Taxonomy Quiz

Taxonomy
  1.  Which of the following pairs is MOST closely related?
    dog & tapeworm
    tapeworm & bacteria
    mushroom & tree
    ameba & bacteria
  2. Organisms in the Kingdom Animalia are:
    multicellular & heterotrophic
    multicellular & autotrophic
    unicellular & autotrophic
    unicellular & autotrophic
  3. Which of the following groups would contain the largest number of organisms?
    class
    order
    phylum
    family
  4. A scientific name contains information about its:
    family & species
    genus & species
    phylum & order
    class & family
  5. What do plants and animals have in common?
    both are heterotrophic
    both are autotrophic
    both are prokaryotic
    both are eukaryotic
  6. The current classification system was devised by:
    Aristotle
    Plato
    Linnaeus
    Darwin
  7. Instead of phylum, plants use which category?
    division
    subspecies
    class
    subkingdom
  8. If two organisms are in the same phylum, they must also be in the same:
    class
    species
    family
    kingdom
  9. Which kingdom contains “extreme halophiles”?
    eubacteria
    archaebacteria
    fungi
    protista
  10. A dichotomous key is used to:
    locate an organism
    identify an organism
    divide a kingdom
    interbreed species

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Correct answers:

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Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true.
 1.
Scientists use taxonomy to determine the evolutionary history of organisms. _________________________


 2.
Taxonomy provides consistent ways to name organisms. _________________________


 3.
Scientific names of organisms consist of two English terms. _________________________


 4.
Two different organisms cannot have the same scientific name. _________________________


 5.
Genus is the basic biological unit in the Linnaean system of classification. _________________________


 6.
A genus is a taxonomic category that contains several families. _________________________


 7.
Under the Linnaean system of classification, organisms are grouped on the basis of similarities in structure. _________________________


 8.
Linnaeus devised eight levels of classification categories for living things. _________________________


 9.
The least inclusive group to which an organism can be assigned is its kingdom. _________________________


 10.
Kingdoms are subgroups of phyla. _________________________


 11.
A species is a larger taxonomic group than a genus. _________________________


 12.
Bird wings and insect wings are examples of analogous structures. _________________________


 13.
Organisms that have similar traits but evolved independently are the result of convergent evolution. _________________________


 14.
Cladistics is used to determine the sequence in which different groups of organisms evolved. _________________________


 15.
In modern systematics, studies of the changes in the skeletons of vertebrates have helped researchers to estimate the time at which each species began to evolve. _________________________


 16.
Comparing the sequence of DNA bases in the genes of several organisms is used to determine the order in which the organisms evolved. _________________________


 17.
All organisms in the kingdom Animalia are multicellular heterotrophs whose cells lack cell walls. _________________________


 18.
Archaea are eukaryotes that are characterized by several unique biochemical characteristics. _________________________


 19.
Traditionally, bacteria have been classified on the basis of their shape, cell wall composition, and metabolism. _________________________


 20.
Most organisms in the kingdoms Plantae and Animalia are multicellular. _________________________


 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 21.
Taxonomy is
a.
the study of life.
b.
the science of naming and classifying organisms.
c.
the evolutionary history of a species.
d.
the sequence in which different groups evolved.
 22.
An advantage of our scientific naming system is that
a.
common names mean the same in all countries.
b.
Latin names are easy to pronounce.
c.
biologists can communicate regardless of their native languages.
d.
organisms all have the same scientific name.
 23.
All scientific names of organisms must be
a.
unique and have two Latin words.
b.
general and use the species name.
c.
different and repeat the phylum name.
d.
similar and include the common name.
 24.
Linnaeus’s two-word system for naming organisms is called
a.
taxonomic evolution.
c.
Greek polynomials.
b.
Genus species.
d.
binomial nomenclature.
 25.
In the Linnaean system of classification, the level that identifies one unique organism is the
a.
kingdom.
c.
genus.
b.
family.
d.
species.
 26.
Under the Linnaean system of classification, plants and animals are sorted into groups based on
a.
number and size.
c.
form and size.
b.
form and structure.
d.
number and structure.
 27.
The largest division that a group of organisms can belong to is a
a.
domain.
c.
genus.
b.
class.
d.
kingdom.
 28.
Placement in each level of classification is based on
a.
specific characteristics.
c.
shared characteristics.
b.
general characteristics.
d.
different characteristics.
 29.
Similar genera are grouped into a(n)
a.
phylum.
c.
family.
b.
class.
d.
order.
 30.
Analogous structures
a.
have a common size in organisms.
b.
perform the same function in organisms.
c.
have the same structure in organisms.
d.
evolve from a common ancestor.
 31.
Traditional systematics emphasizes the importance of
a.
derived characteristics.
c.
similar characteristics.
b.
unique characteristics.
d.
compared characteristics.
 32.
Similar features that evolve through convergent evolution are called
a.
analogous characters.
c.
environmental characters.
b.
homologous characters.
d.
genetic characters.
 33.
Convergent evolution produces analogous characters in different species as the result of
a.
similar environments.
c.
sharing a common ancestor.
b.
different environments.
d.
shared derived characters.
 34.
A phylogenetic tree differs from a cladogram in that a phylogenetic tree
a.
hypothesizes the time at which each group of organisms evolved.
b.
also indicates the new characteristics that evolved with each group of organisms
c.
only illustrates hypothesized relationships among groups of organisms.
d.
predicts the next group of organisms that is expected to evolve.
 35.
Studies of fossils of dinosaurs and birds show that
a.
feathers may not be an important difference between dinosaurs and birds.
b.
dinosaurs can be considered to be modern descendents of birds.
c.
the anatomies of the dinosaurs and birds are unrelated.
d.
dinosaurs and birds share many analogous characters.
 36.
A model used by biologists to represent evolutionary history among species is called a
a.
phylogram.
c.
histogram.
b.
cladogram.
d.
parallelogram.
 37.
Derived characters are traits
a.
that are shared by all species.
b.
that originated in a common ancestor.
c.
found in closely related species.
d.
found in distantly related species.
 38.
During Linnaeus’ time, scientists divided all living organisms into
a.
five phyla.
c.
three domains.
b.
four families.
d.
two kingdoms.
 39.
Which of the following terms is no longer used to describe a group of organisms in the modern classification system?
a.
Archaea
c.
Monera
b.
Eubacteria
d.
Protista
 40.
Sponges are animals that were once classified as
a.
bacteria.
c.
plants.
b.
fungi.
d.
protists.
 41.
Which of the following characteristics was used to reclassify sponges?
a.
body type
c.
cell walls
b.
cell type
d.
nutrition
 42.
The kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were once grouped in a kingdom called
a.
Protista.
c.
Monera.
b.
Animalia.
d.
Plantae.
 43.
Four of the kingdoms include eukaryotes and the other two include
a.
plants.
c.
animals.
b.
fungi.
d.
prokaryotes.
 44.
Which of the following is not a characteristic used to differentiate kingdoms?
a.
cell type
c.
nutrition
b.
root system
d.
body type
 45.
Protista is an example of a
a.
kingdom.
c.
genus.
b.
class.
d.
species.
 46.
Which two kingdoms contain both unicellular and multicellular organisms?
a.
Archaea and Animalia
c.
Animalia and Fungi
b.
Protists and Bacteria
d.
Protista and Fungi
 47.
Bacteria : prokaryotes ::
a.
Fungi : prokaryotes
c.
Protista : eukaryotes
b.
Animalia : prokaryotes
d.
Archaea : eukaryotes
 48.
One difference between plants and animals is that plants are
a.
prokaryotic and animals are eukaryotic.
b.
eukaryotic and animals are prokaryotic.
c.
autotrophs and animals are heterotrophs.
d.
heterotrophs and animals are autotrophs.
 49.
The science of classifying living things is called
a.
identification.
c.
taxonomy.
b.
classification.
d.
speciation.
 50.
Taxonomy is defined as the science of
a.
classifying plants according to their uses in agricultural experiments.
b.
studying ribosomal RNA sequencing techniques.
c.
grouping organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history.
d.
studying reproductive mechanisms and gene flow.
 51.
As we move through the biological hierarchy from the kingdom to species level, organisms
a.
vary more and more.
b.
are less and less related to each other.
c.
become more similar in appearance.
d.
always are members of the same order.
 52.
A mushroom is difficult to classify in Linnaeus’s two-kingdom classification system because
a.
it has another common name, the toadstool.
b.
it doesn’t seem to fit into either kingdom.
c.
mushrooms had not yet evolved in Linnaeus’s time.
d.
All of the above
 53.
Which of the following was not a consideration for Carolus Linnaeus when he developed his system of nomenclature of organisms?
a.
It should include detailed descriptions of an organism in its name.
b.
It should assign each organism a unique name.
c.
It should assign names using a language that can be recognized worldwide.
d.
It should enable scientists to classify organisms according to their presumed evolutionary relationships to other organisms.
 54.
Which of the following scientists developed the system of classifying organisms by assigning them a genus and species name?
a.
Leakey
c.
Darwin
b.
Aristotle
d.
Linnaeus
 55.

mc055-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. A shark’s skeleton is made of cartilage while a dolphin’s skeleton is made of bone. This is one reason the two organisms are placed in different

a.
kingdoms.
c.
subspecies.
b.
domains.
d.
classes.
 56.
The organism Quercus phellos is a member of the genus
a.
Plantae.
c.
Quercus.
b.
phellos.
d.
Protista.
 57.
Poison ivy is also known as Rhus toxicodendron. Its species identifier is
a.
poison.
c.
ivy.
b.
Rhus.
d.
toxicodendron.
 58.
The red maple is also known as Acer rubrum. Its scientific name is
a.
red maple.
c.
rubrum.
b.
Acer.
d.
Acer rubrum.
 59.
The scientific name of an organism
a.
varies according to the native language of scientists.
b.
is the same for scientists all over the world.
c.
may refer to more than one species.
d.
may have more than one genus name.
 60.
Scientists don’t use the common names of organisms because
a.
an organism may have more than one common name.
b.
common names are too ambiguous.
c.
an organism rarely has the same name in different languages.
d.
All of the above
 61.
An organism can have
a.
one genus name and one species identifier.
b.
one genus name and two species identifiers.
c.
two scientific names if it is found on different continents.
d.
two genus names but only one species identifier.
 62.
In which language are scientific names written?
a.
English
c.
Arabic
b.
Greek
d.
Latin
 63.
Two organisms in the same class but different orders
a.
are in different kingdoms.
b.
have the same genus name.
c.
are in the same phylum.
d.
are members of the same species.
 64.
Organisms in different genera
a.
may share the second word of their scientific names.
b.
may be in the same family.
c.
may be in different orders.
d.
All of the above
 65.
Two organisms in the same order but different families may
a.
be more similar than two organisms in different classes.
b.
be in the same class.
c.
have the same species identifier.
d.
All of the above
 66.
Kingdoms are divided into phyla, and each phylum is divided into
a.
families.
c.
orders.
b.
classes.
d.
genera.
 67.
The correct order of the biological hierarchy from kingdom to species is
a.
kingdom, class, family, order, phylum, genus, species.
b.
kingdom, phylum, order, family, class, genus, species.
c.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
d.
kingdom, class, order, phylum, family, genus, species.
 68.
The lowest hierarchy level in biological classification is the
a.
genus.
c.
family.
b.
species.
d.
order.
 69.
Which of the following is the least inclusive classification group?
a.
class
c.
phylum
b.
genus
d.
species
 70.
Quercus rubra : Quercus phellos ::
a.
Anolis carolinensis : Parus carolinensis
b.
Erithacus rubicula : Turdus migratoria
c.
Aphis pomi : Aphis gossypii
d.
carp : goldfish
 71.
class : family ::
a.
order : phylum
c.
species : genus
b.
genus : class
d.
phylum : order
 72.
Today, biologists classify organisms by their
a.
physical similarities.
c.
behavioral similarities.
b.
chemical similarities.
d.
All of the above
 73.
Phylogenetic trees depict
a.
known evolutionary relationships between organisms.
b.
presumed evolutionary relationships based on physical features only.
c.
only living organisms.
d.
presumed evolutionary relationships based on a variety of types of evidence.
 74.
The DNA sequences of two species of sharks would
a.
be more similar than the DNA sequences of a shark and a dolphin.
b.
show no discernible differences.
c.
be very close to the DNA sequences of a dolphin.
d.
indicate how the sharks evolved.
 75.
Which of the following is (are) used in systematic taxonomy to classify organisms?
a.
patterns of embryological development
b.
homologous features
c.
amino acid sequences of proteins
d.
All of the above
 76.
analogous features : convergent evolution ::
a.
two members of the same genus : same species
b.
cladogram : evolutionary relationships
c.
common names : universal identification
d.
cladograms : exact, direct information
nar001-1.jpg
 77.
Refer to the illustration above. A branching diagram like the one shown is called a
a.
phenetic tree.
c.
family tree.
b.
cladogram.
d.
homology.
 78.
Refer to the illustration above. Each particular feature, such as dry skin, that is used to assign an organism to a group is called a(n)
a.
special character.
b.
analogous character.
c.
derived character.
d.
homologous character.
 79.
Nearly all single-celled eukaryotes that are either heterotrophic or photosynthetic belong to the kingdom
a.
Animalia.
c.
Plantae.
b.
Fungi.
d.
Protista.
 80.
Most multicellular, nucleated autotrophs that carry on photosynthesis belong to the kingdom
a.
Animalia.
c.
Fungi.
b.
Eubacteria.
d.
Plantae.
 81.
Multicellular, nucleated heterotrophs that always obtain food by absorbing nutrients from the environment belong to the kingdom
a.
Animalia.
c.
Fungi.
b.
Eubacteria.
d.
Plantae.
 82.
An organism that breaks down organic matter, which it then absorbs, is in the kingdom
a.
Fungi.
c.
Animalia.
b.
Plantae.
d.
Protista.
 83.
Simple, non-nucleated organisms that use hydrogen to produce methane are in the domain
a.
Archaea.
c.
Eukarya.
b.
Bacteria.
d.
None of the above
 84.
The kingdom defined as including any eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi is the kingdom
a.
Protista.
c.
Animalia.
b.
Plantae.
d.
Fungi.
 85.
Carl Woese proposed the three-domain system of classification based on the examination of
a.
embryos.
c.
ribosomal RNA.
b.
fossils.
d.
organisms’ physical features.
 86.
The three domain system of classification is based on similarities and differences in ____, while the six-kingdom system is based on similarities and differences in ____.
a.
DNA; DNA, fossils, embryological development, and physical features
b.
DNA; embryological development, fossils, physical features, and RNA
c.
ribosomal RNA; embryological development, fossils, physical features, and various molecular structures
d.
physical features; embryological development, fossils, physical features, and various molecular structures
 87.
Which of the following groups are placed together by cladistics but are placed in separate groups by classical taxonomy?
a.
birds and crocodiles
c.
turtles and birds
b.
birds and mammals
d.
snakes and mammals
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 88.
The current system used for naming organisms was developed by ____________________.

 89.
The two-word system for naming organisms is called _________________________.

 90.
The scientific name of an organism gives biologists a common way of ____________________ regardless of their native languages.

 91.
All names assigned to organisms under the Linnaean system are in the ____________________ language.

 92.
The unique two-word name for a species is its ____________________ name.

 93.
All living things are grouped into one of three ____________________.

 94.
There are ____________________ levels of classification in the modern classification system.

 95.
A kingdom contains many ____________________.

 96.
Classes with similar characteristics are assigned to a(n) ____________________.

 97.
Each level of classification is based on ____________________ shared by all the organisms it contains.

 98.
Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens all belong to the same ____________________.

 99.
Traditionally, scientists have used differences in appearance and ____________________ to classify organisms.

 100.
Unlike cladistics, traditional systematics places more ____________________ on some traits than on others.

 101.
Analogous structures are found in ____________________ taxa as a result of similar environmental conditions.

 102.
The type of evolution that results in similar characteristics found in different organisms as the result of selection within similar environments is called ____________________ evolution.

 103.
The evolutionary history of a species is called its ____________________.

 104.
Shared derived characters are found in organisms that once shared a(n) ____________________ ancestor.

 105.
A method of analysis that reconstructs phylogenies by inferring relationships based on shared characteristics is called ____________________.

 106.
A model developed by systematists that uses shared derived characters to show the evolutionary history of different organisms is called a(n) ____________________.

 107.
Cladistics is used to determine the ____________________ in which different groups of organisms evolved.

 108.
Animals that appear early on a cladogram do not share as many of the same ____________________ traits as the animals that appear later on the cladogram.

 109.
Modern systematic biologists use the ____________________ rate of DNA mutations like a “molecular clock.”

 110.
Two kingdoms include prokaryotes, while four kingdoms include ____________________.

 111.
Bacteria have strong exterior cell walls made of ____________________.

 112.
An organism made of many cells that are permanently associated and that coordinate their activities is called a(n) ____________________ organism.

 113.
Eukaryotes that are not fungi, plants, or animals are called ____________________.

 114.
Aristotle classified plants on the basis of differences in their ____________________.

 115.
The science of naming and classifying organisms is called ____________________.

 116.
____________________ devised the two-name system of naming organisms.

 117.
Biologists of Linnaeus’s time classified every living thing as either plant or ____________________.

 118.
A genus is subdivided into smaller groups called ____________________.

 119.
Each kind of organism on Earth is assigned a unique two-word ____________________.

 120.
All scientific names are made up of two words that are often derived from the ____________________ language.

 121.
The first word of a scientific name indicates the ____________________ to which the organism belongs.

 122.
A kingdom is divided into phyla when animals are being classified or into ____________________ when plants are being classified.

 123.
The evolutionary history of a species is called its ____________________.

 124.

co124-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. Organism 4 belongs to the kingdom ____________________.

 125.
Eukaryotic organisms that lack specialized tissue systems are members of the kingdom ____________________.

 126.
Corals, spiders, and rodents all belong to the kingdom ____________________.

 127.
The domains of the three-domain system of classification are Archaea, Bacteria, and ____________________.

 128.
The variety of organisms at all taxonomic levels is called ____________________.

 129.
Cladistics uses shared and ____________________ characters to group taxa.

 130.
The Greek philosopher ____________________ classified organisms as either plants or animals.

 

Problem
 131.

The following table presents data on some characteristics found in vertebrates. A “+” indicates that an organism has a particular characteristic and a “–” indicates that an organism does not have a particular characteristic.

Characteristics
Organism
Jaws
Limbs
Hair
Lungs
Tail
Lamprey
+
Turtle
+
+
+
+
Cat
+
+
+
+
+
Gorilla
+
+
+
+
+
Lungfish
+
+
+
Trout
+
+
Human
+
+
+
+

Using these data, construct a cladogram illustrating the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Each branch point should indicate a common ancestor. Write the name of the shared character that is common to all organisms above each branching point. A shared character can be the absence of a structure common to organisms below that point on the tree. Write your answer in the space below.

 

Essay
 132.
Why might the use of common names to describe organisms sometimes cause confusion? Give several examples to support your answer. Write your answer in the space below.

 133.
While on a biological expedition to a tropical rain forest, you discover a previously unidentified animal. Explain the guidelines you would follow to choose a genus and species name for the animal. Write your answer in the space below.

 134.
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the dog (Canis familiaris) are all members of the family Canidae. The mountain lion (Felis concolor) is a member of the family Felidae. Describe the relationships among these animals. Write your answer in the space below.

 135.
A species is defined as a group of organisms that are similar and can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature. Horses and donkeys can interbreed and produce mules, which cannot produce offspring. Is it possible that horses and donkeys belong to the same species? Explain. Write your answer in the space below.

 136.
What are the main criteria currently used to classify organisms? Write your answer in the space below.

 

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Taxonomy

Taxonomy
All Materials © Cmassengale


Carolus Linnaeus

Taxonomy – study of classifying organisms

  • Taxonomists are scientists who study classifying
  • Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which related organisms are placed

Reasons to Classify:

  • Shows evolutionary relationships
  • Accurately & uniformly names organisms
  • Prevents misnomers such as starfish & jellyfish that aren’t really fish
  • Uses same language (Latin) for all names
  • Prevents duplicated names because all names must be approved by International Naming Congresses (International Zoological Congress)
  • Naming rules are followed called the International Code for Binomial Nomenclature

Early Taxonomy:

  • Aristotle was the first taxonomist dividing organisms into land, sea, & air dwellers
  • John Ray was the first to use Latin for naming
  • Linnaeus developed the modern system of naming known as binomial nomenclature, a two-word name (Genus & species)
  • Scientific names should be italicized in print or underlined when writing
  • Always capitalize the genus name, but write the species in lower case
  • The scientific name for man is Homo sapiens
  • The genus name may be abbreviated, but not the species (H. sapiens)

Taxonomic categories:

  • Linnaeus placed organisms into related groups called taxa (taxon-singular) based on their morphology (similar structure & function)
  • The broadest taxon is called the kingdom
  • Linnaeus put all organisms into one of two kingdoms — Plantae or Animalia
  • The other six taxa from broadest to most specific are — Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, & species
  • A sentence to help remember these taxa is — “King Phillip Came Over For Gooseberry Soup.”
  • Each taxa is a proper noun &should be capitalized except species
  • Each level or taxon groups together organisms that share more characteristics than the level above

  • Botanists use the term division instead of phylum for classifying plants
  • Plant species are subdivided into varieties, while bacteria are subdivided into strains

Basis for Modern taxonomy:

  • Modern taxonomists classify organisms based on their evolutionary relationships
  • Homologous structures have the same structure, but different functions & show common ancestry
  • The bones in a bat’s wing, human’s arm, penguin’s flipper are the same (homologous), but the function is different

  • Analogous structures have the same function, but different structures & do not show a close relationship (insect wing & bird’s wing)
  • Similarity in embryo development shows a close relationship (vertebrate embryos all have tail & gill slits)

  • Similarity in DNA & amino acid sequences of proteins show related organisms

Modern Taxonomic System:

  • Modern taxonomy uses six kingdoms — Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, & Animalia
  • Archaebacteria & Eubacteria are unicellular prokaryotes lacking a nucleus, while Protista, Fungi, Plantae, & Animalia are all eukaryotes with a nucleus & membrane-bound organelles
  • All members of Plantae & Animalia are multicellular organisms
  • Fungi & Animalia are heterotrophs, while Plantae are all autotrophs capable of making their own food
  • Archaebacteria live in harsh environments like very salty lakes; intestines of mammals; and hot, sulfur springs & may be autotrophs or heterotrophs
  • Eubacteria are true bacteria some of which cause disease
  • Protista are mainly unicellular with a few multicellular organisms and may be autotrophic (Euglena) or heterotrophic (Ameba)
  • Fungi include multicellular mushrooms, mold, unicellular yeast, etc. & are absorptive heterotrophs (digest food & then absorb it)
  • Animalia are ingestive heterotrophs that take in food & then digest it inside their multicellular bodies.
  • Plantae includes all plants & are the only all multicellular, autotrophic kingdom

Phylogeny (evolutionary history):

  • Phylogenetic trees are branching diagrams showing how organisms are related
  • Also called family trees
  • Fossil records help establish relationships on a phylogenetic tree
  • Organizes living things based on their evolution (systematics)
  • Common ancestor is shown at the base of the tree
  • Most modern organisms shown at tips of branches
  • Each time a branch divides into a smaller branch, a new species evolves

  • Cladograms shows how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, scales, etc.

Three Domain System:

  • Based on comparing sequences of ribosomal RNA in different organisms to determine ancestry
  • All organisms placed into three broad groups called domains
  • Domain Archaea (kingdom Archaebacteria) contains chemosynthetic bacteria living in harsh environments
  • Domain Bacteria (kingdom Eubacteria) contains all other bacteria including those causing disease
  • Domain Eukarya (kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, & Animalia) contains all eukaryotic organisms

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Taxonomy PPT Questions

Taxonomy
ppt Questions

Classification

1. How many known species are there?

2. What percent of all organisms that have ever lived is this?

3. Are all organisms on Earth today identified?

4. Define classification.

 

5. What is another term for classification?

6. What do you call scientists that study classification?

7. Classifying organisms makes naming organisms more _____________ and _____________.

8. Classifying prevents ____________ or inaccurate naming.

9. Give two examples of misnomers and explain why they aren’t correct.

 

10. What language is used for scientific naming?

11. Sometimes, scientific names may be ___________ instead of Latin.

12. Why don’t scientists around the world just use more simple, common names for organisms?

 

13.What language is universally used by scientists for naming?

14. Who was the first taxonomist and what two groups did he place organism in?

 

15. How did Aristotle subdivide his two groups?

 

16. Who was first to use Latin for scientific naming?

17. What was the problem with Ray’s names?

18. What 18th century taxonomist developed the naming system still used today?

19. How did Linnaeus group his organisms?

20. Who is the “father of taxonomy”?

Binomial Nomenclature

21. What is Linnaeus’s naming system called?

22. Explain binomial nomenclature.

 

23. Besides Latin, what other language is sometimes used for scientific names?

24. How do scientific names appear in print?

25. What must be done to a scientific name when you are writing it?

26. Give an example of a common and scientific name for an animal.

 

27. Where can you find the rules for naming organisms?

28. All scientific names must be approved by ________________ ___________ ______________.

29. Why do naming congresses have to approve names?

 

Taxonomic Groups

30. What is a taxon?

 

31. What is plural for taxon?

32.There is a ______________ of groups that goes from the broadest grouping to the most _____________ grouping.

33. Name the 8 taxon in order from broadest to most specific.

 

 

34. What is the NEWEST and BROADEST taxon?

35. Instead of the taxon phylum, what other taxon is used for plants at this level?

36. What is the most specific taxon?

37. Write the sentence used to help remember the 8 most important taxonomic levels.

 

38. Complete the following taxonomic table:

 

Classification for Humans
Taxonomic Level Taxon
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

 

Domains of Organisms

39. How many domains are there?

40. Name the 3 Domains.

 

41. What are the main characteristics of Archaea and Eubacteria?

 

42. What are the main characteristics of the Domain Eukarya?

 

43. What Domain of organisms probably evolved first?

44. Where do Archaea live? Give some examples.

 

45.Name an Archaean.

46. Where are eubacteria found?

 

47. Some bacteria cause ______________ but many act as decomposers & are important to the ______________.

48. Some members of eubacteria live in the __________ of animals.

Kingdoms

49. The Domain Eukarya is divided into how many kingdoms?

50. List the 4 kingdoms of Eukarya and tell what organisms are in each group.

 

 

51. Which 2 kingdoms contain all multicellular members?

52. List the main characteristics of the Kingdom Protista.

 

53. Microscopic organisms found in pond water are most likely in the kingdom _______________.

54. All members of the Kingdom Fungi are _____________ except for unicellular ____________.

55. What type of heterotrophic organism are fungi?

56. Explain what it means to be an absorptive heterotrophic.

 

57. The cell walls of fungi are made of ______________.

58. Members of the kingdom Plantae are all ________________ and _____________.

59. What do plants use as their energy to make food?

60. Name the food making process of plants.

61. Plant cell walls are made of _______________.

62. Members of the Kingdom Animalia contain all of the multicellular _____________ on Earth.

63. Animals are ______________ heterotrophs that feed on __________ or other __________.

64. Define ingestive heterotroph.

 

65. Complete the following table for characteristics of each kingdom:

Kingdom Organization Type of Nutrition Examples
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia

66. A Genera may contain a number of different ___________.

67. What Genera is an exception to this?

68. Which Kingdom has the largest number of different kinds of organisms?

69. What two groups are in the plant kingdom?

 

Basis for Modern Taxonomy

70. List three examples of things used as a basis for modern taxonomy.

     a.

     b.

     c.

71. What are homologous structures?

 

72. What is an embryo?

73. At the molecular level, similarities in ___________, __________, or the __________ __________ sequence of proteins can be a basis for grouping organisms together.

74. Give an example of homologous structures show similarities among organisms in the same taxon.

 

 

 

75. Name 5 organisms that have similar embryonic development. To what taxon do these organisms belong?

 

76. What is a cladogram?

 

77. Using the following cladogram, name the organisms that share 4 of the 5 characteristics.

78. What characteristic(s) do the grouper and lamprey share?

 

79. What characteristic is found in all the animals EXCEPT the lancelet?

80. What is a dichotomous key?

 

81. When using a dichotomous key, you should make sure you ___________ both characteristics and either ____________ the organism OR go to ____________ set of characteristics.

 

82. Use the following dichotomous key to identify the picture of each organism.

 

1a Tentacles present – Go to 2
1b Tentacles absent – Go to 6
2a Eight Tentacles – Octopus
2b More than 8 tentacles – 3
3a Tentacles hang down – go to 4
3b Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone
4a Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish
4b Body NOT balloon-shaped – 5

 

 

 

Salamander Key

 

 

Dichotomous Key to Salamanders

 

Introduction:

A dichotomous key is constructed of a series of couplets, each consisting of two separate statements. For example: couplet 1. Seeds round soybeans
1. Seeds oblong 2 (this statement indicates that you go to couplet “2”)

couplet 2. Seeds white northern beans
2. Seeds black black beans

By reading the two statements of each couplet, you progress through the key from typically broad characteristics to narrower characteristics until only a single choice remains. As long as the correct statement of each couplet is chosen, and the unknown organism is included in the key, a confident identification is usually achieved. Many types of organisms can be identified using a dichotomous key. In this lab, you will identify salamanders.

Materials:

pictures of various salamanders, dichotomous key, metric ruler, pencil

Procedure:

  1. Use the dichotomous key provided to identify the salamanders in Figure 1.
  2. Write the pathway you took to get to the name of the salamander next to the drawing.
  3. Write the correct name for the salamander on the line below each picture.

Figure 1 – Types of salamanders

Key to the Salamanders:

 

1 Hind limbs absent Siren
Hind limbs present Go to 2
2 External gills present in adults Mud puppy
External gills absent in adults Go to 3
3 Large size (over 7 cm long) Go to 4
Small size (under 7 cm long) Go to 5
4 Body background black, large white spots irregular in shape and size completely covering body & tail Tiger salamander
Body background black, small, round, white spots in a row along each side fro eye to tip of tail Spotted Salamander
5 Body background black with white spots Go to 6
Body background light color with dark spots and or lines on body Go to 7
6 Small white spots on a black background in a row along each side from head to tip of tail Jefferson salamander
Small white spots on a scattered throughout a black background from head to tip of tail Slimy salamander
7 Large irregular black spots on a light background extending from head to tip of tail Marbled salamander
b No large irregular black spots on a light background Go to 8
8 a Round spots scattered along back and sides of body, tail flattened like a tadpole Newt
b Without round spots and tail not flattened like a tadpole Go to 9
9 a Two dark lines bordering a broad, light mid-dorsal stripe with a narrow median dark line extending from the head onto the tail Two-lined salamander
b Without two dark lines running the length of the body Go to 10
10 a A light stripe running the length of the body and bordered by dark pigment extending downward on the sides Red-backed salamander
b A light stripe extending the length of the body, a marked constriction at the base of the tail Four-toed salamander

 

Pzsol Taxonomy

 

Taxonomy

Answer Key:

 

1) taxonomy
2) linnaeus
3) aristotle
4) hierarchy
5) plants
6) animals
7) kingdom
8) phylum
9) division
10) class
11) order
12) family
13) genus
14) species
15) binomial
16) nomenclature
17) subspecies
18) variety
19) phylogeny
20) systematics
21) phylogenetic
22) tree
23) fossils
24) morphology
25) cladistics
26) derived
27) cladogram
28) arachaebacteria
29) eubacteria
30) protista
31) animalia
32) plantae
33) fungi
34) domain
35) eukarya
36) archae

 

 

Taxonomy Vocabulary Puzzle

 

Taxonomy
 

 

Unscramble and define the following words:

 

 

1) toaxynom __________________________
2) iunalesn __________________________
3) rteolasit __________________________
4) ahrecrhyi __________________________
5) lptnas __________________________
6) smilaan __________________________
7) gidonkm __________________________
8) yuhpml __________________________
9) snioiidv __________________________
10) scals __________________________
11) oredr __________________________
12) almyfi __________________________
13) suegn __________________________
14) cssiepe __________________________
15) oibliamn __________________________
16) umnenactlreo __________________________
17) cubsspiese __________________________
18) arieytv __________________________
19) pgehylyno __________________________
20) messciytsta __________________________
21) honyticepegl __________________________
22) etre __________________________
23) oslsifs __________________________
24) moopogyhrl __________________________
25) csdilsatci __________________________
26) idedrev __________________________
27) drcmalgoa __________________________
28) rechbaacataraei __________________________
29) beuiaetrca __________________________
30) optsitar __________________________
31) ianalmai __________________________
32) tpnlaae __________________________
33) guifn __________________________
34) imoand __________________________
35) auyraek __________________________
36) hareca __________________________
 

 

 

Solution

 

 

Dichotomous Keying

 

Dichotomous Keying

Introduction to Dichotomous Key Maker:

The identification of biological organisms can be greatly simplified using tools such as dichotomous keys.  A dichotomous key maker is an organized set of couplets of mutually exclusive characteristics of biological organisms.  You simply compare the characteristics of an unknown organism against an appropriate dichotomous key.  These keys will begin with general characteristics and lead to couplets indicating progressively specific characteristics. If the organism falls into one category, you go to the next indicated couplet.  By following the key and making the correct choices, you should be able to identify your specimen to the indicated taxonomic level.

Couplets can be organized in several forms.  The couplets can be presented using numbers (numeric) or using letters (alphabetical).  The couplets can be presented together or grouped by relationships.  There is no apparent uniformity in presentation for dichotomous keys.

Sample keys to some common beans used in the kitchen:

Numeric key with couplets presented together.  The major advantage of this method of presentation is that both characteristics in a couple can be evaluated and compared very easily.

 

 

 

 

1a. Bean round Garbanzo bean
1b. Bean elliptical or oblong Go to 2
2a. Bean white White northern
2b. Bean has dark pigments Go to 3
3a. Bean evenly pigmented Go to 4
3b. Bean pigmentation mottled Pinto bean
4a. Bean black Black bean
4b. Bean reddish-brown Kidney bean

 

Alphabetical key with couplets grouped by relationship.  This key uses the same couplet choices as the key above.  The choices within the first and succeeding couplets are separated to preserve the relationships between the characteristics.

 

 

A. Bean elliptical or oblong Go to B
   B.  Bean has dark pigments Go to C
            C.  Bean color is solid Go to D
            C.  Bean color is mottled Pinto bean
                     D.  Bean is black Black bean
                     D.  Bean is reddish-brown Kidney bean
   B.  Bean is white White northern
A. Bean is round Garbanzo bean

 

Rules for Using Dichotomous Keys: 

When you follow a dichotomous key, your task becomes simpler if you adhere to a few simple rules of thumb:

  1. Read both choices in a couplet carefully.  Although the first description may seem to fit your sample, the second may apply even better.
  2. Keep notes telling what sequence of identification steps you took.  This will allow you to double-check your work later and indicate sources of mistakes, if they have been made.
  3. If you are unsure of which choice to make in a couplet, follow both forks (one at a time).  After working through a couple of more couplets, it may become apparent that one fork does not fit your sample at all.
  4. Work with more than one sample if at all possible.  This will allow you to tell whether the one you are looking at is typical or atypical.  This is especially true when working with plants – examine more than one leaf, branch, cone, seed, flower,…etc.
  5. When you have keyed out an organism, do not take your effort as the final result.  Double check your identification scheme, using your notes.  Find a type specimen (if available) and compare your unknown to the type specimen.  If a type specimen is unavailable, find a good description of the indicated taxonomic group and see if your unknown reflects this description.
  6. When reading a couplet, make sure you understand all of the terms used.  The best keys will have a glossary of technical terms used in the key.  If a glossary is unavailable, find a good reference work for the field (textbook, biological dictionary,…etc.) to help you understand the term.
  7. When a measurement is indicated, make sure that you take the measurement using a calibrated scale.  Do not “eyeball” it or take a guess.

Exercise 1:

Using a container of beans, use one of the dichotomous keys above to identify the beans.  Glue the beans to the card provided and label them with their common name. Indicate what steps you followed to arrive at your answer.  Turn the card in to your instructor.  Compare your answers to the instructor’s descriptions and type specimen.

Exercise 2:

Obtain samples of the snack chips provided.  Develop a dichotomous key to identify the snacks.  In your notebook, keep track of the characteristics you used to differentiate between the different snack families.  What are the values of the characteristic for each snack food?

Exercise 3:

Use the dichotomous key to conifers provided below to identify conifers.

A Key to Selected North American Native and Introduced Conifers

 

 

01a Leaves needle-like Go to 02
01b Leaves flattened and scale-like Go to 27
02a Leaves are in clusters Go to 03
02b Leaves are borne singly Go to 15
03a Two to five leaves in a cluster Go to 04  Genus Pinus
03b More than five leaves in a cluster Go to 14
04a Leaves mostly 5 in a cluster White Pine (Pinus strobus)
04b Leaves 2 or 3 in a cluster Go to 05
05a Leaves mostly 3 in a cluster Go to 06
05b Leaves mostly 2 in a cluster Go to 08
06a Leaves twisted, less than 5 inches long Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida)
06b Leaves straight, more than 5 inches long Go to 07
07a Leaves 5-10 inches long, cones very thorny Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)
07b Leaves mostly over 10 inches long, cones unthorned Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)
08a Leaves mostly longer than 3 inches Go to 09
08b Leaves mostly shorter than 3 inches Go to 11
09a Leaves rigid, bark grayish Black pine (Pinus nigra)
09b Leaves narrower than 1.6mm; bark reddish brown or brown Go to 10
10a Cones thornless, twigs brown Norway pine (Pinus resinosa)
10b Cones thorny, twigs whitish Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata)
11a Leaves mostly wider than 1.5 mm Go to 12
11b Leaves mostly narrower than 1.5 mm Go to 13
12a Leaves mostly longer than 35 mm Mugho pine (Pinus mugo)
12b Leaves mostly shorter than 35 mm Jack pine (Pinus banksiana)
13a

Twigs whitened

Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana)
13b Twigs not whitened Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)
14a Leaves deciduous, clusters of 20-40 Larch (Larix sp.)
14b Leaves persistent, stiff, and four sided True cedar (Cedrus sp.)
15a Needles short and sharp Giant Sequioa  (Sequioadendron giganteum)
15b Needles longer than 12 mm Go to 16
16a Tiny pegs on twigs Go to 17
16b No pegs on twigs Go to 22
17a Pegs square, needles sharp Go to 18 Genus Picea
17b Pegs round, needles flat and blunt Hemlock (Tsuga sp.)
18a Leaves dark green or yellow green Go to 19
18b Leaves blue-green Go to 20
19a Branchlets droop Norway spruce (Picea abies)
19b Branchlets do not droop Red spruce (Picea rubens)
20a Leaves at right angles to stems Blue spruce (Picea pungens)
20b

Leaves point forward

Go to 21
21a Leaves about 12 mm long, seed cones 15-32 mm in length, crown narrow and pointed Black spruce (Picea mariana)
21b Leaves about 19 mm long, seed cones 50 mm in length, spire-like crown

White spruce (Picea glauca)

22a Buds large and pointed Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga sp.)
22b Buds small and rounded Go to 23
23a Terminal buds round and clustered True fir (Abies sp.)
23b Terminal buds not clustered Go to 24
24a Needles white underneath Go to 25
24b Needles green underneath Go to 26  Genus Taxus
25a Needles pointed

Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens)

25b Needles blunt Hemlock (Tsuga sp.)
26a Leaves 18 mm long or less with inconspicuous midrib American Yew (Taxus canadensis)
26b Leaves 25 mm long or more with conspicuous midrib Japanese Yew (Taxus cuspidata)
27a All leaves short and sharp Giant Sequioa  (Sequioadendron giganteum)
27b Some leaves not sharp Go to 28
28a Cones round Go to 29
28b Cones not round Go to 31
29a Cones soft and leathery Juniper (Juniperus sp.)
29b Cones woody Go to 30
30a Cones under 12 mm in diameter False cypress  (Chamaecyparis)
30b Cones over 12 mm in diameter Cypress (Cuppressus)
31a Cones resemble rosebuds White cedar or arbor vitae (Thuja)
31b Cones resemble duck bills Incense cedar (Calocedrus)

 

Conifers to Identify:

1. Name: 2. Name:

3. Name: 4. Name:

5. Name: 6. Name:


7. Name: 8. Name:


9. Name: 10. Name:


11. Name: 12. Name:


13. Name: 14. Name:


15. Name: 16. Name:

Photos Copyright Nearctica.com

Click here for correct answers to conifer key

 

Classification Bi Worksheet

 

Classification

 

Section 18-1            History of Taxonomy 

1. Define taxonomy. 

2. Who was first to classify organisms? 

3. Explain Aristotle’s taxonomy of organisms. 

4. Why are common names not good to use when classifying organisms? Give an example. 

5. Describe Carolus Linnaeus’s system of classification. 

6. Linnaeus used ____________________ or form & structure to classify organisms. 

7. List Linnaeus’s levels of organization in order starting with the broadest classification level. 

8. Name Linnaeus’s two kingdoms. 

9. What is the difference between phylum & division? How are they alike?

10. What classification level contains only a single type of organism? 

11. Give the taxonomy for a lion. 

12. In Linnaeus’s naming system, ___________________ words are used as the name. 

13. Explain Linnaeus’s 2-word naming system. 

14. What is Linnaeus’s naming system called? 

15. Write the scientific name for man. 

16. The ___________ name is written first and must always be __________________. 

17. The ____________ name is written second and should _____________ be capitalized. 

18. Name 2 things a species name may do. 

19. What are varieties? 

20. What are subspecies? 

21. Write a scientific name that includes a subspecies. 

22. What do modern taxonomist use to classify organisms? 

23. What is phylogeny? 

Section 18-2            Modern Phylogenetic Taxonomy 

24. Name 6 things used by modern taxonomists to classify organisms. 

25. Classification of an organism should reflect its __________ or ___________ history.

26. What is systematics?

27. Name a tool used by systematic taxonomists.

28. What is a phylogenetic tree? 

29. Draw a phylogenetic tree showing the possible relationships among animal phyla. 

30. Do phylogenetic trees ever change?  Explain. 

31. What complex animal group is located at the top of your phylogenetic tree? 

32. Do all organisms have complete fossil records? Explain. 

33. Which structures show that organisms are more closely related, homologous or analogous? 

34. Features similar in structure but with different functions are called _______________ structures.

35. Early patterns of similar ______________________ development show relationships. 

36. The fertilized egg or _______________ divides by mitosis. 

37. What is the blastula & make a sketch? 

38. What is the blastopore, & what does it become? 

39. The blastopore becomes the mouth in many animals except in ________ where it becomes their ______________.

40. What invertebrate group is most closely related to the vertebrates? 

41. Taxonomists compare macromolecules such as ____________, ____________, & ____________ to show similarities among species. 

42. If two organisms have similar banding patterns on their chromosomes then they are _______________ related.

43. What is used in cladistics to show evolutionary relationships? 

44. What is a derived character & give an example? 

45. Do shared derived characters show common ancestry?

46. What is a cladogram? 

47. Sketch a cladogram for vertebrates. 

Section 18-3            Modern Systems of Classification 

48. The discovery of 2 broad types of bacteria led taxonomists to develop what type of classification system? 

49. Name the 6 kingdoms & tell which are prokaryotes & which are eukaryotes. 

50. Describe members of the kingdom Archaebacteria. 

51. In what type of environment are Archaebacteria found? 

52. Did Archaebacteria carry on photosynthesis? 

53. What kingdom contains true bacteria? 

54. Name 4 things Eubacteria do that affect your life.

55. Do all true bacteria use oxygen? Explain. 

56. How do all bacteria reproduce? 

57. Why are bacteria able to evolve so quickly? Give an example. 

58. Most protists are ______ organisms, but some like the giant kelp are _________ without __________. 

59. Since protists are eukaryotes, what special structures do they contain? 

60. Some protists like ________________ feed on other organisms, while __________ have chloroplasts & make their own food.

61. Describe the characteristics of fungi. 

62. How do fungi get food? 

64. Multicellular plants are in the ____________________ kingdom. 

65. Most plants are ________________ and make food energy by ________________. 

66. Most plants live on ________________. 

67. Name 4 examples of major plant groups. 

68. Describe the characteristics of the animal kingdom. 

69. Most animals have _______________ body organization. 

70. Both plants & animals reproduce ________________. 

71. Using information about __________ RNA, __________ developed the three _______ classification system. 

72. Name the 3 domains. 

73. Domain ___________ contains the same organisms as the kingdom Archaebacteria. 

74. Domain ________________ contains the same organisms as kingdom Eubacteria. 

75. What is included in domain Eukarya? 

76. What characteristic do all members of the domain Eukarya have in common with each other

BACK

 

Dichotomous Key

Dichotomous Key

The identification of biological organisms can be greatly simplified using tools such as dichotomous keys.  A dichotomous key is an organized set of couplets of mutually exclusive characteristics of biological organisms.  You simply compare the characteristics of an unknown organism against an appropriate dichotomous key.  These keys will begin with general characteristics and lead to couplets indicating progressively specific characteristics. If the organism falls into one category, you go to the next indicated couplet.  By following the key and making the correct choices, you should be able to identify your specimen to the indicated taxonomic level.

Sample key to some common beans used in the kitchen:

 

Pinto

 

1a. Bean round Garbanzo bean
1b. Bean elliptical or oblong Go to 2
2a. Bean white White northern
2b. Bean has dark pigments Go to 3
3a. Bean evenly pigmented Go to 4
3b. Bean pigmentation mottled Pinto bean
4a. Bean black Black bean
4b. Bean reddish-brown Kidney bean

Click here for correct answers