1. What is the term for the ability to perform work? ______________________.
2. Animals that Cannot make their own food are called ________________________.
3. Most organisms use an energy storage molecule called ____________________ _______________________ or simply (_______).
4. Light of different colors is different in ______________________ and _________________________.
5. During photosynthesis, a Reduction Reaction _________ ______________ to a molecule.
6. Oxidation is a process that makes a molecule __________________ electrons.
7. Disk-shaped structures with photosynthetic pigments are known as __________________.
8. The process by which autotrophs convert sunlight into energy is called ___________________________.
9. A molecule that can absorb certain light wavelengths and reflect others is a ________________________________.
10. What are the most common group of photosynthetic pigments in plants? ___________________________
11. Stroma are gel-like matrix (a solution) that surrounds the ________________________.
12. Photosynthesis occurs in two stages called:
13. Plants that use only the Calvin Cycle for photosynthesis are called ______________.
14. CAM Plants can survive in dry, hot deserts because they can fix carbon at ____________________________.
15. What substances do Autotrophs or producers use to make food?
16. The addition of an electron to an atom or a molecule is called _________________.
17. The loss of an electron to an atom or a molecule is called ____________________.
18. Organisms that CAN produce their own food are called ______________________.
19. An important waste product of photosynthesis is _______________________.
20. Photosynthesis occurs in what organelle of plants and algae? _________________________.
21. The Thylakoids are surrounded by a gel-like matrix (solution) called __________________.
22. An object that absorbs all colors appears _____________________.
23. What are the light collecting units of the Chloroplast? __________________.
24. Carbon fixing reactions occur in a pathway called the _____________________ _________________.
25. Chlorophyll reflects and transmits what color? _________________________.
26. An object that reflects all colors appears ____________________________.
27. Folded Thylakoids that resemble stacks of pancakes are called ________________________________.
28.The pigments that absorb violet, blue and red light. __________________________
29.The Enzyme that adds a phosphate group to ADP. _________ __________________ to form _________________.
30. What do we call the component colors of white light? ______________________ ___________________________
31. What clusters of pigments are called. ____________________________
32. A five-carbon carbohydrate in the Calvin cycle. _____________________________
33. A three-carbon molecule in the Calvin cycle.______________________________
34. A Series of linked chemical reactions is called a __________________________ ____________________________.
35. The pigments that absorb blue and green light are called ________________________.
36. The oxygen atoms in the oxygen gas produced in photosynthesis come from ________________________ __________________________.
37. Both C4 and C3 plants use the ____________________ _________________ for carbon fixation.
38. Where does the energy required for the Calvin cycle originate? From ______________ and __________________ produced by the ____________________ _____________________.
39. Protons are move into the thylakoid using energy from ___________________ in the __________________________ __________________________.
40. At the end of photosystem I transport chain, electrons combine with ______________ to form ______________________.
41. Carbon atoms are fixed into organic compounds in the _____________________ ______________________.
42. To produce the same amount of carbohydrate, C4 plants require less ___________________ ____________________ than C3 plants.
43. Where in the chloroplast do the light reactions occur? ________________________
44. Where in the chloroplast do the reactions of the Calvin cycle occur? ______________________________
45. What product of the light reactions of photosynthesis is released and does not participate further in photosynthesis? _________________________________
46.Which environmental factor will cause a rapid decline in the photosynthesis rate if the factor rises above a certain level? ___________________________________
47. Accessory pigments differ from chlorophyll a in that they are _______________ directly involved in the ___________________ _____________________ of photosynthesis.
48. What structure that is found in the thylakoid membrane is important to chemiosmosis? ___________
49. _______________________________________________________ is the protein in the _____________________________________ membrane that adds a phosphate group to ADP.
50. Chemiosmosis relies on a(n) ____________________________________________________ of protons across the thylakoid membrane.
51. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.____________________________________
52. ATP synthase is a multifunctional protein. By allowing protons to cross the thylakoid membrane, it functions as a(n) _______________________________________________, and by catalyzing the synthesis of ATP it functions as a(n) ______________________________.
53. H+ represents an ion or in photosynthesis a(n) _____________________________________.
DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams to supplement your answers, but a diagram alone without appropriate discussion is inadequate.
1. Describe the internal structure and external structure of a chloroplast.
2. Explain what happens to the components of water molecules that are split during the light reactions of photosynthesis? (HINT: Name the three products that are produced when water molecules are split during the light reactions and explain what each product is used for.)
3. Explain the difference between the roles of photosystem I and photosystem II in photosynthesis?
4. Explain why the leaves of some plants look green during the summer then turn yellow, orange, red,
or brown during the fall?
5. What plant structures control the passage of water out of a plant and carbon dioxide into a plant? Explain
how they control the passage of water out of a plant and carbon dioxide into a plant.
6. What happens to the electrons that are lost by photosystem II? What happens to the electrons
that are lost by photosystem I?
7. Photosynthesis is said to be "Saturated" at a certain level of CO2. Explain what this means?
8. Explain how is ATP synthesized in photosynthesis? What is this process called?
9. What is the fate of most of the PGAL molecules in the third step of the Calvin cycle and Why is this important?
What happens to the remaining PGAL molecules? What organic compound can be made from PGAL?
10. Explain how CAM plants differ from C3 and C4 plants? How does this difference allow CAM
plants to exist in hot, dry conditions?
11. Define biochemical pathway and explain how the Calvin cycle is an example of a biochemical pathway.
In what part of the chloroplasts does the Calvin cycle take place?
12. Explain how the function of the chloroplasts is related to its structure.
13. What roles do water molecules play in photosynthesis?
14. Describe the structure and function of the thylakoids of a chloroplasts.
15. What role do accessory pigments play in photosynthesis?