1. Fungi Differ from plants in important ways: Fungi Lack _______________________ and are Not _______________________________. Fungi Never Reproduce by _____________________. The cell walls of fungi are made of ___________________, not __________________________, as are the cell walls of Plants.
2. _____________________, a tough, flexible material, also makes up the hard outer skeleton of insets.
3. Fungi have FOUR Characteristics in common:
4. All fungi are ______________________________, obtaining their nutrition from other organisms.
5. Most fungi are ______________________________ and obtain their nutrients by digesting and absorbing nutrients from _______________________ organisms.
6. Some fungi are _______________________ and obtain their nutrients from living host. A few fungi are actually _____________________, able to trap and kill prey.
7. Fungi include _____________________ and __________________ organisms. Yeast is a typical ___________________________ fungi.
8. Most fungi are ____________________________ organisms. The body of a fungus consists of tiny filaments called ______________________________.
9. _________________________ are tiny tubes filed with __________________ and _____________________ that form the body of a fungus. Hyphae are the __________________, _________________ parts of _______________________ fungi.
10. Hyphae are divided into segments by walls called _____________________. The _________________ have ________________ which cytoplasm and organelles can move from segment to segment.
11. The mass of tangled, interwoven hyphae that form the body of a fungus is called a _________________________.
12. An organism that digest dead organisms and absorbs their nutrients is called a _____________________________________________.
13. Tiny tubes filled with cytoplasm and nuclei that form the body of a fungus are called _________________________________.
14. Septa are the cross-walls that divide __________________________________.
15. Hyphae tangle and interweave to form a mass know as a _____________________.
16. Asexual reproduction, which produces offspring that are __________________ ___________________ to the parent, is most common when ____________________ and _____________________ are ____________________.
17. Sexual reproduction occurs in fungi mostly when _______________________ or ________________________ become __________________.
18. __________________ are the means by which fungi are dispersed. Each spore contains a ______________________ and dehydrated __________________ surrounded by a _____________________ ____________________.
19. The reproductive structures of fungi that produce spores are ___________________ ___________________.
20. A fruiting body consists of a _____________________ and a _______________ in which spores are produced. In a Mushroom, the ________________ contains thousands of ____________________ ____________________.
21. All the spores released by fungi are ___________________________ (1n).
22. Spores cannot move themselves, but can be dispersed by _______________, ___________________, ________________, or ____________________.
23. There are NO ________________ or ________________ Fungi. Instead, the TWO mating types are called the ___________________ and the ______________________.
24. Fungi are grouped in one of Three Phyla: _____________________, common molds; _______________________, club fungi; _________________________, sac fungi; and a group called _______________________ or imperfect fungi.
25. Common molds have No ____________ in their hyphae.
26. The part of hyphae that anchor a fungus to its source of nutrients are called ________________________. _____________________ resemble the _____________ of plants but lack the specialized tissues of true roots.
27. ___________________ are the hyphae that connect groups of rhizoids. ________________ transport the nutrients absorbed by ________________ throughout the ____________________.
28. The study of fungi is called _______________________________.
29. Hyphae whose cells are divided by septa are called ________________________ ________________________.
30. ___________________________ is a special Asexual process. __________________ is the formation of a small, bud-like cell from a larger cell.
31. The one characteristic shared by all imperfect fungi is an absence of ________________________________ ________________________________.
32. A ____________________ is a symbiotic association between a _______________________ and a ___________________________ organism.
33. ____________________________ are mutualistic associations between a __________________ and the _________________ of a plant.
34. The process in which a smaller cell breaks away from a larger cell in some yeasts is called __________________________.
35. Fungi help return nutrients to the ecosystem by acting as _________________________.
36. Mycorrhizae are mutualistic associations between a fungus and what? _______________________________________________
37. A lichen is a symbiotic association between a fungus and what type of organism? ____________________________________________.
38. Hyphae that do not have septa are called _________________________________.
39. The ability to change from Multicellular to Unicellular is called ___________________________________.
40. Cells containing two nuclei are called __________________________.
41. Cells containing one nucleus are called _________________________________.
42. A plant can benefit from a fungus because the fungus _____________________________
43. The species of Mushrooms that is poisonous is ________________________________.
44. The Edible species is known as __________________________________.
47. A Mycelium is an interwoven mat of ____________________________________.
48. All asexual reproductive spores in fungi are composed of only _______________ ___________________.
49. Fungi cause disease in humans through _______________________________, _____________________________ and _______________________________.
50. Unlike animals, fungi ____________________ their food before ________________________________ it.
51. Visible, cup-like sexual reproductive structures are called ______________________________________.
52. The association between a fungus and plant roots is called ______________________________________.
53. Fused gametangia is called __________________________________.
54. A tangled mass of hyphae describes what type of fungus? _______________________________________.
55. An association between a fungus and a green algae is called _________________________________________.
56. The cells walls of fungi are composed of ___________________________.
57. All fungi reproduce ___________________________ some only reproduce ________________________________.
58. Fungi imperfect reproduce only _____________________________________.
59. A unicellular fungi that resembles bacteria is a ____________________________.
60. Fungi evolve from __________________________ through ___________________________________.
61. Mycorrhizae and lichens are both ________________________ _____________________________ associations.
DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams to supplement your answers, but a diagram alone without appropriate discussion is inadequate.
1. Describe Three different kinds of Asexual Reproduction found in fungi.
2. Explain why lichens are important to the environment.
3. How does gametangium differ from a Zygosporangia?
4. Explain how fungi obtain their nutrients?
5. What are mycorrhizae, AND what is their ecological role?
6. Identify ONE Way in which fungi differ from organisms in Each of the Other KINGDOMS of Eukaryotic Organisms.
7. What Characteristic makes fungi an important resource recycler?
8. Explain why being able to reproduce Both Sexually and Asexually is an adaptive advantage.
9. Explain how fungi cause disease in humans and Which fungi causes athlete’s foot and vaginal yeast infection?
10. Compare an Ascocarp with a Basidiocarp.
11. Describe the reproduction of Ascomycetes.
12. Describe the reproduction of Zygomycetes.
13. Describe the reproduction of Basidomycetes.
14. Explain the benefits plants and fungi derive from a mycorrhizal relationship.