AP Unit 1 – Biochemistry

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AP Unit 1     Biocehemistry

 

 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
Which of the following properties or processes do we associate with living things?
a.
evolutionary adaptations
b.
energy processing
c.
responding to the environment
d.
growth and reproduction
e.
all of the above
 2.
Which of the following sequences represents the hierarchy of biological organization from the most to the least complex level?
a.
organelle, cell, organ system, population, community, ecosystem
b.
ecosystem, community, organism, tissue, cell, organelle
c.
biosphere, population, organism, cell, tissue, molecule
d.
biosphere, community, tissue, organ system, molecule, organelle
e.
organism, population, organ system, tissue, molecule, cell
 3.
What is a localized group of organisms that belong to the same species?
a.
biosystem
b.
community
c.
population
d.
ecosystem
e.
organ system
 4.
A maple leaf is at which level in the hierarchy of biological organization?
a.
tissue
b.
cell
c.
organelle
d.
organ
e.
organ system
 5.
Which of these is an example of an organelle?
a.
chloroplast
b.
muscle
c.
epidermis
d.
intestine
e.
maple leaf
 6.
Plants convert the energy of sunlight into
a.
the energy of motion.
b.
carbon dioxide and water.
c.
the potential energy of chemical bonds.
d.
minerals.
e.
kinetic energy.
 7.
As a result of photosynthesis, plants release ____ into the atmosphere.
a.
methane
b.
carbon dioxide
c.
water
d.
minerals
e.
oxygen
 8.
The dynamics of any ecosystem include the following major processes:
a.
the flow of energy from sunlight to producers
b.
the flow of energy from sunlight to producers and then to consumers
c.
the recycling of chemical nutrients
d.
the flow of energy to producers and the recycling of nutrients
e.
the flow of energy from sunlight to producers and then to consumers, and the recycling of chemical nutrients
 9.
For most ecosystems ____ is (are) the ultimate source of energy, and energy leaves the ecosystem in the form of ____.
a.
sunlight; heat
b.
heat; light
c.
plants; animals
d.
plants; heat
e.
producers; consumers
 10.
The lowest level of biological organization that can perform all the activities required for life is the
a.
organelle-for example, a chloroplast.
b.
cell-for example, a skin cell.
c.
tissue-for example, nervous tissue.
d.
organ system-for example, the reproductive system.
e.
organism-for example, an amoeba, dog, human, or maple tree.
 11.
Which of the following is true regarding deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?
a.
Each deoxyribonucleic acid molecule is composed of two long chains of nucleotides arranged in a double helix.
b.
Genes are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid.
c.
DNA is composed of chemical building blocks called nucleotides.
d.
Only A and C are correct.
e.
A, B, and C are correct.
 12.
What are the basic “building blocks” of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?
a.
100,000 different kinds of proteins
b.
26 different kinds of chromosomes
c.
20 different kinds of amino acids
d.
4 different kinds of nucleotides
e.
3 different kinds of genomes
 13.
Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material?
a.
animal
b.
plant
c.
archaea
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 14.
The chemical reactions within cells are regulated by organic catalysts called
a.
feedback activators.
b.
feedback inhibitors.
c.
enzymes.
d.
metabolites.
e.
nutrients.
 15.
Once labor begins in childbirth, contractions increase in intensity and frequency until delivery. The increasing labor contractions of childbirth are an example of
a.
a bioinformatic system.
b.
positive feedback.
c.
negative feedback.
d.
feedback inhibition.
e.
both C and D
 16.
When blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin, and as a result blood glucose level declines. When blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon, and as a result blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of blood glucose level is the result of
a.
catalytic feedback.
b.
positive feedback.
c.
negative feedback.
d.
bioinformatic regulation.
e.
both A and B
 17.
Which of the following are characteristics shared by members of both domain Bacteria and domain Archaea?
a.
cytosol
b.
nucleus
c.
DNA
d.
A and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 18.
All eukaryotes belong to which group(s)?
a.
domain Bacteria
b.
domain Archaea
c.
domain Eukarya
d.
kingdom Protista
e.
both C and D
 19.
Species that are in the same ____ are more closely related than species that are only in the same ____.
a.
phylum; class
b.
family; order
c.
class; order
d.
family; genus
e.
kingdom; phylum
 20.
Which of these is reflective of the hierarchical organization of life from most to least inclusive?
a.
kingdom, order, family, phylum, class, genus, species
b.
phylum, class, order, kingdom, family, genus, species
c.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
d.
genus, species, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family
e.
class, order, kingdom, phylum, family, genus, species
 21.
About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
a.
carbon, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen
b.
carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, hydrogen
c.
oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium
d.
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
e.
carbon, oxygen, sulfur, calcium
 22.
Which of the following statements is false?
a.
Atoms of the various elements differ in their number of subatomic particles.
b.
All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons in their nuclei.
c.
The neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom are almost identical in mass; each has a mass of about 1 dalton.
d.
An atom is the smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of the element.
e.
Protons and electrons are electrically charged particles. Protons have one unit of negative charge, and electrons have one unit of positive charge.
 23.
Each element is unique and different from other elements because of the number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms. Which of the following indicates the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus?
a.
atomic mass
b.
atomic weight
c.
atomic number
d.
mass weight
e.
mass number
 24.
The mass number of an element can be easily approximated by adding together the number of ____ in an atom of that element.
a.
protons and neutrons
b.
energy levels
c.
protons and electrons
d.
neutrons and electrons
e.
isotopes
 25.
Calcium has an atomic number of 20 and an atomic mass of 40. Therefore, a calcium atom must have
a.
20 protons.
b.
40 electrons.
c.
40 neutrons.
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 26.
An atom with an atomic number of 9 and a mass number of 19 would have an atomic mass of approximately
a.
9 daltons.
b.
9 grams.
c.
10 daltons.
d.
20 grams.
e.
19 daltons.
 27.
How do isotopes of the same element differ from each other?
a.
number of protons
b.
number of electrons
c.
number of neutrons
d.
valence electron distribution
e.
amount of radioactivity
 28.
One difference between carbon-12 and carbon-14 is that carbon-14 has
a.
two more protons than carbon-12.
b.
two more electrons than carbon-12.
c.
two more neutrons than carbon-12.
d.
A and C only
e.
B and C only
 29.
Electrons exist only at fixed levels of potential energy. However, if an atom absorbs sufficient energy, a possible result is that
a.
an electron may move to an electron shell farther out from the nucleus.
b.
an electron may move to an electron shell closer to the nucleus.
c.
the atom may become a radioactive isotope.
d.
the atom would become a positively charged ion, or cation.
e.
the atom would become a negatively charged ion, or anion.

Use the figure below to answer the following questions.

nar001-1.jpg

 30.
Which drawing depicts the electron configuration of neon (Ne)?
a.
Drawing A
b.
Drawing B
c.
Drawing C
d.
Drawing D
e.
Drawing E
 31.
Which drawing depicts the electron configuration of oxygen (O)?
a.
Drawing A
b.
Drawing B
c.
Drawing C
d.
Drawing D
e.
Drawing E
 32.
Which drawing is of an atom with the atomic number of 6?
a.
Drawing A
b.
Drawing B
c.
Drawing C
d.
Drawing D
e.
Drawing E
 33.
Which drawing depicts an atom that is inert or chemically unreactive?
a.
Drawing A
b.
Drawing B
c.
Drawing C
d.
Drawing D
e.
Drawing E

Use the information extracted from the periodic table in the figure below to answer the following questions.

nar002-1.jpg

 34.
How many electrons does nitrogen have in its valence shell?
a.
2
b.
5
c.
7
d.
8
e.
14
 35.
How many electrons does phosphorus have in its valence shell?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
5
 36.
What do atoms form when they share electron pairs?
a.
elements
b.
ions
c.
aggregates
d.
isotopes
e.
molecules
 37.
If an atom of sulfur (atomic number 16) were allowed to react with atoms of hydrogen (atomic number 1), which of the molecules below would be formed?
a.
S-H
b.
H-S-H
c.
H-S-H
|
H
d.
H
|
H-S-H
|
H
e.
H=S=H
 38.
What is the maximum number of covalent bonds an element with atomic number 8 can make with hydrogen?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
6
 39.
A molecule of carbon dioxide (CO2) is formed when one atom of carbon (atomic number 6) is covalently bonded with two atoms of oxygen (atomic number 8). What is the total number of electrons that must be shared between the carbon atom and the oxygen atoms in order to complete the outer electron shell of all three atoms?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
5
 40.
When two atoms are equally electronegative, they will interact to form
a.
equal numbers of isotopes.
b.
ions.
c.
polar covalent bonds.
d.
nonpolar covalent bonds.
e.
ionic bonds.
 41.
What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
a.
a nonpolar covalent bond
b.
a polar covalent bond
c.
an ionic bond
d.
a hydrogen bond
e.
a hydrophobic interaction
 42.
In a single molecule of water, the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
a.
hydrogen bonds.
b.
nonpolar covalent bonds.
c.
polar covalent bonds.
d.
ionic bonds.
e.
van der Waals interactions.
 43.
What determines the cohesiveness of water molecules?
a.
hydrophobic interactions
b.
nonpolar covalent bonds
c.
ionic bonds
d.
hydrogen bonds
e.
both A and C
 44.
What do cohesion, surface tension, and adhesion have in common with reference to water?
a.
All increase when temperature increases.
b.
All are produced by ionic bonding.
c.
All are properties related to hydrogen bonding.
d.
All have to do with nonpolar covalent bonds.
e.
C and D only
 45.
Which of the following is possible due to the high surface tension of water?
a.
Lakes don’t freeze solid in winter, despite low temperatures.
b.
A water strider can walk across the surface of a small pond.
c.
Organisms resist temperature changes, although they give off heat due to chemical reactions.
d.
Water can act as a solvent.
e.
The pH of water remains exactly neutral.
 46.
Water’s high specific heat is mainly a consequence of the
a.
small size of the water molecules.
b.
high specific heat of oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
c.
absorption and release of heat when hydrogen bonds break and form.
d.
fact that water is a poor heat conductor.
e.
inability of water to dissipate heat into dry air.
 47.
Desert rabbits are adapted to the warm climate because their large ears aid in the removal of heat due to the
a.
high surface tension of water.
b.
high heat of vaporization of water.
c.
high specific heat of water.
d.
buffering capacity of water.
e.
dissociation of water molecules.
 48.
The formation of ice during colder weather helps moderate the seasonal transition to winter. This is mainly because
a.
the breaking of hydrogen bonds absorbs heat.
b.
the formation of hydrogen bonds releases heat.
c.
the formation of hydrogen bonds absorbs heat.
d.
there is greater evaporative cooling of lakes.
e.
ice is denser than liquid water.
 49.
Why does ice float in liquid water?
a.
The liquid water molecules have more kinetic energy and thus support the ice.
b.
The ionic bonds between the molecules in ice prevent the ice from sinking.
c.
Ice always has air bubbles that keep it afloat.
d.
Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water.
e.
The crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid water.
 50.
Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions [H+]?
a.
gastric juice at pH 2
b.
vinegar at pH 3
c.
tomato juice at pH 4
d.
black coffee at pH 5
e.
household bleach at pH 12
 51.
Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydroxide ions [OH-]?
a.
lemon juice at pH 2
b.
vinegar at pH 3
c.
tomato juice at pH 4
d.
urine at pH 6
e.
seawater at pH 8
 52.
Organic chemistry is a science based on the study of
a.
functional groups.
b.
vital forces interacting with matter.
c.
carbon compounds.
d.
water and its interaction with other kinds of molecules.
e.
inorganic compounds.
 53.
Which property of the carbon atom gives it compatibility with a greater number of different elements than any other type of atom?
a.
Carbon has 6 to 8 neutrons.
b.
Carbon has a valence of 4.
c.
Carbon forms ionic bonds.
d.
A and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 54.
How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
8
 55.
What type(s) of bond(s) does carbon have a tendency to form?
a.
ionic
b.
hydrogen
c.
covalent
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 56.

The two molecules shown in the following figure are best described as

mc056-1.jpg

a.
optical isomers.
b.
radioactive isotopes.
c.
structural isomers.
d.
nonradioactive isotopes.
e.
geometric isomers.
 57.
A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant functional group. Which of the following statements is true concerning this compound?
a.
It lacks an asymmetric carbon, and it is probably a fat or lipid.
b.
It should dissolve in water.
c.
It should dissolve in a nonpolar solvent.
d.
It won’t form hydrogen bonds with water.
e.
It is hydrophobic.
 58.

What is the name of the functional group shown in the following figure?

a.
carbonyl
b.
ketone
c.
aldehyde
d.
carboxyl
e.
hydroxyl
 59.
Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
a.
ketone and aldehyde
b.
carbonyl and carboxyl
c.
carboxyl and amino
d.
phosphate and sulfhydryl
e.
hydroxyl and aldehyde

Use the figure below to answer the following questions.

nar003-1.jpg

 60.
Which is a hydroxyl functional group?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 61.
Which is an amino functional group?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 62.
Which is a carbonyl functional group?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 63.
Which is a functional group that helps stabilize proteins by forming covalent cross-links within or between protein molecules?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E

Use the molecules shown in the figure below to answer the following questions..

nar004-1.jpg

 64.
Which molecule contains a sulfhydryl functional group?
a.
Molecule A
b.
Molecule B
c.
Molecule C
d.
Molecule D
e.
Molecule E
 65.
Which of the following is not one of the four major groups of macromolecules found in living organisms?
a.
glucose
b.
carbohydrates
c.
lipids
d.
proteins
e.
nucleic acids
 66.
Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all synthesized from monomers by which process?
a.
connecting monosaccharides together (condensation reactions)
b.
the addition of water to each monomer (hydrolysis)
c.
the removal of water (dehydration reactions)
d.
ionic bonding of the monomers
e.
the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers
 67.
Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
a.
Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis breaks down polymers.
b.
Hydrolysis only occurs in the urinary system, and dehydration reactions only occur in the digestive tract.
c.
Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.
d.
Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers.
e.
A and C are correct.
 68.
A molecule with the chemical formula C16H32O16 is probably a
a.
carbohydrate.
b.
lipid.
c.
protein.
d.
nucleic acid.
e.
hydrocarbon.
 69.

If 128 molecules of the general type shown in the figure below were covalently joined together in sequence, the single molecule that would result would be a

mc069-1.jpg

a.
polysaccharide.
b.
polypeptide.
c.
polyunsaturated lipid.
d.
monosaccharide.
e.
disaccharide.
 70.
Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?
a.
as a pentose
b.
as a hexose
c.
as a monosaccharide
d.
as a disaccharide
e.
as a polysaccharide
 71.
Which of the following are polysaccharides?
a.
glycogen
b.
starch
c.
chitin
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 72.
Which of the following is (are) true for the class of large biological molecules known as lipids?
a.
They are insoluble in water.
b.
They are an important constituent of cell membranes.
c.
They contain twice as much energy as an equivalent weight of polysaccharide.
d.
Only A and B are correct.
e.
A, B, and C are correct.
 73.
Saturated fatty acids
a.
are the predominant fatty acid in corn oil.
b.
have double bonds between carbon atoms of the fatty acids.
c.
have a higher ratio of hydrogen to carbon than do unsaturated fatty acids.
d.
are usually liquid at room temperature.
e.
are usually produced by plants.
 74.

What is the molecule illustrated in the figure below?

mc074-1.jpg

a.
a saturated fatty acid
b.
an unsaturated fatty acid
c.
a polyunsaturated triacylglyceride
d.
a trans polyunsaturated triacylglyceride
e.
a steroid similar to cholesterol
 75.

The molecule shown in the figure below is a

mc075-1.jpg

a.
polysaccharide.
b.
polypeptide.
c.
saturated fatty acid.
d.
triacylglycerol.
e.
unsaturated fatty acid.
 76.
The 20 different amino acids found in polypeptides exhibit different chemical and physical properties because of different
a.
carboxyl groups attached to an alpha carbon
b.
amino groups attached to an alpha carbon
c.
side chains (R groups).
d.
alpha carbons.
e.
asymmetric carbons.
 77.

The chemical reaction illustrated in the figure below results in the formation of a (an)

mc077-1.jpg

a.
ionic bond.
b.
peptide bond.
c.
glycosidic linkage.
d.
ester linkage.
e.
phosphodiester linkage.
 78.

The figure below shows the

mc078-1.jpg

a.
1-4 linkage of the glucose monomers of starch.
b.
1-4 linkage of the glucose monomers of cellulose.
c.
double helical structure of a DNA molecule.
d.
helix secondary structure of a polypeptide.
e.
pleated sheet secondary structure of a polypeptide.
 79.
What is the term used for a change in a protein’s three-dimensional shape or conformation due to disruption of hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, or ionic bonds?
a.
hydrolysis
b.
stabilization
c.
destabilization
d.
renaturation
e.
denaturation
 80.
Which of the following best describes the flow of information in eukaryotic cells?
a.
DNA RNA proteins
b.
RNA proteins DNA
c.
proteins DNA RNA
d.
RNA DNA proteins
e.
DNA proteins RNA

 

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AP UNIT 1B BIOCHEMISTRY

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AP UNIT 1B BIOCHEMISTRY
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
Organic chemistry is a science based on the study of
a.
functional groups.
b.
vital forces interacting with matter.
c.
carbon compounds.
d.
water and its interaction with other kinds of molecules.
e.
inorganic compounds.
 2.
How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
8
 3.
What type(s) of bond(s) does carbon have a tendency to form?
a.
ionic
b.
hydrogen
c.
covalent
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 4.
What is the reason why hydrocarbons are not soluble in water?
a.
The majority of their bonds are polar covalent carbon to hydrogen linkages.
b.
The majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.
c.
They are hydrophilic.
d.
They exhibit considerable molecular complexity and diversity.
e.
They are lighter than water.
 5.

The two molecules shown in the following figure are best described as

mc005-1.jpg

a.
optical isomers.
b.
radioactive isotopes.
c.
structural isomers.
d.
nonradioactive isotopes.
e.
geometric isomers.
 6.

The two molecules shown in the following figure are best described as

mc006-1.jpg

a.
enantiomers.
b.
radioactive isotopes.
c.
structural isomers.
d.
nonisotopic isomers.
e.
geometric isomers.
 7.
Research suggests that side effects from Ritalin, the drug used to treat attention deficit disorder, may be caused by contamination of enantiomers, or molecules that
a.
have identical three-dimensional shapes.
b.
are mirror images of one another.
c.
lack an asymmetric carbon.
d.
differ in the location of their double bonds.
e.
differ in their electrical charge.
 8.
Which is the best description of a carbonyl group?
a.
an oxygen joined to a carbon by a single covalent bond
b.
a nitrogen and two hydrogens joined to a carbon by covalent bonds
c.
a carbon joined to two hydrogens by single covalent bonds
d.
a sulfur and a hydrogen joined to a carbon by covalent bonds
e.
a carbon atom joined to an oxygen by a double covalent bond
 9.

What is the name of the functional group shown in the following figure?

a.
carbonyl
b.
ketone
c.
aldehyde
d.
carboxyl
e.
hydroxyl
 10.
Which of the following contains nitrogen in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen?
a.
an alcohol such as ethanol
b.
a monosaccharide such as glucose
c.
a steroid such as testosterone
d.
an amino acid such as glycine
e.
a hydrocarbon such as benzene
 11.
Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
a.
ketone and aldehyde
b.
carbonyl and carboxyl
c.
carboxyl and amino
d.
phosphate and sulfhydryl
e.
hydroxyl and aldehyde
 12.
A chemist wishes to make an organic molecule less acidic. Which of the following functional groups should be added to the molecule in order to do so?
a.
carboxyl
b.
sulfhydryl
c.
hydroxyl
d.
amino
e.
phosphate

Use the figure below to answer the following questions.

nar001-1.jpg

 13.
Which is a hydroxyl functional group?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 14.
Which is an amino functional group?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 15.
Which is a functional group that helps stabilize proteins by forming covalent cross-links within or between protein molecules?
a.
Group A
b.
Group B
c.
Group C
d.
Group D
e.
Group E
 16.
Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all synthesized from monomers by which process?
a.
connecting monosaccharides together (condensation reactions)
b.
the addition of water to each monomer (hydrolysis)
c.
the removal of water (dehydration reactions)
d.
ionic bonding of the monomers
e.
the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers
 17.
Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
a.
Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis breaks down polymers.
b.
Hydrolysis only occurs in the urinary system, and dehydration reactions only occur in the digestive tract.
c.
Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.
d.
Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers.
e.
A and C are correct.
 18.

If 128 molecules of the general type shown in the figure below were covalently joined together in sequence, the single molecule that would result would be a

mc018-1.jpg

a.
polysaccharide.
b.
polypeptide.
c.
polyunsaturated lipid.
d.
monosaccharide.
e.
disaccharide.
 19.
Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?
a.
as a pentose
b.
as a hexose
c.
as a monosaccharide
d.
as a disaccharide
e.
as a polysaccharide
 20.
Which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose?
a.
They are both polymers of glucose.
b.
They are geometric isomers of each other.
c.
They can both be digested by humans.
d.
They are both used for energy storage in plants.
e.
They are both structural components of the plant cell wall.
 21.
Which of the following is true of cellulose?
a.
It is a polymer composed of sucrose monomers.
b.
It is a storage polysaccharide for energy in plant cells.
c.
It is a storage polysaccharide for energy in animal cells.
d.
It is a major structural component of plant cell walls.
e.
It is a major structural component of animal cell plasma membranes.
 22.
Triacylglycerol is a
a.
protein with tertiary structure.
b.
lipid made with three fatty acids and glycerol.
c.
lipid that makes up much of the plasma membrane.
d.
molecule formed from three alcohols by dehydration reactions.
e.
carbohydrate with three sugars joined together by glycosidic linkages.
 23.

What is the molecule illustrated in the figure below?

mc023-1.jpg

a.
a saturated fatty acid
b.
an unsaturated fatty acid
c.
a polyunsaturated triacylglyceride
d.
a trans polyunsaturated triacylglyceride
e.
a steroid similar to cholesterol
 24.

The molecule shown in the figure below is a

mc024-1.jpg

a.
polysaccharide.
b.
polypeptide.
c.
saturated fatty acid.
d.
triacylglycerol.
e.
unsaturated fatty acid.
 25.
A polypeptide can best be described as a
a.
monomer of a protein polymer.
b.
polymer containing 20 amino acid molecules.
c.
polymer containing 19 peptide bonds.
d.
polymer containing 20 peptide bonds.
e.
polymer of amino acids.
 26.

The chemical reaction illustrated in the figure below results in the formation of a (an)

mc026-1.jpg

a.
ionic bond.
b.
peptide bond.
c.
glycosidic linkage.
d.
ester linkage.
e.
phosphodiester linkage.
 27.
Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein?
a.
peptide bonds
b.
hydrogen bonds
c.
disulfide bonds
d.
phosphodiester bonds
e.
A, B, and C
 28.
What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?
a.
peptide bonds
b.
hydrogen bonds
c.
disulfide bonds
d.
ionic bonds
e.
phosphodiester bonds
 29.

The figure below shows the

mc029-1.jpg

a.
1-4 linkage of the glucose monomers of starch.
b.
1-4 linkage of the glucose monomers of cellulose.
c.
double helical structure of a DNA molecule.
d.
helix secondary structure of a polypeptide.
e.
pleated sheet secondary structure of a polypeptide.
 30.
Altering which of the following levels of structural organization could change the function of a protein?
a.
primary
b.
secondary
c.
tertiary
d.
quaternary
e.
all of the above
 31.
Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
a.
a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
b.
a nitrogenous base and a pentose sugar
c.
a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar
d.
a phosphate group and an adenine or uracil
e.
a pentose sugar and a purine or pyrimidine
 32.
All of the following nitrogenous bases are found in DNA except
a.
thymine.
b.
adenine.
c.
uracil.
d.
guanine.
e.
cytosine.
 33.
Which of the following statements best summarizes the structural differences between DNA and RNA?
a.
RNA is a protein, whereas DNA is a nucleic acid.
b.
DNA is a protein, whereas RNA is a nucleic acid.
c.
DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA nucleotides.
d.
RNA is a double helix, but DNA is single-stranded.
e.
A and D are correct.

 

         Start Over

Water in Carrot Lab

 

How Much Water is in a carrot?

 

Introduction:

Life exists on Earth because of the abundance of liquid water. Water makes up anywhere from 70 to 90% of the body weight of living things. Living things are composed of atoms and molecules within aqueous solutions (solutions that have materials dissolved in water).  At most temperatures on the surface of the earth, water is a liquid. In this state, water is an excellent solvent, and because there is so much of it available on the earth’s surface, water is home (oceans, lakes and rivers) to much of life. Water has been referred to as the universal solvent. Water is also involved in many metabolic processes within organisms.

Water is a polar molecule and can bond both to itself and to other water molecules by weak attractions called hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonding is responsible for the unusual thermal properties of water including a high specific heat capacity and a high heat of vaporization.

Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance 1°C. Since it takes much more energy that normal to break all the hydrogen bonds in liquid water, water resists rapid temperature fluctuations, adding stability to earth’s environments where liquid water is plentiful.

The heat of vaporization is defined as the energy needed to change the phase of a liquid to a gas. Again, because of the number and relative strength of water’s hydrogen bonds, it takes a great deal of energy to break a molecule free of its liquid partners. Heat of vaporization causes a cooling effect because as the warmer molecules evaporate from your skin they take the heat energy with them, leaving you cooler.

Objective:

Students will design and conduct an experiment to determine the amount of water present in a carrot.

Materials:

Some materials that will be available for you to use are plates, vegetable peelers, knives, graters, knee-hi stockings, foil, microwave, blow dryers, plastic bags, and paper towels.  Any other materials you use must be approved by the teacher first (No dehydrators!).

Procedure:

  1. Begin by weighing and recording the mass of the carrot.
  2. Estimate the water content present in your carrot.
  3. Develop a hypothesis for the amount of water in a carrot.
  4. Write the materials needed and procedure you will be using to extract the water.
  5. After having your hypothesis and procedure approved by the teacher, conduct the experiment.
  6. Be sure to include an introduction, procedure, data, data analysis, and a conclusion in your lab report.

 

Properties of Living Things

 

Properties of Living things

 

 

·        Early Views of life

o       Vitalism:

§        Life was generated by a objects acquisition of “Ethers” which would manifest animate it.

§        Led to idea of spontaneous generation

·        Flies came from dead animals

·        Mice came from Hay

§        Idea was challenged by scientist Francesco Redi in 1698.

·        Designed an experiment where 3 jars contained meat.

o       One Jar contained meat and had an open top which would allow the passage of “ethers” and flies. (maggots would appear on the meat)

 

o       The second jar was covered with an airtight lid allowing the passage of neither “ethers” or flies. (no maggots would appear on the meat)

 

o       The third was covered by a screen allowing passage of “ethers”, but not flies. (no maggots would appear on meat)

Setup 1              Setup 2           Setup 3

 

o       Since the third setup would theoretically allow the passage of “ethers”, but no maggots appeared, it was implied that flies were the source of the maggots.

 

·        Led to the theory of Biogenesis

o       All life comes from preexisting life

 

PROPERTIES of LIFE

 

1. Be made of Cells.

·        The Cell is the basic unit of life

·        Is self contained and possesses a barrier (membrane) which separates itself from the environment.

·        Two types of organisms.

·        Unicellular – One celled organism (Uni=1)

·        Multicellular – Many cells (Multi=”many”)

 

2. Living Things must Reproduce.

·        Must be able to create more of it’s own kind

·        Two types of reproduction:

·        Sexual – Two parent organisms combine genetic material to produce the offspring.

·        Asexual – When a single organism can divide or “bud” to create it’s offspring without another of it’s species.

 

3. Living things must Have DNA.

·        (Universal Genetic Code?)

 

4. Living things must Grow & Develop.

·        Growth refers to two processes.

·        Increase in the number of cells.

·        Increase in the size of cells.

·        Development refers to changes in the organism which occur through it’s life-span.

·        Includes cell differentiation.

·        Includes organ development

·        Includes aging & death.

 

 

5. Living things obtain & use energy.

·        Energy is used by all living things for growth, development & reproduction.

·        Life processes which result in “building” the organism ia known as Anabolism.

·        Life process where energy is extracted by “breaking-down” substances is called Catabolism.

 

6.  Living things must Respond (or react) to their environment in some way.

·        Something which causes an organism to react is known as a Stimulus (stimuli).

·        The ability of an organism to react is called Irritability.

·        Most responses are geared for maintaining Homeostasis.

·        Homeostasis is a process where an organism maintains a stable internal environment so life can continue.

·        Some examples include temperature, pH, and water content of the cell.

 

7. Must Maintain homeostasis.

·        Internal stable set of internal conditions allowing the chemical reactions of life to occur.