Sophomore Biology Pacing Guide







Essential  Questions

Assessments & Lab Activities Resources & Literacy

(Nature of Science)


Nature of Science


Standard 10: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.


Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works


NS.10. B.1

Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works


NS.10. B.2

Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws


NS.10. B.3

Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term theory used in general conversation


NS.10. B.4

Summarize the guidelines of science:

 A. Explanations are based on observations, evidence, and testing

B.  Hypotheses must be testable

C.  Understandings and/or conclusions may change with additional empirical data 

D.  Scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before acceptance

Standard 11: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry


NS.11. B.1

Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and independent) in scientific experimentation


NS.11. B.2

Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing and/or conducting scientific investigations


NS.11. B.3

Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome


NS.11. B.4

Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics


NS.11. B.5

Formulate valid conclusions without bias


NS.11. B.6

Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables


Standard 12: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of current life science theories.



Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification, and peer review



Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional empirical data, verification, and peer review


Standard 13: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate and solve life science problems


Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and tables



Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes, centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)



Utilize technology to communicate research findings


Standard 14: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.



Compare and contrast biological concepts in pure science and applied science


Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters


Standard 15: Students shall describe various life science careers and the training required for the selected career



Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria:

  • educational requirements
  • salary
  • availability of jobs 
  • working conditions



Nature of Science


The major content themes of  biology

  Matter and Energy



  Reproduction and Inheritance


  Homeostasis and Stability

What science is and is not

  Deals only with natural world

  Explanations can be tested    

  Explanations are used to make predictions