Plant Structure Study Guide

PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

1. Cells that support the non-growing parts of plants are called ____________________.

2. Sugars are transported in vascular plants through what tissue?

3. The tissue in a vascular plant that is used to transport water and minerals is __________.
4. Which plant cells are the most abundant and least structurally specialized?
5. Long, narrow cells of xylem with thin separations between them are known as _______.
6. Short, wide cells of xylem with NO end walls function in water transport when the cells are __________.

7. Cells of phloem that help the sieve tube elements to function are called _________________.

8. Growth that makes a plant stem thicker is known as ____________________  ____________.

9. In the meristem regions of plants you would expect to find _____________________ cells.

10. Collenchyma cells would help support which parts of a celery plant?

11. The epidermis on the stems and leaves of young plants prevents ______________________.

12. The vascular cylinder of a root is surrounded by the __________________________.

13.  A plant absorbs water and minerals through  _____________________.

14.  Which type of plant cells function in metabolic activities such as photosynthesis, storage, and healing?

15. Grasses usually have which type of roots?

16. In stems, vascular tissue is arranged to form ________________________.

17. What are the pores in the epidermis of leaves that control water evaporation called?

18.Primary growth in roots results in _________________________ of roots, and secondary growth results in _________________________ of roots.

19. What is the process of the evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant called?

20. The movement of sugars in a plant can be explained by the __________-
_____________  _____________.

21. What causes water molecules to stick together and pull each other up a plant stem?

22. Sugars made in photosynthesis in transported by being pumped into the ___________________________   _______________________________.

23. The function of the endodermis in roots is to _____________________ movement of substances into the ________________________  ___________________ of the root.

24. _______________________________ tissue forms the skin of a plant.

25.  ______________________________ tissue consists of everything that is Not dermal or vascular tissue.

26. The growing regions of plants are called ________________________________________.

27. Meristematic tissue is the only type of plant tissue that produces new cells by _______________.

28. The elongation of stems and roots is called _____________  _______________.

29. Most seed plants have Three basic organs, _________________, ___________________ and
_______________________________.

30. Lateral roots form from the _______________________ inside the root, while lateral stems form from _____________________________ on the surface of stems.

31. Plant cells that are even, thick-walled, rigid cells _____________________________.

32.  The name of the meristem between xylem and phloem  _______________________.

33. The roots that branch off a primary root ________________________  _________________.

34. Plant cells that are irregular, thick-walled cells ______________________________.

35. A root system with an enlarged primary root  _________________________.

36.  Type of meristems found only in monocots  _________________________.

37. Type of root system with many branch roots  _______________________.

38. Type of plants cells that are thin-walled cells that can be cube-shaped or elongated _______________.

39. In Dicots primary growth occurs in _______________________  ________________________ and in monocots it occurs in _______________________ ______________________ and may also occur in _________________________  _________________________.

40. Primary growth results in the ________________________ of plant structures, and secondary growth results in the _____________________ of plant structures.

41. Monocots stems lack ____________________  ____________________ and therefore cannot produce _________________________  growth.

42. Annual rings in woody plants form as a result of the production of _____________________  ___________________, which contain cells of different sizes that were produced during different times of the growing season.

43. Water is transported from the roots to the leaves of a plant by the process of ___________.

Short Answer:
Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay
form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams to supplement your answers.

 What are the TWO different types of vascular tissue in plants?  Briefly describe each kind.

2. How are carbohydrates transported throughout a plant? (Explain the pressure-flow hypothesis).

3. Describe tracheids and explain their function.

4. What are the lateral meristems of plants, and what is their function?

5. What is the difference between primary growth and secondary growth?

6. Explain the main functions of stems, roots and leaves.

7. What adaptations of root maximize water and mineral absorption?

8. Identify the structures that a water molecule would move through on its way from the soil into the xylem of a plant root.

9. What is the relationship between stomata and guard cells? Describe how they function and Describe their role in the activities conducted by leaves.

10. What is transpiration?  How is it related to the movement of water in plants?

11. What is the relationship between the Source and the Sink in the transport of sugars?

12. What are the Four types of tissue found in plants?

13. What are the Three basic types of plant cells?  What are the functions of each?

14. Explain the cohesion-tension theory.

15. List five differences and five similarities between the structure of roots and the structure of stems.