preap cell division study guide

Cell Cycle & Cell Division Review  

1. Chromosomes are Rod Shaped structures made of _________ and ___________.

2. State the cell theory.

3. The phases in the life of a cell are called the ______________  _____________.

4. The cell cycle consists of ________, __________, __________, & division.

5. ________________ is a series of ______________ in cell division during which the _____________________ of a cell divides into __________  __________ with ____________   _____________ material.

6. _________________ only occurs  in _________________________  cells.

7. The period of cell growth prior to division is _________________________.

8.   Interphase consist of what three phases and describe each:
    a.

    b.

    c.

9. The period during which DNA is copied ______________________.

10. DNA replication in a cell results in _________________  ____________________.

11. Replication is the process of copying _______________  ____________________.

12. Cell division is the process by which one _________ produces __________ new identical _________  ___________.

13.  Cell division involves 2 Steps called __________________  _____________  ________________________.

 The steps are:
    a. 

    b.

14. Step 1 of cell division is called ___________, and step 2 is called ______________.

15. During __________the cytoplasm of the cell divides into _______ new cells called ___________  ___________.

16. The steps or phases of Mitosis are ___________,  ____________,  ____________, and ________________.

17.   _________ is the process by which a nucleus gives rise to ___________ _________  _____________.

18. In anaphase, the sister Chromatids __________________________________.

19. The cell is pinched into two and cytokinesis begins during ____________________.

20. The assembling of microtubules that make up the spindle fibers occurs during _____________.

21. During prophase the _________ and  ________  ____________ disappear.

22. The center of the cell is called the ___________  _______________.

23.   ________________ condenses into chromosomes of two _________________  ____________________, joined together by the _____________________ during __________________________.

24.  The production of offspring from one parent is called ________________________  ________________________.

25.  During mitosis, centrioles are present only in _________________________ cells.

26.  Most organisms are capable of combining ______________________ from two parents to produce ______________________.

27. The phase of mitosis during which chromosomes move to opposite poles is called ____________________________________.

28. When chromosomes of two parents combined to produce offspring, the process is known as _____________________  _____________________.

29. The chromosomes that combine during sexual reproduction are contained in special reproductive cells called _________________________.

30. In most organisms,  ________________ can be either _____________  or _________________.

31. Eggs are _______________ than sperm, but are ______________________.

32. Sperm have ______________________ that help them swim to the ___________.

33. Gametes are formed by _______________________, a type of nuclear division in which _____________________ number is ______________________ and is followed by ________________  ______________________.

34. In humans, specialized reproductive cells with _________  chromosomes, called ____________________ cells, undergo ________________ and ___________ ________________ to give rise to egg or sperm that have only _______ chromosomes,  ___________________ cells.

35. Any cell that contains two complete sets of chromosomes is called a _____________________  ______________.

36. A cell with only one complete set of chromosomes is called a ____________________ ______________.

37. When an egg and sperm join to produce a new individual, the process is called _________________________________.

38. The single cell that results from fertilization is called a ____________________.

39. Matching pairs of chromosomes in a diploid cell are called ___________________ _________________.

40. During ______________________, the cytoplasm of a cell and its organelles separate into two New ______________________  _____________.

41. Cytokinesis proceeds differently in animal and plant cells.  In animal cells, the cytoplasm divides when a _______________ called the ________________ _________________ forms through the middle of the parent cell.  In a plant cell, the material form a  ______________  ____________ and __________________ gather and fuse along the equator or middle of the cell.

42. The term cleavage furrow refers to _______________________________________
________________________________________________.

43. The exchange of genes between pairs of homologous chromosomes is called _____________________ – ___________________________ and Only occurs during __________________________________ of meiosis.

44. What equally divides chromatids between offspring cells _________________  ____________________.

45. The time between cell division is called ________________________________.

46. The division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells is called _______________________  ____________________________.

47. What equally divides an animal cell into two offspring cells (daughter cells) ________________________  _______________________.

48. Each protein in an organisms DNA is coded for an individual __________________.

49. If an organism has 12 chromosomes in each body cell, how many chromosomes would you expect to find in the organism’s gametes? _________________

50. During which phase of meiosis do tetrads form? ___________________________

51. The division of the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is called _________________________________.

52. What event occurs during synapsis? ______________________  __________  ___________________________  _______________________.

53. During mitosis and meiosis, kinetochore fibers are thought to move __________________________________.

54. Histones are proteins that _______________ in the _______________ of __________________ in eukaryotic cells.

55. Spermatogenesis results in _______________  _______________ cells.

56. Each offspring cell produced by binary fission contains an ____________________  __________________ of the original cell’s  __________________________.

57. Crossing-over results in genetic recombination by permitting the ________________________ of genetic material between ____________________ and _______________________ chromosomes.

58. Two of the 46 human chromosomes are called _______________  _________________________, all others (44) are called _________________________.

59. The production of eggs is called ____________________________.

60. What structure not found in animal cells forms along the midline of a dividing plant cell? _________________________  ____________________________.

Answer the Following questions in paragraph form:

1. What is Cytokinesis?  How is it different in plant and animal cells?
 
 
 

2. Explain the difference between Mitosis and Meiosis?
 
 

3. What is the Difference (Contrast) between Sex Chromosomes and Autosomes?
 
 

4. List 2 ways that meiosis differs from mitosis.
 
 

5. Compare the structure of a prokaryotic chromosome with that of eukaryotic chromosomes.
 
 
 

6. What are homologous chromosomes?
 
 
 

7. Explain the difference between a haploid cell and a diploid cell?
 
 
 

8. What is your diploid and haploid Number?
 
 

9. What is DNA? What are histones?
 
 
 

10. What is independent assortment, and how does it affect the genetic makeup of offspring cells?
 
 
 

11. What are chromatids and what holds two chromatids together?
 
 
 

12. Describe how you could determine if a dividing cell is a prokaryote or an eukaryote. What structures would you look for?
 
 
 

13. Compare the products of mitosis with those of meiosis II.
 
 
 

14.  Describe the events of binary fission and what kind of organisms would use this.
 
 
 

15. What is the cell cycle?
 
 
 

16. How do the products of spermatogenesis and oogenesis differ?
 
 
 

17.  What is interphase?  What makes up and occurs during each part of interphase?
 
 
 

18.  What is mitosis and in order, What are the four phases of mitosis?
 
 
 

19.  What are kinetochore fibers and polar fibers? What are their functions?
 
 
 
 

20. Explain crossing-over, What is it? When does it occur? Why is it Important?
 
 
 

21. In what type of cell, Eukaryote, Prokaryote, or Both, does mitosis occur?
__________________________________________.  EXPLAIN WHY?
 
 
 

22. Explain the difference between Mitosis and Cytokinesis.
 
 
 

23. What is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction?  Which has evolutionary value?  Why?