Protein Synthesis Study Guide

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Protein Synthesis Study Guide


Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

What did Griffith observe when he injected into mice a mixture of heat-killed disease-causing bacteria and live harmless bacteria?
a.
The disease-causing bacteria changed into harmless bacteria.
b.
The mice developed pneumonia.
c.
The harmless bacteria died.
d.
The mice were unaffected.
 

 2. 



Which of the following is a nucleotide found in DNA?
a.
ribose + phosphate group + thymine
b.
ribose + phosphate group + uracil
c.
deoxyribose + phosphate group + uracil
d.
deoxyribose + phosphate group + cytosine
 

 3. 

DNA replication results in two DNA molecules,
a.
each with two new strands.
b.
one with two new strands and the other with two original strands.
c.
each with one new strand and one original strand.
d.
each with two original strands.
 

 4. 

During mitosis, the
a.
DNA molecules unwind.
b.
histones and DNA molecules separate.
c.
DNA molecules become more tightly coiled.
d.
nucleosomes become less tightly packed.
 

 5. 

Unlike DNA, RNA contains
a.
adenine.
c.
phosphate groups.
b.
uracil.
d.
thymine.
 

 6. 

Which type(s) of RNA is(are) involved in protein synthesis?
a.
transfer RNA only
b.
messenger RNA only
c.
ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA only
d.
messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA
 

 7. 

During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed
a.
that is complementary to both strands of DNA.
b.
that is complementary to neither strand of DNA.
c.
that is double-stranded.
d.
inside the nucleus.
 

 8. 

How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids?
a.
3
c.
9
b.
6
d.
12
 

 9. 

Which of the following terms is LEAST closely related to the others?
a.
intron
c.
polypeptide
b.
tRNA
d.
anticodon
 

 10. 

Which type of RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code?
a.
rRNA
c.
mRNA
b.
tRNA
d.
RNA polymerase
 

 11. 

Which of the following is NOT a gene mutation?
a.
inversion
c.
deletion
b.
insertion
d.
substitution
 

 12. 

Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a.
Mutations do not occur in hox genes.
b.
Hox genes that are found in different animals are very different from each other.
c.
Hox genes control the normal development of an animal.
d.
Hox genes occur in clusters.
 

 13. 

Avery’s experiments showed that bacteria are transformed by
a.
RNA.
c.
proteins.
b.
DNA.
d.
carbohydrates.
 

 14. 

Figure 12-5 shows the structure of a(an)

mc014-1.jpg


Figure 12–5

a.
DNA molecule.
c.
RNA molecule.
b.
amino acid.
d.
protein.
 

 15. 

DNA is copied during a process called
a.
replication.
c.
transcription.
b.
translation.
d.
transformation.
 

 16. 

In eukaryotes, DNA
a.
is located in the nucleus.
c.
is located in the ribosomes.
b.
floats freely in the cytoplasm.
d.
is circular.
 

 17. 

RNA contains the sugar
a.
ribose.
c.
glucose.
b.
deoxyribose.
d.
lactose.
 

 18. 

Which RNA molecule carries amino acids?
a.
messenger RNA
c.
ribosomal RNA
b.
transfer RNA
d.
RNA polymerase
 

 19. 

What is produced during transcription?
a.
RNA molecules
c.
RNA polymerase
b.
DNA molecules
d.
proteins
 

 20. 

What does Figure 12-6 show?

mc020-1.jpg

Figure 12-6

a.
anticodons
b.
the order in which amino acids are linked
c.
the code for splicing mRNA
d.
the genetic code
 

 21. 

What happens during the process of translation?
a.
Messenger RNA is made from DNA.
b.
The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins.
c.
Transfer RNA is made from messenger RNA.
d.
Copies of DNA molecules are made.
 

 22. 

Genes contain instructions for assembling
a.
purines.
c.
proteins.
b.
nucleosomes.
d.
pyrimidines.
 

 23. 

A mutation that involves a single nucleotide is called a(an)
a.
chromosomal mutation.
c.
point mutation.
b.
inversion.
d.
translocation.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 24. 

The structure labeled X in Figure 12-1 is a(an) ____________________.

co024-1.jpg


Figure 12–1

 

 

 25. 

The order of nitrogenous bases in DNA determines the order of ____________________ in proteins.
 

 

 26. 

There is no ____________________ that is specified by a stop codon on an mRNA molecule.
 

 

 27. 

The lac repressor releases the operator in the presence of ____________________.
 

 

 28. 

In eukaryotes, proteins that attract RNA polymerase bind to ____________________ sequences in DNA.
 

 

 29. 

According to the principle of ____________________, hydrogen bonds can form only between adenine and thymine, and between guanine and cytosine.
 

 

 30. 

Chromatin contains proteins called ____________________.
 

 

 31. 

In Figure 12-7, A, B, and C are three types of ____________________.

co031-1.jpg


Figure 12–7

 

 

 32. 

After introns are cut out of an RNA molecule, the remaining ____________________ are spliced back together to form the final messenger RNA.
 

 

 33. 

A mutation in a series of genes, called the ____________________, can change the organs that develop in specific parts of an embryo.
 

 

Short Answer
 

 34. 

At the beginning of DNA replication, what two processes “unzip” the two strands of a DNA molecule?

 

 35. 

In Figure 12-2, which molecule is tRNA, and what is its function?

sa035-1.jpg


Figure 12–2

 

 36. 

According to Figure 12-3, what codons specify the amino acid arginine?

sa036-1.jpg


Figure 12–3

 

 37. 

What happens to lac repressors in E. coli when lactose is present?

 

 38. 

What are the three main parts of an RNA nucleotide?

 

 39. 

What must happen to a DNA molecule before RNA polymerase can make RNA?

 

 40. 

What causes translation to stop?

 

 41. 

What is a mutation?

 

Essay
 

 42. 

Describe the structure of a DNA molecule.

 

 43. 

Contrast the functions of the three main types of RNA.

 

Other
 
 
USING SCIENCE SKILLS

nar001-1.jpg


Figure 12–4

 

 44. 

Interpreting Graphics What process is illustrated in Figure 12-4?

 

 45. 

Interpreting Graphics Identify structure C in Figure 12-4.

 

 46. 

Interpreting Graphics Which labeled structure in Figure 12-4 is a codon?

 

 47. 

Inferring What is the relationship between the codons and anticodons in Figure 12-4? How is this relationship important?

 

 48. 

Predicting In Figure 12-4, what will happen after the ribosome joins the methionine and phenylalanine?

 
 
USING SCIENCE SKILLS

nar002-1.jpg

Figure 12–8

 

 49. 

Classifying What general type of mutation results from processes A, B, C, and D in Figure 12-8?

 

 50. 

Interpreting Graphics In Figure 12-8, which process or processes involve two chromosomes?

 

 51. 

Comparing and Contrasting Contrast process A and process B in Figure 12-8.

 

 52. 

Interpreting Graphics During which process in Figure 12-8 does a segment of a chromosome become oriented in the reverse direction?

 

 53. 

Interpreting Graphics In Figure 12-8, which process produces two chromosomes with translocations?

 


 
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