Fish & Amphibian Study Guide

Fish & Amphibian Study Guide

Ø    List several characteristics found in all vertebrates.

Ø    What is the function of the kidney in fish?

Ø    What type of fish has skin covered by overlapping scales?

Ø    What type of fish feeds parasitically on other fish?

Ø    What type of fish has small scales embedded in the skin?

Ø    What does the word “Agnatha” mean?

Ø    Name 2 fish that retain their notochord throughout their life cycle.

Ø    What does the word “Chondrichthyes” mean?

Ø    Give 2 examples of agnathans.

Ø    Which fin propels bony fish through the water?

Ø    The word “amphibian” means  ___________________.

Ø    Name the 2 major groups of bony fish.

Ø    What is the function of the swim bladder in bony fish?

Ø    What structure covers the gills of bony fish?

Ø    Describe several characteristics of lungfish.

Ø    What makes up the skeleton of fish in the group Osteichthyes?

Ø    What structure helps draw water into the mouth of bony fish?

Ø    Give 2 ways amphibians breathe.

Ø    In what order are amphibians without tails found?

Ø    Describe the feeding habits of adult frogs.

Ø    Describe metamorphosis in frogs.

Ø    Give several reasons why frogs & toads return to water to reproduce.

Ø    Which order of amphibians is legless?

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Fish

Fish

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Kingdom – Animalia
Phylum – Chordata
Subphylum – Vertebrata

Vertebrates:

Include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, & mammals
Have a notochord (slim, flexible rod) present in early stages that may be replaced by backbone in adults
Contain a dorsal, hollow bundle of nerves called the nerve or spinal cord
Respire through pharyngeal or gill pouches during early development
Have post-anal tail in early stages
Endoskeleton made of bone &/or cartilage
Anterior head with well developed brain & sensory organs (Cephalization)
Closed circulatory system

Taxonomy of Vertebrates:

Agnatha include hagfish & lamprey with long, eel-like bodies without jaws or paired fins & cartilage skeletons

Chondrichthyes include sharks, rays, & skates with cartilage skeletons, paired fins, & jaws

Osteichthyes are bony fish with jaws, paired fins, & bone and cartilage in their skeletons
Amphibia include frogs, toads, & salamanders that go through an aquatic larval or tadpole stage
Reptilia include snakes, turtles, lizards, & alligators that live on land, are covered with scales, & lay a tough, protective amniote egg
Aves are birds covered with feathers, adapted for flying, & with hollow bones
Mammalia have hair or fur & females have mammary or milk-producing glands

Evolution:

Fossil record shows jawless fish without paired fins appeared first about 550 million years ago
Ostracoderm was a jawless, bottom-feeding ancestor to the agnathans (modern jawless fish)

Development of jaws & paired fins allowed better movement & increased ability to capture prey
Extinct acanthodians or spiny fish were first jawed fish with paired fins

Jaws probably developed from gill arches (bone that supports the pharynx)

Characteristics of  Fish:  

Streamlined body & muscular tail for swimming
Most with paired fins for maneuvering
Body covered with protective scales & mucus layer to reduce friction when swimming
Have less dense body tissues & store less dense lipids to help them float
Respire through gills
Most have a lateral line system or a row of sensory structures running down each side of the organism to detect changes in water temperature, pressure, current, etc.

Most with well-developed sense of sight & smell
Some can detect electrical currents
Ectotherms (adjust body temperature to environment)
Two chambered heart (upper atrium receives blood & lower ventricle pumps blood)

Agnatha (Jawless Fish):

Hagfish (live in oceans) & lampreys (found in marine & freshwater)
Circular mouths
Sharp teeth & strong rasp-like tongue to tear hole in prey & suck out blood & body fluids

Known as cyclostomes
Eel-shaped body
Mucus covers body
Skeleton made of cartilage
No paired fins
Gills without bony cover (called operculum)
Retain their notochord throughout their life
Hagfish are bottom dwellers in cold marine waters that burrow in mud, scavenge on dead & dying fish, & have tentacles around their mouth
Lampreys are usually parasites with a keen sense of smell to locate prey, lay their eggs in freshwater streams, & are covered with a poisonous slime

Chondrichthyes

Includes sharks, rays, & skates
Endoskeleton of cartilage
Hinged jaws & paired fins
Placoid scales & tooth-like dermal spines on scales

Marine
Carnivorous
Sharks are torpedo shaped

Rays & skates have broad, flat bodies with wing-like fins and a tail

Shark Characteristics:

Fast swimmers
Large, oily liver (20% of body weight) makes them buoyant
Tough, leathery skin
Fierce predators
Whale shark is largest & filter feeds on plankton

Ventral mouth with 6-20 rows of sharp, replaceable teeth
Short, straight intestine with spiral valve to slow food movement
5-7 pairs of gills for gas exchange
Kidneys remove wastes & maintain water balance
Electroreceptors on head help find prey & navigate
Lateral line along side of body contains sensory cells to detect vibrations & pressure
Separate sexes with external fertilization

Ray & Skate Characteristics:

Usually harmless to humans
Broad, wing-like pectoral fins used to glide through water
Flattened bodies with ventral mouth
Both eyes on top of head
Have protective coloration (darker on top & lighter on bottom)
Feed on fish & invertebrates
Stingray with poison spine by tip of tail

Electric ray gives off strong, electric shock
Manta ray is largest

Traits of Bony Fish (Osteichthyes)

Skeleton made of bone
Hinged jaws
Paired fins
Gills for gas exchange
Lateral line
Body covered with scales & mucus coating
Includes lobe-finned, ray-finned, and lung fish

Lobe-finned Fish:

Muscular, paddle-like fins supported by bone
Gills
Known as coelacanths

Thought to be extinct until 1938 when species found in Africa
Live in deep oceans

Lungfish:

Use lungs & gills
Eel-shaped body

Live in shallow, tropical rivers of Africa, Australia, & South America
Come to surface & gulp air when oxygen level is low
Form mud cocoon & become dormant if stream dries up

Ray-finned Fish:

Fan-like fins supported by rays
Includes salmon, perch, catfish, tuna, etc.
Body covered with round, overlapping cycloid or ctenoid scales & mucus

Four sets of gills covered by bony operculum

Have movable fins
Dorsal fin(s) located on top keep fish upright & used for defense
Caudal fin or tail moves side to side to help steer
Pectoral fins (paired) on each side behind the operculum
Pelvic fins (paired) on ventral surface near the head
Anal fin (single) behind anus

Swim bladder is thin-walled sac in abdomen that creates buoyancy from diffusion of dissolved gas from blood

 

Kidneys filter the blood & help maintain water balance
Ectothermic – body temperature regulated by the environment
Keen sense of smell (nostrils) & have chemical receptors over the body
Can detect the earth’s magnetic field as a guide to navigate oceans
Have separate sexes with external fertilization
Eggs hatch into fry

Salmon Life Cycle:

Migrate up to 3200 kilometers following magnetic cues in the ocean
Follow mucus trails when navigating rivers
Return to birthplace to spawn
Males change color & jaw lengthens & develops a hook

Female uses her tail to build gravel nest & lays up to 10,000 eggs 
Male deposits sperm over eggs
Adults usually die after spawning
Pacific salmon return to sea when 15 cm long; while Atlantic salmon may stay in river up to 7 years
Secrete mucus coating in river as return to sea
May stay in ocean 6 months to 5 years

 

 

Chapter 43 AP Obj Body Defenses

 

 

Chapter 43    Body’s Defenses
Objectives
Nonspecific Defenses Against Infection
1. Explain what is meant by nonspecific defense and list the nonspecific lines of defense in the vertebrate body.
2. Distinguish between:
a. innate and acquired immunity
b. humoral and cell mediated response
3. Explain how the physical barrier of skin is reinforced by chemical defenses.
4. Define phagocytosis. Name four types of phagocytic leukocytes.
5. Explain how interferon limits cell-to-cell spread of viruses.
6. Describe the inflammation response, including how it is triggered.
7. Describe the factors that influence phagocytosis during the inflammation response.
8. Explain how the action of natural killer cells differs from the action of phagocytes.
9. Explain what occurs during the condition known as septic shock.
10. Describe the roles of antimicrobial proteins in innate immunity.
How Specific Immunity Arises
11. Distinguish between antigens and antibodies.
12. Distinguish between antigen and epitope.
13. Explain how B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes recognize specific antigens
14. Explain how the particular structure of a lymphocyte’s antigen binding site forms during development. Explain the role of recombinase in generating the staggering variability of lymphocytes.
15. Explain why the antigen receptors of lymphocytes are tested for self-reactivity during development. Predict the consequences that would occur if such testing did not take place.
16. Describe the mechanism of clonal selection. Distinguish between effector cells and memory cells.
17. Distinguish between primary and secondary immune responses.
18. Describe the cellular basis for immunological memory.
19. Describe the variation found in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and its role in the rejection of tissue transplants. Explain the adaptive advantage of this variation.
20. Compare the structures and functions of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells.
21. Compare the production and functions of class I MHC and class II MHC molecules.
Immune Responses
22. Distinguish between humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity.
23. Describe the roles of helper T lymphocytes in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
24. Describe the functions of the proteins CD4 and CD8.
25. Explain how cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells defend against tumors.
26. Distinguish between T-dependent antigens and T-independent antigens.
27. Explain why macrophages are regarded as the main antigen-presenting cells in the primary response but memory B cells are the main antigen-presenting cells in the secondary response.
28. Explain how antibodies interact with antigens.
29. Diagram and label the structure of an antibody and explain how this structure allows antibodies to (a) recognize and bind to antigens, and (b) assist in the destruction and elimination of antigens.
30. Distinguish between the variable (V) and constant (C) regions of an antibody molecule.
31. Describe the production and uses of monoclonal antibodies.
32. Compare the processes of neutralization, opsonization, and agglutination.
Immunity in Health and Disease
33. Distinguish between active and passive immunity and describe examples of each.
34. Explain how the immune response to Rh factor differs from the response to A and B blood antigens.
35. Describe the potential problem of Rh incompatibility between a mother and her unborn fetus and explain what precautionary measures may be taken.
36. Explain what is done medically to reduce the risk of tissue transplant rejection due to differences in the MHC. Explain what is unique about the source of potential immune rejection in bone marrow grafts.
37. Describe an allergic reaction, including the roles of IgE, mast cells, and histamine.
38. Explain what causes anaphylactic shock and how it can be treated.
39. List three autoimmune disorders and describe possible mechanisms of autoimmunity.
40. Distinguish between inborn and acquired immunodeficiency.
41. Explain how general health and mental well-being might affect the immune system.
42. Describe the infectious agent that causes AIDS and explain how it enters a susceptible cell.
43. Explain how HIV is transmitted and describe its incidence throughout the world. Note strategies that can reduce a person’s risk of infection.

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Chapter 34 AP Objectives

 

Chapter 34     Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity
Objectives
Invertebrate Chordates and the Origin of Vertebrates
1. Distinguish between the phyla of deuterostomes.
2. Describe the four derived traits that define the phylum Chordata.
3. Distinguish among the three subphyla of the phylum Chordata and give examples of each.
4. Discuss the evidence for and against Garstang’s hypothesis that vertebrates had a tunicate-like ancestor.
5. Explain what lancelets suggest about the evolution of the chordate brain.
Craniates Are Chordates with a Head
6. Discuss the importance of genetic duplication in chordate evolution.
7. Explain the fate of the neural crest cells in craniate development.
8. Explain what Haikouella and Haikouichthys tell us about craniate evolution.
Vertebrates Are Craniates with a Backbone
9. Describe the way of life and unique characters of the lamprey.
10. Describe conodonts, and explain why they are considered vertebrates.
11. Describe the trends in mineralized structures in early vertebrates.
Gnathostomes Are Vertebrates with Jaws
12. Explain one hypothesis for the evolution of the jaws of gnathostomes.
13. List the shared, derived characters that characterize gnathostomes.
14. Describe the evidence that suggests that the loss of bone in Chondrichthyes is a derived feature.
15. Describe the features of sharks that are adaptive for their active, predatory lifestyle.
16. Describe and distinguish between Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, noting the main traits of each group.
17. Identify and describe the main subgroups of Osteichthyes.
18. Name the three living lineages of lobe-fins.
Tetrapods Are Gnathostomes with Limbs and Feet
19. Define and distinguish between gnathostomes, tetrapods, and amniotes.
20. Explain what Acanthostega suggests about the origin of tetrapods.
21. Describe the common traits of amphibians and distinguish among the three orders of living amphibians.
Amniotes Have Amniotic Eggs
22. Describe an amniotic egg and explain its significance in the evolution of reptiles and mammals.
23. Explain why the reptile clade includes birds.
24. Describe a number of reptile features that are adaptive for life on land.
25. Explain why non-bird reptiles should be called “ectothermic” rather than “cold-blooded.”
26. Define and describe the parareptiles.
27. Distinguish between the lepidosaurs and the archosaurs.
28. Compare the interpretations of dinosaurs as ectotherms or endotherms.
29. Describe the specialized adaptations of snakes that make them successful predators.
30. List the modifications of birds that are adaptive for flight.
31. Summarize the evidence supporting the hypothesis that birds evolved from theropod dinosaur ancestors.
32. Explain the significance of Archaeopteryx.
33. Describe the characteristic derived characters of mammals.
34. Describe the evolutionary origin of mammals.
35. Distinguish among monotreme, marsupial, and eutherian mammals.
36. Describe the adaptive radiation of mammals during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary periods.
37. Compare and contrast the four main evolutionary clades of eutherian mammals.
Primates and the Evolution of Homo sapiens
38. Describe the general characteristics of primates. Note in particular the features associated with an arboreal existence.
39. Distinguish between the two subgroups of primates and describe their early evolutionary relationship.
40. Distinguish between hominoid and hominid.
41. Explain what Sahelanthropus tells us about hominid evolution.
42. Describe the evolution of Homo sapiens from australopith ancestors. Clarify the order in which distinctive human traits aro
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Bird

 

Birds
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Birds:

Well adapted to marine, freshwater, & terrestrial habitats
Bodies adapted for flight
Endothermic – body temperature controlled by metabolism

Evolution:

  • Evolved from reptiles
  • Few fossils due to lack of preservation of feathers or thin, hollow bones
  • Archaeopteryx:
    1. Possible link between birds & reptiles
    2. Lived during Jurassic period
    3. Large skull with reptile like teeth
    4. Bones not hollow
    5. Claws on forelimbs
    6. Long tail
    7. Strong legs & rounded wings for gliding
    8. Feathers
    9. Furculum – fused collarbone or wishbone

Archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx Fossil

  • Hesperonis:
    1. Bird fossils from Cretaceous period
    2. Large, flightless bird
    3. Had teeth like reptiles

kish-02.jpg (71663 bytes)
Hesperonis

  • Ichthyornis:
    1. Smaller, tern like bird
    2. Lived during Cretaceous period
    3. Had large flight wings

Characteristics of Birds:

  • Body covered with feathers made of protein called keratin
  • Thin, hollow bones
  • Some bones fused for extra strength
  • Forelimbs modified into wings for  flight
  • Two hind limbs with claws to support upright body
  • Scales on legs
  • Toothless, horny beak
  • Additional air sacs  with lungs for more oxygen
  • Endotherms (40 to 41 degrees Celsius body temperature)
  • Four chambered heart with single, right aortic arch
  • Amniote egg with calcium carbonate shell
  • Oviparity with both parents often caring for eggs
  • Eggs usually incubated within a nest

Feathers:

  • Modified scales
  • Function to provide lift for flight & help conserve body heat
  • Five kinds of feathers —– down, contour, flight, filoplume, & bristles


Types of Feathers

  • Down feathers:
    1. Soft & fluffy
    2. Cover the body of nestlings
    3. Provide an undercoat insulating adult birds
  • Contour Feathers:
    1. Give streamline shape to body
    2. Provide coloration to adult birds
    3. Give additional insulation to body
  • Flight Feathers:
    1. Specialized contour feathers
    2. Found on wings & tail

  • Filoplumes:
    1. Called pin feathers
    2. Hairlike feathers under contour feathers on body

Parts of a feather:

  • Develop from tiny pits in the skin called follicles
  • Shaft emerges from the follicle
  • Two vanes develop on either side of shaft
  • Barbs branch off of each vane & have projections called barbules
  • Barbules have microscopic hooks to hold barbules together


Parts of a Flight Feather


Microscopic Hooks on Barbules

  • Birds preen their feathers to clean them & coat them with oil
  • Preen glands – oil glands located at the base of the tail
  • Birds shed or molt feathers periodically:
    1. Molting usually in late summer between breeding & migration
    2. Flight feathers replaced
    3. Some birds molt before courtship

Beaks and Feet:

  • Adapted to habitat & feeding
  • Hawks & eagles have hooked beaks & talons for tearing meat

 

Gentoo Penguin
Talons Hooked Beak Penguin Flippers

 

  • Swifts have tiny beaks that open wide to catch insects in midair
  • Flightless birds like ostriches have legs & feet modified for running & walking
  • Penguins have wings modified into flippers for swimming
  • Ducks & geese with webbed feet

 

Running Legs of Ostrich Webbed Feet on Duck

 

  • Legs of some birds such as herons &  egrets turn vivid colors to attract mates; caused by hormones

Skeleton and Muscles:

  • Pelvic & pectoral girdles fused for strength
  • Bones thin & hollow so bird lighter

A birdbone(notice the honey combed shape)
Hollow Bones

  • Furculum or wishbone is a fused collarbone that stabilizes bird in flight
  • Lighter beak replaces heavy teeth & jaws
  • Lower vertebrae fused so no heavy ligaments needed
  • Enlarged eye sockets reduce skull weight
  • Keeled sternum for attachment of large flight muscles
  • Pygostyle – terminal vertebrae support tail & aids in flight (lift, steering, & braking)
  • Two digits in forelimbs lost & other three digits fused to form wings
  • Wings shaped like air foils (thicker in front & tapering to back) so air moves faster on top causing lift

  • Powerful muscles make up 50% of body weight
  • each wing movement uses different set of muscles
  • Flight muscles called pectorals & are attached to wing & keeled sternum
  • When large pectorals contract, wings move down
  • When large pectorals relax & small pectorals contract, wings move upward

Body Temperature:

  • Metabolism generates body heat (endothermic)
  • Enables birds to survive in warm & cold environments
  • Rapid breathing & increased air sacs in lungs bring in more oxygen

Diagram of a bird's lung and air sac system, and countercurrent exchange
Air Sacs in Bird Lungs

  • Ingest large amounts of food for energy
  • Fluff out feathers to trap air for insulation
  • Aquatic birds have thin layer of fat for insulation

Digestive System:

  • Fast & efficient digestion (mouse digested in 3 hours)
  • No chewing
  • Crop for temporary food storage
  • Two part stomach — proventriculus & gizzard
  • Proventriculus is 1st chamber where digestive juices added
  • Gizzard is 2nd part for crushing food
  • Small stones & gravel eaten by birds aids grinding in gizzard
  • Pyloric sphincter valve at lower end of gizzard controls food movement into intestines
  • Duodenum – beginning of small intestine where bile (digests fats) & pancreatic juice are added & digested food is absorbed

birdanat.gif (87464 bytes)

Excretory System:

  • Paired kidneys filter nitrogen wastes (uric acid) from blood
  • No urinary bladder to store liquid wastes
  • Uric acid travels down ureters to cloaca where intestinal wastes & reproductive products added
  • Uric acid secreted in white, semi solid mass
  • Shorebirds have salt secreting glands above the eyes & secrete excess salt through their nostrils

Respiratory System:

  • Fly at high altitudes where there is less oxygen so need efficient respiratory system
  • High metabolic rate requires large amount of oxygen
  • Nine air sacs associated with lungs increase oxygen level & decrease density
  • Air sacs connected to air spaces in hollow bones
  • One way flow of air in lungs & air sacs so more oxygen is removed
  • Air pathway:
    air enters body through nostrils on beak  trachea (windpipe) syrinx (voice box) 2 primary bronchi 75% of air into two posterior air sacs and 25% of air into lungs air from lungs into other seven air sacs
  • When carbon dioxide exhaled, oxygen from posterior air sacs moves into lungs to always keep fresh oxygen supply

Circulatory System:

  • Four chambered heart
  • Right side of heart pumps deoxygenated blood from body cells to lungs
  • Left side of heart receives oxygenated blood from lungs & pumps it to the body cells
  • Single aortic arch
  • Rapid heartbeat (hummingbird 600X/minute & chickadee 1000X/minute)
  • Less active birds such as ostrich have slower heart rates (70X/minute)

Nervous System:

  • Large brains relative to size of bird
  • Most highly developed brain areas control flight
  • Cerebellum coordinates movement
  • Cerebrum controls navigation, mating, nest building, & care of young
  • Optic lobes receive & interpret visual stimuli
  • Keen vision
  • Have color vision for locating food
  • Large eyes located on side of head for wide field of vision in most birds
  • Some birds such as owls with eyes on front of head for binocular vision (depth perception)
  • No external ears, but have feathers around ear openings to direct sounds into ear canals
  • Tympanic membrane or eardrum for picking up sound vibrations
  • Semicircular canals in inner ear regulate balance
  • Poorly developed sense of smell except in ducks & flightless birds
  • Sense of taste helps avoid bitter tasting or toxic foods

Reproductive System:

  • Testes in males produces sperm that travels by the vas deferens to cloaca
  • Females have single ovary that makes eggs
  • Eggs are fertilized in the oviducts
  • Shell added by shell gland & then egg moves into
  • In mating, male presses cloaca to female to transfer sperm (internal fertilization)
  • Lay an amniote egg:
    1. Embryo suspended in fluid called albumen (white of egg)
    2. Chalaza – rope like strands suspending embryo in albumen
    3. Chorion is membrane inside of shell
    4. Yolk is stored food surrounded by yolk sac


Bird Egg

Incubation & development of Egg:

  • Eggs incubated by one or both parents
  • Brood patch – thickened, featherless patch of skin on abdomen of bird used to warm eggs
  • Membranes grow out of embryo’s digestive tract & surround yolk
  • Membranes make digestive enzymes to dissolve proteins & lipids in yolk
  • Yolk sac has blood vessels to carry food to embryo
  •  Wastes from embryo collect in membrane called allantois
  • Chorion membrane lines the shell & allows gas exchange
  • Young birds may be precocial or altricial
  • Precocial young:
    1. Have longer incubations
    2. More eggs laid
    3. Active as soon as hatch
    4. Nestlings can swim, walk, & feed themselves
    5. Need some parental care
    6. Includes ducks, geese, & swans
  • Altricial young:
    1.Lay fewer eggs
    2. Hatch quickly
    3. Hatchlings are blind, naked, & helpless
    4. Depend on parents for warmth & food for several weeks
    5. Includes songbirds, woodpeckers, hawks, pigeons, doves, raptors

 

Dunnock & Cuckoo
Altricial Young Precocial Young

 

Behavior:

  • Longer parental care allows more complex learning (courtship, nesting, migration, etc.)
  • Territoriality allows males to establish & defend breeding areas
  • Courtship behaviors are used by males to attract mates:
    1. Brightly colored feathers
    2. Flight displays
    3. Songs


Male Scarlet Tanager Breeding Plumage

  • Nest building holds eggs, conceals & shelters young birds, may help attract mates
  • Nests are built in sheltered, well-hidden spots in trees, on the ground, etc. & are made of twigs, mud, grass, feathers…

  • Migration to new areas is triggered by dropping temperatures & dwindling food supplies
  • Birds use migration clues including:
    1. Position of sun & stars
    2. Topographical landmarks
    3. Magnetic clues
    4.Air pressure changes
    5. Low frequency sounds

 

Section 2 Review

Classification:

  • Class Aves
  • 27 orders
  • Gaviiformes – loons
  • Pelecaniformes – pelicans & cormorants
  • Ciconiiformes – wading birds like ibises & herons
  • Anseriformes – ducks, geese, & swans
  • Falconiformes – falcons, eagles, hawks, vultures
  • Galliformes – turkey, quail, pheasants
  • Gruiformes – cranes, coots, & rails
  • Charadriiformes – snipes, sandpipers, gulls, terns
  • Columbiformes – pigeons & doves
  • Psittaciformes – parrots, parakeets, & macaws
  • Cucluiformes – cuckoos & roadrunners
  • Strigiformes – owls
  • Caprimulgiformes – whippoorwill & nighthawk
  • Apodiformes – hummingbird & swifts
  • Coraciiformes – kingfishers
  • Piciformes – woodpeckers, sapsuckers, & flickers
  • Passeriformes – perching birds like robins, cardinals, blue jays

 

Pelican at Oranjestad waterfront
Pygmy Owl Brown Pelican
photograph of macaw Female Northern Cardinal Photograph
Macaw Female Cardinal

 

Food & Habitat Adaptations:

  • Anseriformes (ducks, geese, & swans) have webbed feet for swimming & flattened bills; young are precocial but need some parental care
  • Strigiformes (owls) have sharp, hooked beaks & talons (claws) for meat eating, keen hearing & eyesight, & forward facing eyes
  • Apodiformes (hummingbirds) are small, fast-flying birds with tiny feet & long tongues for drinking nectar; found only in western hemisphere
  • Psittaciformes (parrots, cockatoos, parakeets…) have a strong, hooked beak for seed opening & two forward & two rear facing toes for perching & climbing
  • Piciformes (woodpeckers, toucans, & flickers) have two rear facing toes for dwelling in tree cavities & sharp, chisel like bills for drilling into trees
  • Falconiformes or raptors ( hawks, eagles, vultures) have hooked beaks & talons & keen vision for seeing prey
  • Passeriformes or songbirds (blue jays, cardinals, sparrows, robins …) have enlarged rear facing toe to grip branches, a syrinx or voice box in males to produce songs, & a variety of beak shapes to feed on seeds, nectar, fruits, & insects; known as passerines or perching birds
  • Columbiformes (pigeons & doves) have small heads & bills, a crop that makes “pigeon’s milk” for feeding young, short incubation period (2 weeks)
  •  Ciconiiformes (herons, ibises, & egrets) have long legs for wading & sharp pointed bills for piercing frogs & fish
  • Galliformes (turkeys, quail, pheasants, & chickens)  have plump bodies with limited flying &a large gizzard for grinding grains
  • Sphenisciformes (penguins) have wings modified into flippers, an extra layer of body fat for insulation, & webbed feet for swimming
  • Struthioniformes (ostrich) are the largest birds that can’t fly but have long legs with only two toes adapted for fast running
Section 3 Review

 

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Bullfrog Skeletal Reconstruction

 

 

Bullfrog Skeleton Reconstruction

 

Introduction:

The skeleton of the frog consists chiefly of bony and cartilaginous elements.  The functions of a skeleton include providing support for the body,  protection of delicate internal organs and attachment surfaces for muscles.  In vertebrates, the axial skeleton consists of the skull, vertebral column, sternum (breast bone) and ribs (which are not present in amphibians).  The vertebral column of frogs is made up of 10 vertebrae, the first of which (called the atlas) articulates with the base of the skull.  The atlas is the only cervical vertebra in the frog.  The next seven vertebrae are abdominal vertebrae, which is the large sacrum with two strong transverse processes that join with the ileum.  The last vertebra is the long and highly modified urostyle.  Note:  Most vertebrates have a tail supported by caudal vertebrate, but frogs and toads are atypical in that they lack any tail and are therefore called anurans (“tail less amphibians”).

 

Lab_9b-17a  

1. Skull
2. Axis Cervical vertebrae)
3. Abdominal vertebrae
4. Cervical Vertebrae
5. Urostyle
6. Scapula
7. Ilium
8. Ischium
9. Humerus
10. Radio-ulna
11. Carpals
12. Metacarpals
13. Phalanges
14. Femur

 

 

The appendicular skeleton includes the limbs and the pectoral and pelvic girdles that support them.  In most vertebrates the forelimbs consist of three major bones — the humerus, radius and ulna, along with the smaller bones of the hand (carpals, metacarpals and phalanges).  Note that in the frog the radius and ulna have become fused into a single bone, the radio-ulna.  Likewise, the hindlimbs consist of three major bones — the femur, tibia and fibula, along with the smaller bones that make up the feet (tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges). Once again, in frogs and toads the tibia and fibula have become fused into a single bone, the tibio-fibula.  The pectoral girdle consists of four pairs of bones (the suprascapula, scapula, coracoid, and clavicle).  The last three pairs are connected to the sternum.  In frogs, the pelvic girdle, which supports the hindlimbs, is formed by the fusion of the ilium, ischium and non-ossified pubis.  Each femur fits into a socket on the pelvic girdle called an acetabulum.  Note that the pelvic girdle and limb structure are well adapted for giving a powerful, synchronous thrust of both hind limbs in swimming and jumping

Objective:

By reassembling an amphibian skeleton, students will learn the bones and modifications of a vertebrate.

Materials:

Dermestid beetles, small aquarium with air-vented lid,  dermestid bedding, food, & water supply, freeze-dried bullfrogs, tweezers, small container with lid for bones, 20% H2O2, thin piece of wood, paints, and glue.

Procedure:

  1. Place the freeze dried frog into a small aquarium of dermestid beetles.
  2. Leave the frog skeleton in the aquarium for several days to several weeks until all flesh has been stripped from the skeleton.
  3. Carefully remove all bones from the aquarium and use forceps to carefully pull away any flesh that remains..
  4. Rinse the bones in running water thoroughly.
  5. Bleach the bone in 20% hydrogen peroxide solution until the bones appear white.
  6. Dry the bones and articulate them. (use the above diagram to help in the arrangement of the bones.)
  7. Bones should be mounted on a thin piece of wood.
  8. You may be creative and place your frog in a scene of your choosing — playing football or basketball, swimming in a pond, practicing ballet, etc.

Examples:

 

 

 

Amphibian

 

Amphibians   All Materials © Cmassengale  

 

Amphibian Evolution:

Arose from lobe-fined ancestor called Crossopterygians
Land plants & insects provided new food source
Had primitive lungs & short, limb like fins for short periods on land
Appeared during late Devonian
Icthyostega early amphibian with 4 limbs, lungs, & a tail for swimming

Adaptations:

Four limbs with claws on digits (toes)
Lungs instead of gills
Both internal & external nares (nostrils)
Three chambered heart (two atria & one ventricle)
Double loop blood circulation to lungs & rest of body cells

Skin with keratin (protein) to prevent water loss
Necks to more easily see & feed
Most with smooth, moist skin to take in dissolved oxygen
Some with oral glands to moisten food they eat
Webbed toes without claws
Ectothermic – body temperature changes with environment
Show dormancy or torpor (state of inactivity during unfavorable environmental conditions)
Hibernate in winter and aestivate in summer
Aquatic larva called tadpole goes through metamorphosis to adult
Metamorphosis controlled by hormone called thyroxine

American Toad Tadpole photograph
Tadpole

External fertilization with amplexus (male clasps back of female as sperm & eggs deposited into water)
Eggs coated with sticky, jelly like material so they attach to objects in water & do not float away
Eggs hatch into tadpoles in about 12 days


Eggs

  • Males with vocal sacs to croak
  • Digested system adapted to swallow prey whole
  • Well developed muscular system

Classification:

  • Anura – frogs & toads
  • Urodela – salamanders & newts
  • Apoda – caecilians
  • Trachystoma – sirens or mud eels

Anuran Characteristics:

  • Both terrestrial & freshwater species
  • Tadpole with tail, gills, & two-chambered heart
  • Adults without a tail, four limbs, & lungs
  • Frog skin smooth & moist for cutaneous respiration, while toads is rough & warty (poison glands)

 


Frog

Toad

 

  • Long hind limbs for jumping
  • Long, forked tongue hinged at front of mouth

Urodela Characteristics:

  • Includes salamanders & newts
  • Have elongated bodies with a tail & four limbs 
  • Smooth, moist skin for cutaneous respiration
  • Less able to stay on dry land than anurans

Spotted salamander photograph
Spotted Salamander

  • Size from a few centimeters long to 1.5 meters
  • Nocturnal when live in drier areas
  • Newts are aquatic species

red-spotted newt photograph
Red Spotted Newt

  • Lay eggs in water or damp soil
  • Some bear live young
  • May or may not go through tadpole stage (some hatch & look like small adult)

Apodan Characteristics:

  • Includes caecilians
  • Tropical, burrowing, worm like amphibians
  • Legless
  • Small eyes & often blind
  • Eat worms & other invertebrates
  • Average length 30 centimeters, but can grow up to 1.3 meters
  • internal fertilization
  • Female bear live young


Caecilian

Trachystoma Characteristics:

  • Includes mud eels or sirens
  • Known as “rough mouth” amphibians
  • Found in eastern U.S. & southern Europe
  • Have minute forelimbs & no hindlimbs


Mud Eel or Siren

External Frog Anatomy:

  • Live double life on land & water
  • Powerful hind legs for jumping & swimming fold under body when at rest
  • Bulging eyes to stay submerged but still see predators
  • Blinking eyelids protect eyes from dust & dehydration
  • Nictitating membranes clear to moisten eye & see underwater
  • Internal nostrils or nares allow frog to breathe underwater
  • Tympanic membranes or eardrums behind each eye transmit sound through bone called columella to inner ear
  • Eustachian tubes connect mouth & middle ear to equalize pressure

  • Males croak or make sound to attract females & ward off other males
  • Have protective coloration from cells called chromatophores
  • Granular glands secrete foul tasting or poisonous substance
  • Mucus glands lubricate skin for oxygen to be dissolved & absorbed

Internal Frog Anatomy:
Skeletal System

  • Nine spinal vertebrae (1 cervical in neck, 7 trunk, & 1 sacral supporting hind legs)
  • Urostyle long, slim bone connecting sacral vertebrae & trunk
  • No rib cage, but pectoral girdle forms shoulders & connects front legs
  • Pelvic girdle connects to hind legs

Digestive System

  • Tongue sticky, forked, & hinged at front of mouth so can be extended out to catch insects
  • Can pull eyes inward to help swallow food
  • Two, sharp, backward-pointing  vomerine teeth in roof of mouth help prevent prey from escaping
  • Maxillary teeth line the edge of the upper jaw
  • Alimentary canal (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines, and cloaca) is where food is digested, absorbed & wastes eliminated
  • Stomach makes gastric juices to break down food
  • Pyloric sphincter muscle controls movement of food from stomach into first part of small intestine called duodenum
  • Liver makes bile to digest fats; stored in gall bladder
  • Pancreas makes pancreatic juice to digest food in small intestine
  • Ileum is coiled mid portion of small intestine
  • Mesentery is a fanlike membrane holding the intestine in place
  • Wastes collect in large intestine & then move into cloaca along with eggs, sperm, & urine until they leave body through the anus

 

 

Circulatory System

  • Need more oxygen to burn increased amount of food needed to live on land
  • 3 chambered heart (right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from body, left atrium receives oxygenated blood from lungs, & ventricle pumps blood to lungs & rest of the body)
  • Double loop blood circulation (pulmonary from heart to lungs & systemic from heart to rest of body)
  • Conus arteriosus carries blood from ventricle to body cells

Respiratory System

  • Tadpoles use gills to breathe
  • Adult frogs breathe through lungs & moist skin (cutaneous respiration)
  • Glottis is the opening into throat & lungs

Excretory System

  • Carbon dioxide excreted through skin & lungs
  • Kidneys filter blood & store urine in urinary bladder until leaves cloaca

Nervous System

  • Olfactory lobes at base of brain detect smells
  • Cerebrum behind olfactory lobes controls muscles
  • Optic lobes detect sight
  • Cerebellum controls balance & coordination
  • Medulla oblongata controls heart rate & breathing
  • Cranial nerves connect brain & spinal cord, while spinal nerves branch off the spinal cord to muscles & sensory receptors
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