Virus Study Guide

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Virus Quiz


Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Viruses are considered nonliving because
a.
they cannot reproduce by themselves.
b.
they are not made up of cells.
c.
they cannot carry out metabolism by themselves.
d.
All of the above
 

 2. 



The study of viruses is a part of biology because
a.
they belong to the kingdom Eubacteria.
b.
they are about to become extinct.
c.
they are living organisms.
d.
they are active inside living cells.
 

 3. 

Biologists now know that viruses
a.
are the smallest organisms.
b.
consist of a protein surrounded by a nucleic acid coat.
c.
contain RNA or DNA in a protein or lipid-protein coat.
d.
all form the same crystalline shape.
 

 4. 

The capsid of a virus is the
a.
protective outer coat.
b.
cell membrane.
c.
nucleus.
d.
cell wall and membrane complex.
 

 5. 

Viruses are classified according to
a.
whether they contain RNA or DNA.
b.
the shape of their genome.
c.
whether they have a membrane envelope.
d.
All of the above
 

 6. 

All viruses have
a.
cytoplasm.
c.
mitochondria.
b.
ribosomes.
d.
None of the above
 

 7. 

Tobacco mosaic virus
a.
is able to be crystallized.
b.
causes disease in tobacco plants.
c.
is smaller than a bacterium.
d.
All of the above
 

 8. 

Scientists first began to study viruses because they
a.
were seen through a microscope.
b.
could not be seen but caused disease.
c.
formed crystals.
d.
were made of cells.
 

 9. 

Viruses that use reverse transcriptase to cause their host cells to transcribe DNA from an RNA template are called
a.
bacteriophages.
c.
retroviruses.
b.
antibodies.
d.
capsoviruses.
 

 10. 

Which of the following contains only RNA?
a.
a prion
c.
a viroid
b.
a virus
d.
All of the above
 

 11. 

Unlike viruses, prions
a.
are capable of reproducing outside of a host cell.
b.
are composed only of protein.
c.
can cause brain infections.
d.
can be treated with antibiotics.
 

 12. 

A typical virus consists of
a.
a protein coat and a cytoplasm core.
b.
a carbohydrate coat and a nucleic acid core.
c.
a protein coat and a nucleic acid core.
d.
a polysaccharide coat and a nucleic acid core.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 13. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure could possibly be made of RNA?
a.
structure 2
c.
structure 4
b.
structure 3
d.
structure 5
 

 14. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure is found outside the cell after the cell is infected?
a.
structure 1
c.
structure 3
b.
structure 2
d.
structure 4
 

 15. 

Viruses
a.
are cellular organisms.
b.
reproduce only in living cells.
c.
have nuclei and organelles.
d.
are surrounded by a polysaccharide coat.
 

 16. 

Animal viruses often infect only specific host cells because
a.
the virus must have the same DNA as the host cell.
b.
the host cell must have specific receptors for proteins on the virus surface.
c.
viruses have receptors for host cell glycoproteins.
d.
the enzymes of the virus can attach only to specific host cells.
 

 17. 

In which cell cycle(s) does viral DNA become integrated into the host cell’s DNA?
a.
lytic
b.
lysogenic
c.
neither lytic nor lysogenic
d.
both lytic and lysogenic
 

 18. 

Antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections because
a.
host cells protect the viruses.
b.
viruses have enzymes that inactivate the antibiotics.
c.
antibiotics interfere with cellular processes that viruses do not perform.
d.
viral protein coats block the antibiotics from entering the virus.
 

 19. 

Which of the following is not a viral disease of humans?
a.
hepatitis
b.
SARS
c.
shingles
d.
All of the above are viral diseases of humans.
 

 20. 

Which of the following is not linked to cancer?
a.
Ebola virus
c.
hepatitis B virus
b.
human papillomavirus
d.
Epstein-Barr virus
 

 21. 

Which of the following human activities is most closely associated with the emergence of viruses not previously seen in humans?
a.
absence of a vaccination program
b.
crowded living conditions
c.
clearing of forests for housing
d.
eating uncooked meat
 

 22. 

Most scientists think that early viruses originated from
a.
other viruses.
b.
existing cell parts.
c.
animals.
d.
spontaneous generation.
 

 23. 

HIV causes AIDS by
a.
converting a proto-oncogene to an oncogene.
b.
damaging a person’s blood vessels.
c.
destroying the covering of a person’s nerves.
d.
gradually destroying a person’s immune system.
 

 24. 

Which of the following is not a vector of viral diseases?
a.
mosquitoes
c.
prions
b.
ticks
d.
humans
 

 25. 

Which of the following has been the most successful at fighting viral diseases?
a.
vaccination
c.
drug therapy
b.
vector control
d.
Both a and b
 

 26. 

Most scientists believe that viruses first appeared on Earth ____ living cells appeared.
a.
after
b.
a very long time before
c.
at the exact time when
d.
immediately before
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 27. 

The protein coat of a virus is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 28. 

Viruses can vary in size and ____________________.
 

 

 29. 

A virus that transcribes DNA from an RNA template is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 30. 

An enzyme called _________________________ manufactures DNA that is complementary to a virus’s RNA.
 

 

 31. 

____________________ are viruses that infect bacteria and have a polyhedral head and a helical tail.
 

 

 32. 

All viruses reproduce by taking over the reproductive machinery of a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 33. 

Viruses that infect a host cell and have their nucleic acid replicated but do not harm the host cell are in a(n) ____________________ cycle.
 

 

 34. 

The replication of a temperate virus includes the ____________________ cycle.
 

 

 35. 

The virus that causes AIDS is called _________________________.
 

 

 36. 

Some viruses are thought to induce ____________________, a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell division.
 

 

 37. 

The Ebola virus, the SARS virus, and hantavirus are examples of ____________________ viruses.
 

 

 38. 

In the ____________________ cycle, viruses destroy the host cell.
 

 

 39. 

Chickenpox and ____________________ are caused by the same virus.
 

 

Problem
 

 40. 

A new disease has suddenly appeared and scientists are trying to determine whether the disease agent is a virus or a bacterium. They collect the following information:

1.      The disease can be transmitted through the air.
2.      The disease agent is too small to be seen under a light microscope.
3.      There are no known antibiotics that are effective against the disease.
4.      The genetic material of the disease agent is DNA.
5.      The disease agent cannot be cultured using any known culture medium.

Is the disease agent most likely a bacterium or a virus? Explain your answer. Write your answer in the space below.

 


 
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