10 Questions To Study For A Mitosis Quiz In AP Biology

If you need to prep for a mitosis quiz in AP Biology, you are going to need to understand the difference between mitosis and meiosis thoroughly.

Many students fail to be able to identify the difference between the two biological processes accurately. So, you don't want to get disappointing results on your mitosis quiz; there are a few key points you are going to want to study.

Remember to acquaint yourself with the following before you think you are prepared enough for a mitosis quiz.

  • There are six different stages of mitosis.
  • You want to be able to visualize and analyze diagrams displaying the stages of mitosis confidently.
  • It is good to be aware of any irregularities during mitosis and resulting genetic consequences

Give yourself ample time to take comprehensive notes when studying your AP Biology material. Don't try to memorize everything, but seek to understand and make connections between the information. It may also be helpful to draw out the processes of mitosis, labeling each stage with a description that you can understand easily.

Ask yourself questions about what step comes next, and predict if something were to go wrong in the process what would be the result?

Taking steps to interact with your material will help you make more sense of things. You don't want to only memorize and regurgitate the material without having a clear visual understanding of the what and why of the process.

What Is Mitosis?

Mitosis is the name given for the process of a cell's duplication. When there is one cell with a single set of chromosomes, it goes through a step-by-step process where you end up with two cells that have identical sets of chromosomes.

When there are breakdowns or problems with the mitosis process, genetic diseases or anomalies are created.

Check Out These 10 QuestionTo Study For A Mitosis Quiz

girl studying

Image by Adina Voicu from Pixabay​​​

Out of all the information covering mitosis and meiosis, you may want to consider the following questions to help prepare you for an upcoming mitosis quiz. Choose to break down the information as you see fit and in a language, you can understand. Again, drawing images to help you better conceptualize the process is helpful, as well as using correct terminology.

Which Structure Is Responsible For Moving Chromosomes During Mitosis?

The centromere is a region of DNA that holds together the two chromatids of a duplicated chromosome. Centromeres are responsible for attaching microtubules and direct the movement of chromosomes in both the process of mitosis and meiosis.

First, the chromosomes move toward the center of a cell during metaphase, and then they proceed to opposite directions during anaphase.

 Why Do Chromosomes Fail To Separate Within Mitosis?

Image by Colin Behrens from Pixabay 

Nondisjunction is when a pair of homologous chromosomes fail to separate. There are three forms of nondisjunction, and two happen during the process of meiosis I and meiosis II. 

When the sister chromatids fail to separate during the process of mitosis, the number of chromosomes is abnormal, resulting in aneuploidy.

If a single chromosome is lost from a diploid genome, it is called monosomy. If a chromosome is gained, it is called a trisomy.

When chromosomes fail to separate correctly, it can lead to a genetic disorder such as Downs Syndrome or Turner Syndrome. In the most extreme cases, aneuploidy can be lethal. The risk of nondisjunction taking place increases exponentially with the rising age of parent cells.

Typically disjunction is found during the process of meiosis.

At Which Phase Do Chromosomes Become Visible And Of What Do Chromosomes Consist?

Before chromosomes become visible during the prophase stage, the chromosomes are long strands called chromatin. The chromatin is tightly wound up into chromosomes.

Chromosomes are made up of DNA which is coiled tightly around histones. Histones are proteins which support the structure of the thread-like structures. Chromosomes are not visible under a microscope if the cell is not dividing, and it is not visible in the nucleus of the cell.

The short arm of a chromosome is the ‘p arm,' and the long arm is known as the ‘q arm.'

What Is Cytokinesis?

Cytokinesis is the process when cells physically divide. The cytoplasm of a parent cell splits into two daughter cells. This process starts during anaphase and doesn't stop until the telophase. Cytokinesis takes places during both mitosis and meiosis.

When and Why Will Cells Divide, How Many Chromosomes Will They Have, And What Triggers This Process?

Cellular division during mitosis may be triggered because of the need to replace or repair dead or lost cells or to grow in size. As part of the cell cycle, a cell will prepare to divide at interphase and begins its division process during mitosis.

A single cell will divide and reproduce copies of its DNA into two identical cells. The number of chromosomes will be the same as in the parent cell.

What Is The Difference Between A Diploid And A Haploid?

Diploid cells have a set of chromosomes from two different parents, with two homologous copies of each chromosome of their parents. Diploid cells reproduce by mitosis, and somatic cells are examples of diploid cells.

Haploid cells are created because of the meiosis process. Gametes or sex cells are a common type of haploid cells. Haploid cells only have one complete set of chromosomes.

Define Polyploidy And Aneuploidy?

When there is a variation in the number of chromosomes, it is described as being either aneuploidy, monoploidy, or euploidy. Depending on whether one part of a chromosome is lost, an entire set of chromosomes is lost, or one or more than one complete set of chromosomes is gained the term changes.

With chromosomes, conditions can either be double monosomic or double tetrasomic.

What Is An Allele And The Law Of Independent Assortment?

A gene is a single unit of information that is hereditary. Except in the case of some viruses, genes are made up of DNA which transmits traits. An allele is a genetic sequence which is a variant of a gene. When there are differences among copies of a gene, they are called alleles. At the locus of a gene, there are only two alleles present.

Gregor Mendel has been credited with our enlightened understanding about genetics, heredity, and what happens when there are variants in genetic transmission. According to Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment, a pair of alleles will separate independently when gametes are forming. Traits are transmitted to offspring independently.

The Law of Independent Assortment was formed on principles uncovered when Gregor Mendel conducted experiments creating dihybrid crosses between plants which had two different traits. As a result of Mendel's experiments, a ratio developed to reinforce this concept.

What Type Of DNA Damage Occurs When Cytokinesis And Mitosis Fail?

If a cell fails to separate during cytokinesis, it may have multiple nuclei.

During the prometaphase and metaphase stage, if a cell fails, it enters the G1 phase of a cell cycle, or it results in cell death. The checkpoints within the cell cycle help to regulate the process of cell division and will signal to different pathways if there is a failure.

Steps are automatically taken to prevent any damaged DNA from being reproduced or transmitted to a new generation of cells, to protect integrity.

When mitosis fails to carry out is process an abnormal number of chromosomes is created. To prevent continuous cell division, abnormal cells may be removed. A failure in mitosis typically activates cell death and consequent DNA damage.

What Are The Cell Checkpoints And What Are Their Functions?

Depending on if certain conditions are met cellular division may be inhibited, such as in the instance that growth hormones are released. When there is cellular growth, cells have to divide to prevent cell crowding.

If there is a release of specific hormones or a lack thereof, cell checkpoints may not allow the progression of a cell to the next stage in the cell cycle until there are viable conditions.

At the G1 checkpoint, any damage to DNA and relevant external stimuli are evaluated before a cell can move forward to interphase.

The G2 checkpoint is needed to make sure that all chromosomes have been replicated without any damaged DNA. Until this is assured, a cell will not be able to enter mitosis.

The M checkpoint is responsible for making sure every chromosome is attached to the spindle, and will not allow the separation of duplicated chromosomes if there is a problem.

Cell checkpoints are part of the eukaryotic cell cycle.

Additional Helpful Pointers

Before your quiz make sure that you can break down any pertinent information in easy to understand terms. However, be aware of the correct terminology and the sharp differences between mitosis and meiosis to reduce any unwanted confusion. Make sure to get enough sleep, eat well, and give yourself enough time to study the material before attempting to complete a quiz.

Don’t underestimate or disregard the power of drawing out your own diagrams to fully grasp the concept of each stage of mitosis. Visuals can have a stronger influence than reading words alone about the process.

8 Websites with the Best AP Practice Exams

 High school is a challenging time in everyone’s life. And for students enrolled in AP courses, the end of the year is particularly challenging. As high-achieving students gear up for long exams that offer the potential for early college credit, many students are searching high and low for reliable study materials.

One favorite way to practice for an important exam is by taking practice exams. But finding high-quality AP practice exams is challenging. That’s why we curated this list of websites for you. Whether you’re looking for AP Biology practice exams or one for AP Art History, these websites will help you in your quest for a good score.

Why You Should Take a Practice Exam

The best way to gauge how ready you are for an exam is by taking a practice test. While its best to drill yourself with a wide variety of study materials throughout the year, use of a full-length practice test will help you to prepare for the exam in a whole new way. In addition to helping you study, taking a practice exam can offer the following benefits:

  • Enables you to acclimate to the test format.
  • Relieves unwanted test anxiety.
  • Familiarizes you with test content.
  • Offers an opportunity to customize your study plan.
  • Gives testers a sense of readiness.

Practice exams are a helpful tool for getting yourself in tip-top test shape. But don’t forget to apply the knowledge you gain from taking practice tests. For example, if you come across the material in the practice test that you don’t understand, bring it up with your teacher as soon as possible.

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Below you’ll find a list of websites that offer AP practice exams in one format or another. Not all of them provide full-length tests, but all of them will help you get ready for your AP exams. Keep in mind, that AP tests are different each year and the practice questions you find online won’t necessarily be the ones you encounter on your exam.

8 Websites with the Best AP Practice Exams

College Board

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If you’re looking for a good starting place when it comes to mastering an AP exam, start with the official College Board website. There are many useful resources available on this website for students who are preparing for any of the AP Exams. In addition to study materials, the College Board website provides all of the information students need about the AP exams.

In addition to general information about each of the AP exams, the College Board website also offers sample questions for curious students. While a limited number of multiple choice sample questions are provided, a wide array of free response questions are typically available. Also, you’ll find a handful of student responses for comparison.

While this website doesn’t provide full-length practice exams, it is a great starting place. College Board is the official company behind all of the AP exams, and therefore the study materials they provide will be most like the AP tests.

APPracticeExams.com

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This website is an all-purpose study site from students preparing for AP exams. From AP Biology practice exams to class notes on Statistics, this website has a little something for everyone. It’s also worth noting that all of the resources on this web page are provided free of charge.

Unlike some websites that maintain their database of practice materials, AP Practice Exams provides links to the best free AP practice exams online. Students love using this site because it is easy to navigate and understand. Parents like this website because all of the materials are free.

While you can find a lot of resources through this web page, it does have its limitations. More specifically, the site is not backed by any testing or tutoring service. This drawback means that you’re on your own with the resources provided. However, for those who are self-driven, this site can be a treasure trove of information.

Also, it’s worth noting that the website is very low-key and doesn’t feature many stunning visual features or modern conventions. However, because the resources are all free, it’s a good option for many.

Albert

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Albert is a study and test-prep website designed to help students get the most out of the learning experience. Unlike the sites already mentioned above, the resources available through this website are not free of charge. However, they do offer a comprehensive program for preparing for many of the AP exams.

Pricing for the materials on this website varies by subject area, but for the most part, you can expect it to be relatively affordable. Unfortunately, it doesn’t seem that there are any concessions made for students who can’t afford the costs associated with using Albert.

Albert provides a variety of study materials including practice multiple choice questions, practice free response questions, and at least one full-length practice exam. Additionally, there are numerous study tips and testing tricks to help students make the most of test day. Albert also offers an overview of the core concepts that are tested in each subject.

This website features an attractive and easy-to-use interface that simplifies the study process. However, the fact that you must pay to use these study materials means that many students won’t be able to take advantage of this program. All in all, this is a good website for students whose parents have a little extra cash to spare.

Get A Five

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Get A Five is a web-based tutoring program that is available to students and teachers free of charge. However, unlike some other websites, this one is somewhat limited in scope. But, if your AP class is available, we highly recommend taking advantage of this valuable resource.

Unlike other programs, Get A Five offers a virtual study room, a diagnostic test, practice tests, and video-based lessons. Each program available in this online resource is customized to provide users with the ultimate learning experience.

Despite being limited to the few materials available, this website is an excellent resource for AP students in the classes offered. And, for a small fee, you can have your practice free response questions hand graded. We love that this resource doesn’t cost anything to use, but provides excellent value nonetheless.

Get A Five currently offers four courses for students preparing for the AP exam period. The subjects offered include AP Calculus AB, AP Biology, AP US History, and AP World History. While this selection is limited, it’s worth checking back from time to time to see if new courses become available later on.

High School Test Prep

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High School Test Prep is another free resource available for students preparing to take an AP exam. The materials available on this website are relatively limited but can prepare you for the general idea of how the test will be. However, it’s worth noting that this resource does not provide full-length exams. Also, it only covers multiple choice questions.

To help students understand the subject area they are testing over, each multiple choice question on this website gives a brief explanation of the correct answer. And while we wouldn’t recommend relying on this website alone, it serves as an excellent way to see where you stand.

After reviewing the materials on this website, you’ll be better prepared to formulate a study plan that will adequately prepare you for your upcoming test. Once you’ve studied the areas that are more difficult for you, use one or more of the other resources listed here to prepare yourself even more.

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Study.com offers students a variety of materials for preparing for several different AP exams. They even provide several short practice exams to help you evaluate where you stand concerning the test you’ll be taking later in the school year.

In addition to the short practice tests they offer, study.com also offers test prep services. However, it’s worth noting that these services are not free of charge. Information on pricing is not disclosed without starting a “free trial” so explore these options carefully.

We like that there are several free practice tests available, but the lack of clarity when it comes to plans and pricing seems a bit dubious. Still, if you’re willing to spend a little money, it may be worth it to explore this option.

If you feel that you still need extra practice after thoroughly searching through these websites, consider visiting your local library. There, you may find practice books that contain additional practice questions or exams.

Keep in mind, not all study resources are free, and you should be extremely cautious when choosing how to spend your extra money. Also, always use caution when you have to input a credit card number online. And never purchase online materials without your parent’s permission.

With the resources listed above, you should be well on your way to finding the practice exam that’s right for you. Also, don’t forget that practice exams are only part of the study equation. Remember to brush up on necessary vocabulary and time management strategies as well.

Six Resources with the Best AP Textbook Prices

Advanced Placement classes were once limited to select groups of students, but today, these classes dominate the high school experience. During the 2016-2017 school year, 111,000 students in American schools took the computer science course with a growth of more than 54,000 students from the previous year. We’ve put together a list of excellent resources for finding the best AP Biology textbook prices including some brand-new publishers that focus on cutting the costs of AP courses.

Biology and other sciences are also on the rise. A total of 2.7 million students took five million AP exams according to College Board, the test designer and proctor.

Unfortunately, growth in enrolment hasn’t meant a decline in costs. While some low income students see their test fees covered, recent cuts from the Every StudentSucceedsAct mean that some students need additional dollars.

Finding financially accessible textbooks has never been more critical as more students prepare for more AP tests. Fortunately, these textbooks don’t have to break the bank and with greater student enrolment comes more options for new books.

Six Places to Find the Best AP Textbook Prices

Searching for your AP biology book and think you might get a better price? Check out these resources before placing your order.

Amazon

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Buying AP biology test books from Amazon means you have access to almost every brand and publisher imaginable including off-the-beaten-path books. You’re not only offered the most up-to-date editions of each book, but they come in various formats. Both comprehensive reviews and Cliff’s Notes versions of each book are available online.

Why buy Amazon?

Amazon offers excellent back-to-school prices and a simple returns policy. If you’re a Prime member, you’ll also benefit from free, fast shipping.

Additionally, Amazon hosts customer reviews that give you insight into the book. If you’re looking for complete coverage in specific areas or a particular learning style, the reviews section provides excellent coverage of what it’s like to use the book.

Finally, some books come in both used and new varieties as well as Kindle editions, so there are plenty of ways to save extra cash or even get more books.

Google Books

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Buying the digital version of AP books is a great way to save money and make test prep more accessible wherever you are.

Google Books offers a range of AP test prep e-books including AP Biology. Google’s library hosts most of the major test prep brands including:

  • Kaplan
  • Barron’s
  • CliffsNotes
  • The Princeton Review
  • McGraw Hill

There are also plenty of unknown authors that offer a different or cheaper way to study.

You can access Google Books on any device as long as you log into your Google account. You can even use them on your computer if you prefer a bigger screen. Visit the desktop version of the Google Play store for access.

Google Books also offers refunds on unread books. If you find digital versions don’t work for you or you’re one chapter into a book unsuited to your learning style, it’s possible to return it. Visit the My Account section the Google Play store and click the item you want to return.

You may return any e-book up to seven days after buying it. E-book rentals are final sales. If the e-book malfunctions, you may receive a refund within 65 days of the purchase date.

Textbooks.com

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Looking for an AP Biology textbook rather than test prep?

Visit Textbooks.com to search through the vast marketplace of competitively priced books. You’ll find new, used, and e-book versions of most of the primary textbooks all from different sellers.

Type “AP biology” into the search bar to find precisely what you need. When we last looked, 274 results were available and included:

  • Biology (AP 11thEdition) (Mader)
  • Cliff’s AP: Biology (2ndEdition)
  • SparkNotes Guide to AP Biology
  • Barron’s AP Biology
  • Campbell Biology, AP Edition
  • Cracking the AP Biology Exam 2017

Textbooks.com offers the best prices we’ve seen with some books.

While the prices can’t be beaten, it’s good to be wary of buying used books. While used books are ideal, an older book might miss something covered on the test. New books tend to include the latest edition of the test more precisely as well, which helps give you an edge.

eBay

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If one internet giant comes to mind for textbook purchases, it’s Amazon. But eBay is also an excellent resource for AP biology books. Much of what you’ll find on eBay falls under the category of gently used, but our searches showed that you’re more likely to get the very latest version of the book on eBay compared to other sites.

eBay was partly eclipsed by Amazon because it relied so heavily on seller’s ability to ship things in good time. Shipping was also previously based on zip codes. It quickly made up the bulk of the price on cheaper items.

Today, free shipping is standard on eBay items including on AP history books.

Why choose eBay over Amazon or another used book marketplace?

eBay demands more of a description of the book before posting. Amazon and other sellers tend to note whether the book is in excellent, good, or poor condition. On eBay, sellers indicate the state of the book, but many also describe any damage to the book such as any writing included in the book or if the cover is frayed.

Buying a New Book and Worried About the Price?

If the price of a textbook seems to good to be true, it often isn’t. Bookstores tend to sell U.S. versions of textbooks featuring hardcovers and quality materials. The international version, which is what is usually found significantly cheaper on eBay, is a softcover with cheaper paper. In most cases, the international version is a carbon copy of the same book. Some anomalies arise, but you are likely to see those in the seller reviews.

Regardless of where you buy, double check the edition to make sure it’s not a reprint. Fortunately, most AP course books include the date or version on the cover, so it’s easy to spot in the photos.

OpenStax

OpenStax

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Have you already looked at Barron’s, the Princeton Review, Cliff Notes, and others without finding much success?

AP biology students now have a new option: OpenStax.

OpenStax is a non-profit textbook developer from Rice University. Their goal is to improve access to AP tests, college, and education generally by providing open-licensed college textbooks. Because these books are open-license and OpenStax isn’t out to make money, you’ll receive a high quality, current book for far less money than traditional textbooks.

OpenStax started out providing STEM subjects including biology. Today, they are available for many AP topics including:

  • Biology
  • Physics
  • Macroeconomics
  • SparkNotes Guide to AP Biology

These books aren’t just test prep books. They’re suitable for students taking AP or college courses to prepare for the tests.

The OpenStax Biology for AP® Courses book covers all the requirements of the standard two-semester AP course. It meets core concepts and foundational research and uses the evolutionary lens mandated by AP. The company designed its book not just to meet but exceed the requirements set by College Board, which makes it an essential learning book and an excellent companion to AP study books for those working independently.

HOW MUCH WILL YOU PAY FOR THESE HIGH-QUALITY BOOKS?

Students are expected to pay nothing. These books are free and licensed under Creative Commons, which means everyone has access to them.

Before you worry about quality, don’t. Each book is written by experts in their field. The content is sourced and vetted by peer reviewers, just like the traditional course books you’d otherwise buy.

In 2016 alone, 392,000 students used these books to save a good amount of money. So, head over to OpenStax, and give them a try.

Pearson

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Pearson is an industry-leading education company that publishes books known for their academic rigor. Their AP® Honors & Electives series is no different.

Each Pearson book comes with a both an AP Exam Preparation Guide and Test Prep Workbook written according to the College Board course outline. Inside the books, you’ll find:

  • Overview of the program
  • Test-taking tips
  • Strategies for achieving the best score
  • Practice tests

Pearson’s test prep series is competitively priced and maybe even cheaper if you find yourself a promo code.

Are You Ready for Your AP Exam?

Barron's AP Biology, 6th Edition

AP classes aim to prepare you for the exam, but the help of test prep books and a good textbook are invaluable to the process. While exam prices continue to climb, test prep books remain competitive, and some quality materials are now free to all student.

What books would you recommend for scoring a 5 on an AP Biology exam? Share your favorite study materials and tricks in the comments below.