insects have?

45. The Calvin cycle occurs in what process?

46. The breaking down of food to release energy is called?

47. __________ builds up in heavily exercised muscles.

48. Name the 3 parts of cellular respiration.


49. How many chromosomes are in a human egg or sperm cell?

50. DNA compacts itself by wrapping around ____________.

51. How do insects help crops?


Biology Study Skills

You, too, can succeed in biology. The following strategies
will help you get an A in biology. They are the result of years of interviewing students who were able to achieve success in
their biology courses.

  1. Successful biology students say they study a minimum of 2 hours per day, seven days a week, throughout the semester.
  2. Biology is hard work, so be aggressive. Take it as a challenge and give it your time and your energy.
  3. Read your chapters at the start of your study and again before testing.
  4. Know and understand all your terminology. In biology it is extremely helpful to begin by studying your Latin and Greek roots. Study these roots. Make 3″ x 5″ flash cards to help you memorize them and later do the same with your terminology.
  5. Biology teachers have reported that if something is brought into the lab, it is guaranteed that you will be tested on it. So pay attention to whatever is brought into the lab, even its name.
  6. Chemistry is not a pre­requisite for taking biology but taking a chemistry course before or while taking biology would be exceedingly beneficial.
  7. Make it a practice to read over the topic or chapter before going to your biology class.
  8. Attend all classes and be an active listener. Successful students take full and comprehensive notes, writing down about 66% of what is said in lecture, while failing students write half as much.
  9. After class go over the material as soon as possible and again eight hours later. Studies have shown that you are more likely to remember the information later. Fill in all the missing words or incomplete explanations. Recite important concepts in your own words.
  10. Always remember you have the right to ask questions before, during and after class. See your instructors for help.
  11. Read and study all your textbook explanations — figures, tables, charts, graphs, etc.
  12. Whenever possible explain aloud to another person what you are learning. Work with a classmate and explain terminology and concepts to each other.
  13. Describe in your own words the similarities and differences between the different concepts you are learning.
  14. If biology is your most difficult subject, then always study it before all other subjects. You must study biology when you are most alert and fresh. Make sure to take 5 or 10 minute breaks every 20 to 40 minutes in order to clear your mind.
  15. Making up mnemonics memory techniques may be fun as well as beneficial.
  16. Take sample online tests for yourself and review your mistakes.
  17. If possible, have a friend or family member quiz you on your notes and text information. Done regularly this commits more information to long-term memory.

Cheryl’s Frog Pond

Christmas 2003



Tucker, Oscar, & Kelly

I lost my last dachshund (TUCKER) October 2013!

SILAS and ABBIE — My new best buddies!

My Philosophy:

I received my bachelor and master’s degrees in biology from Arkansas State University and have taught science for 40 years. Everyone in my family has always loved nature and the outdoors so being able to share this love of nature with my students is a daily pleasure for me. My extended family now includes two dachshunds, a beautiful daughter and handsome son-in-law, and three beautiful grandchildren.

My philosophy of life is simple — “Treat one another with kindness and love, return no one evil for evil, and take care of the earth and all of its inhabitants.”

Every day is a gift so always remember to enjoy it!

Massengale’s Classroom Rules


  1. Be in assigned seat ready to work BEFORE the tardy bell rings.
  2. Hang book bags/purses on the desk hook.
  3. If you have a problem, DO NOT ARGUE WITH THE TEACHER. INSTEAD, ASK to discuss ISSUES after class with the teacher in PRIVATE!
  4. Bring paper, pencil, notebook, and assignments every day.
  5. No form of disruptive behavior (noises, talking back, refusing to work, unnecessary visiting, etc.) will be tolerated.
  6. Please SAVE QUESTIONS until after roll is checked UNLESS you have an EMERGENCY.
    Work ONLY on BIOLOGY in class & don’t close up early.
  7. I will dismiss you (not the bell); leave chairs pushed up, books closed, & your area clean.
    N0 food or outside drinks may be brought into class.
  8. Always be on time!

Assignments – No credit will be given unless:

  1. Assignments must be COMPLETE and ON TIME to receive FULL credit.
  2. Assignments must be WRITTEN IN PENCIL or BLUE/BLACK INK to receive credit.
  3. NAME and PERIOD must be written in the upper right corner or 5 POINTS WILL BE DEDUCTED.
  4. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR YOUR MAKE UP WORK so check each day, and turn in assignments, pick up work, & schedule missed tests when you return to school.
  5. All missed labs will be made up AFTER SCHOOL & tests made up BEFORE OR AFTER SCHOOL.
  6. Place assignments in the basket with the name side facing up! NEVER turn papers upside down!


  1. Clean & erase everything from your desk before testing.
  2. Don’t talk until every paper is turned in or you will receive a zero.
  3. Only two people at a time should be up turning in their tests.
  4. Place tests name side up in the test basket.
  5. Use ONLY PENCILS to take test or receive a zero.

Writing Lab Notebook Reports



General Instructions:

  1. All labs must be written in pencil and be submitted to the teacher in a spiral notebook.
  2. Always use third person (NO personal pronouns — me, I, you, we, etc.) when writing all parts of a lab report. (USE HE, SHE, THEY, THEIR, THEM, ETC.
  3. The following things should be written clearly in marker on the front cover — “Subject” Lab Notebook, teacher name, student name, period.
  4. Number each page of the spiral notebook in the lower right hand corner.
  5. On Page 1, write the subject, year, student name, class period, and teacher name.
  6. Page 2 should have “Table of Contents” written at the top and two columns, one for “Page” and the other for “Lab Title”.
  7. Begin writing the first lab on page 3 of you notebook. DO NOT WRITE ON THE BACK OF YOUR PAPER!
  9. TITLE and UNDERLINE each section & then begin writing on the NEXT LINE!

Your lab report should be written using the following format: (Be sure to left align & underline headings)

Title (center on top line; on the right of line 2, put date & lab #)
The title should indicate clearly & concisely the subject and scope of the report.

Introduction – 20 points (PARAGRAPH FORM)

  • The introduction should give background information about the experiment.
  • It should also state the purpose of the investigation.
  • This section will be two or more paragraphs in length.

Hypothesis – 20 points (SINGLE SENTENCE)

  • The hypothesis should be a single statement telling the exact thing you are trying to prove in your experiment.
  • NEVER write this statement using “first person”. Write the hypothesis in past tense (third person.)

Materials – 5 points (SINGLE SENTENCE)

  • This section should be written in sentence form and name all of the materials and equipment used.
  • Be sure to include specific amounts and concentrations of chemicals used.
  • Start the statement, “The materials used include _____, _____, etc.”

Methods (Procedure)- 5 points (STEPS; NUMBER)

  • This section includes the step-by-step procedures used.
  • The procedure should be so thorough that someone else could use your listed materials and procedures to conduct the same experiment and get the same results.

Results (Data & Questions) – 20 points

  • All data should be collected and organized in a logical order. Results should be illustrated as charts, tables, graphs, &/or diagrams. All graphs should include a title, the independent variable labeled on the horizontal axis, and the dependent variable labeled on the vertical axis.
  • All lab questions and answers should be included also with this section. ( NUMBER & UNDERLINE the questions & then write, but DON’T UNDERLINE the answers)

Error Analysis

  • Include any important factors that you think may have actually affected your results.

Discussion and Conclusion – 30 points

Discussion is the most important part of your report, because here, you show that you understand the experiment beyond the simple level of completing it.!!

  • This is where you give a detailed account of what happened in the experiment.
  • Explain all observations and results in your experiment.
  • Analyze and interpret why these results were obtained.
  • Be sure to tell the significance or meaning of the results.
  • Restate the original hypothesis and explain whether the experiment succeeded. If the hypothesis was not correct, you should analyze why the results were not as predicted.
  • Explain experimental errors that appear in the results.


Additional help with Conclusions


Click here for Notebook paper Layout of Lab

High School Biology Club

Biology Club Officers 2009-2010  

Biology Club Members 2009-2010

Agrama, Hoda (Vice-President) Hildebrand, Ivy (Treasurer) Osby, Tanisha
Amos, Candace (Secretary) Jones, Carlee Ragland, Morgan
Blankenship, Ben Knowles, Bria Rodriguez, Taylor
Coleman, Ashton Law, Garrett (President) Rogers, Maggie
Daughtery, Mackenzie Lockwood, Aaron Scheiderer, Julia
Dickson, Kaylee Longnecker, Kristina Schroeder, Mallory
Downey, Stephanie Maier, Marlee Shook, Clay (Parliamentarian)
Duncan, Haley McPherson, Kelbie Sites, Alan
Flake, Darbi Miller, Kody Stone, Allison
Galloway, Rebecca Morrow, Amber Ward, Hayden
Gill, Morgan Mosley, Hannah Wehner, Adelae (Reporter)
Heard, Brianna Nolan, Mary Caroline Wofford, Genique
Henderson, Jalyn Orsburn, Loriann Zeman, Alyssa

Biology Club Officers 2007 – 2008

President – Elizabeth Blankenship
Vice-President – Lauren Nobles
Secretary – Hannah Bushy
Treasurer – Brock Sullivan
Reporter – Chase Curtis
Club Sponsor – Cheryl Massengale

Sophomores find Homecoming Spirit Stick!!!

Biology Club Officers 2006-2007

Biology Club Members 2007

Barnett, Emily Blankenship, Elizabeth Bledsoe, Amber Bronson, Heather Brown, Virginia Burkett, Laura Bushey, Hannah Chase, Curtis Cotton, Brittany Criner, Kylen Dabbs, Michael Early, Joseph Engelkes, Lauren Felts, Morgan Ferguson, Leamber Fields, Ashton Galloway, Rachael Glover, Ashley Hancock, Alisha Henderson, Tyler Hill, Kaceshus Liu, Sijia Longnecker, Callie McGraw, Shelby Meador, Jordan Morris, Rachel Nobles, Lauren Parker, Taryn Pitts, Tyra Ponder, Brittney Rankin, Chris Senko, Lydia Shook, Steven Simmons, Shelby Sites, Ashley Spicer, Hannah Sullivan, Brock Winfrey, Karissa Worstell, Nolan

Click here for Officer Form

Winning Pumpkin 2004 Sarah Barnett Christen Proctor Clark Moore Jett Jones

Winning Pumpkin 2006 Christen Proctor Jenny Cherara Amy Ayers

More Pumpkins!

Razorback – Go Hogs!

“Plankton” from Sponge Bob

Archive Photos

Biology Club Bylaws

 Article 1  –  Membership

Section 1:

Membership shall be open to students at Stuttgart High School.  Said students must be enrolled in an AP or PreAP  high school biology course. Students must also pay yearly club membership fees and participate in the club’s yearly, money-making project.

Section 2:

Privileges of membership shall include participation in all Stuttgart High School Biology Club meetings and events. 

Section 3: 

Termination of membership may occur if a member moves from the district, fails to pay annual membership fees, or graduates from high school.

Article 2  – Officer Duties

Section 1:  

Biology Club officers will be composed of a president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, & reporter from the Biology Club.  President and Vice president must be a junior or senior.

Section 2:  

Selection of the officers will be by election by club members with officers meeting the following criteria:

  • Current membership dues paid ·
  • Submission of ideas for activities and projects for the current year

Section 3: 

  • Biology Club officers duties will include:
  • Setting the agenda for meetings
  • Presiding over meetings
  • Supervising activities and projects of the club
  • Recording & reporting minutes of meetings
  • Keeping records of debits & credits to the Biology Club account
  • Writing articles for the newspaper

Article 3 – Order of Business

Section 1: 

The order of business at regular meetings of the Stuttgart High School Biology.League shall be as follows:

  • Call meeting to order
  • Reading of minutes
  • Treasurer’s report
  • Unfinished Business
  • New Business
  • Adjournment