PCC – Protist Study Guide

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PCC – Protist Study Guide


Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Most protozoa may be characterized as:
a.
autotrophic.
b.
heterotrophic.
c.
photosynthetic.
d.
chemotrophic.
e.
anisogamous.
 

 2. 

Most protists are:
a.
aquatic.
b.
parasitic.
c.
terrestrial.
d.
arboreal.
e.
None of the above.
 

 3. 

Based on the most recent data available, the protist kingdom is:
a.
paraphyletic.
b.
monophyletic.
c.
composed only of unicells.
d.
composed of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
e.
entirely microscopic.
 

 4. 

The informal group designated as the protozoa include all of the following except:
a.
ameoeba.
b.
ciliates.
c.
diatoms.
d.
foraminifera.
e.
zooflagellates.
 

 5. 

Members of phylum ____________ move via pseudopodia.
a.
Rhizopoda
b.
Zoomastigina
c.
Ciliophora
d.
Oomycota
e.
Chrysophyta
 

 6. 

Members of which phylum have formed deposits of chalk, as seen in the white cliffs of Dover?
a.
Rhizopoda
b.
Zoomastigina
c.
Ciliophora
d.
Foraminifera
e.
Actinopoda
 

 7. 

Pseudopodia are used by Amoeba for ingesting food as well as for:
a.
reproduction.
b.
excretion.
c.
digestion.
d.
movement.
e.
avoiding predation.
 

 8. 

Among the protist phyla below, which has organisms that typically move with one or more flagella?
a.
Rhizopoda
b.
Retortmonada
c.
Ciliophora
d.
Foraminifera
e.
Actinopoda
 

 9. 

Which phylum contains the organism Trypanosoma, which causes African sleeping sickness?
a.
Rhizopoda
b.
Euglenozoa
c.
Ciliophora
d.
Foraminifera
e.
Actinopoda
 

 10. 

Members of phylum Alveolata possess ____________, which are ejectile filaments used in trapping prey.
a.
contractile vacuoles
b.
micronuclei
c.
macronuclei
d.
heterocysts
e.
trichocysts
 
 
Figure 24-01
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar001-1.jpg

 

 11. 

In Figure 24-01, the function of the structure labeled 4 is:
a.
food intake.
b.
digestion.
c.
waste elimination.
d.
water discharge.
e.
asexual reproduction.
 

 12. 

In Figure 24-01, the function of the structure labeled 6 is:
a.
food intake.
b.
digestion.
c.
waste elimination.
d.
water discharge.
e.
asexual reproduction.
 

 13. 

Malaria is caused by an ___________________, which is carried to a host by a ______________.
a.
apicomplexan; fly
b.
apicomplexan; mosquito
c.
apicomplexan; body louse
d.
actinopod; fly
e.
actinopod; mosquito
 

 14. 

Algae are not considered true plants, as they lack both a cuticle and:
a.
multicellular bodies.
b.
multicellular gametangia.
c.
thalli.
d.
frustules.
e.
cell walls.
 
 
Figure 24-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar002-1.jpg

 

 15. 

In Figure 24-02, the process occurring in the cells labeled 2 in the sequence is:
a.
fertilization.
b.
syngamy.
c.
the first meiotic division.
d.
the second meiotic division.
e.
mitosis.
 

 16. 

In Figure 24-02, the process occurring in the cells labeled 6 is:
a.
fertilization.
b.
syngamy.
c.
the first meiotic division.
d.
the second meiotic division.
e.
mitosis.
 

 17. 

The outcome of the process illustrated Figure 24-02 is:
a.
four new genetically identical cells that differ genetically from what they were before.
b.
four new but genetically distinct cells.
c.
two new genetically identical cells that differ genetically from what they were before.
d.
two new but genetically distinct cells.
e.
one male and one female cell.
 

 18. 

Classification of algae into the various protist phyla is based on their photosynthetic pigments and:
a.
cellular storage compounds.
b.
presence of cell walls.
c.
where they live.
d.
the diseases they cause.
e.
the presence of DNA or RNA.
 

 19. 

Which phylum includes algae that are typically unicellular and form siliceous shells?
a.
Chlorophyta
b.
Rhodophyta
c.
Euglenophyta
d.
Dinoflagellata
e.
Bacillariophyta
 

 20. 

The commercially important unicellular protists that are used in filters, polishes, and other industrial processes are the:
a.
dinoflagellates.
b.
euglenoids.
c.
apicomplexans.
d.
zooflagellates.
e.
diatoms.
 

 21. 

Members of this phylum have both plant-like and animal-like characteristics, making classification difficult.
a.
Chlorophyta
b.
Rhodophyta
c.
Euglenophyta
d.
Oomycota
e.
Bacillariophyta
 

 22. 

These algae are often used as indicators of organic pollution such as sewage in a lake or stream.
a.
Chlorophyta
b.
Rhodophyta
c.
Euglenophyta
d.
Dinoflagellata
e.
Bacillariophyta
 

 23. 

These algae often have intracellular shells of interlocking plates.
a.
Chlorophyta
b.
Rhodophyta
c.
Euglenophyta
d.
Dinoflagellata
e.
Bacillariophyta
 

 24. 

Members of which phylum are one of the most important producers in marine ecosystems, although sometimes they form blooms known as red tides?
a.
Chlorophyta
b.
Rhodophyta
c.
Euglenophyta
d.
Dinoflagellata
e.
Phaeophyta
 

 25. 

Toxins produced by red tides are known to have impacted all of the following except:
a.
birds.
b.
fishes.
c.
humans.
d.
manatees.
e.
None of the above, all are impacted by red tides.
 

 26. 

Brown algae lack true roots but have similar structures called ____________ that anchor them to the substrate.
a.
stipes
b.
fronds
c.
holdfasts
d.
blades
e.
thalli
 

 27. 

All of the following statements about the phylum Phaeophyta are true except:
a.
this group includes the most complex algae that have blades, stipes, and holdfasts.
b.
they share a common ancestor with representatives of the plant kingdom.
c.
they represent the largest members of the kingdom Protista.
d.
they are harvested for algin, which is used in a variety of commercial products.
e.
they are ecologically important as producers and in providing habitats along rocky coastlines.
 

 28. 

Of the following algae, which phylum exhibits the most diverse morphology, forming unicells, filaments, and sheets?
a.
Chlorophyta
b.
Phaeophyta
c.
Euglenophyta
d.
Dinoflagellata
e.
Bacillariophyta
 

 29. 

Members of the phylum ___________________ are thought to have given rise to plants.
a.
Chlorophyta
b.
Rhodophyta
c.
Euglenophyta
d.
Dinoflagellata
e.
Bacillariophyta
 

 30. 

Green algae exhibit alternation of generations and varied sexual reproduction. When their sexual reproduction involves the fusion of flagellated gametes of different sizes, it is known as:
a.
oogamy.
b.
anisogamy.
c.
isogamy.
d.
heterogamy.
e.
fission.
 
 
Figure 24-03
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar003-1.jpg

 

 31. 

In Figure 24-03, the Chlamydomonas at point 4 in the life cycle:
a.
are haploid gametes.
b.
were produced by mitosis.
c.
are negative (-) strain.
d.
are part of the haploid generation.
e.
All of the above.
 

 32. 

In Figure 24-03, the structure at point 6 in the life cycle:
a.
is a zoospore.
b.
was produced by mitosis.
c.
was produced by meiosis.
d.
is diploid.
e.
None of the above.
 

 33. 

In Figure 24-03, the process occurring at point 1 in the life cycle is:
a.
fertilization.
b.
sexual reproduction.
c.
meiosis.
d.
asexual reproduction.
e.
syngamy.
 

 34. 

Some green algae, such as Codium, attain very large sizes, but are a single cell with multiple nuclei. This condition is known as:
a.
mycelium.
b.
alternation of generations.
c.
multicellular.
d.
coenocytic.
e.
colonial.
 

 35. 

Which of the following protist phyla does not have flagellated cells?
a.
Oomycota
b.
Phaeophyta
c.
Euglenophyta
d.
Rhodophyta
e.
Chrysophyta
 

 36. 

Members of this phylum are typically multicellular and have phycoerythrin and phycocyanin as their accessory photosynthetic pigments.
a.
Rhodophyta
b.
Phaeophyta
c.
Dinoflagellata
d.
Euglenophyta
e.
Chlorophyta
 

 37. 

Which group of algae are a commercial source of agar and carrageenan?
a.
Rhodophyta
b.
Phaeophyta
c.
Dinoflagellata
d.
Euglenophyta
e.
Chlorophyta
 

 38. 

Coralline forms of members of this phylum are ecologically important in the formation of coral reefs.
a.
Rhodophyta
b.
Phaeophyta
c.
Dinoflagellata
d.
Euglenophyta
e.
Chlorophyta
 

 39. 

Fungus-like protists aren't fungi, because the protists have ____________ in their cell walls and possess ____________, wheras fungi do not.
a.
cellulose; flagella
b.
chitin; centrioles
c.
chitin; flagella
d.
cellulose; centrioles
e.
chitin; cilia
 

 40. 

Members of this phylum are characterized by a multinucleate amoeboid-like feeding form called a plasmodium.
a.
Myxomycota
b.
Oomycota
c.
Rhodomycota
d.
Phaeophyta
e.
Acrasiomycota
 

 41. 

A water mold, from phylum ________________, was responsible for the late blight of potatoes that caused the Irish potato famine.
a.
Myxomycota
b.
Oomycota
c.
Rhodomycota
d.
Phaeophyta
e.
Acrasiomycota
 

 42. 

The ____________ are zooflagellates that are very primitive and may give biologists clues as to the evolutionary relationships between the prokaryotes and the protists.
a.
cryptomonads
b.
chrysophytes
c.
diplomonads
d.
water molds
e.
slime molds
 

 43. 

Protists may move by pushing out their cytoplasmic extensions, known as:
a.
plasmadesmata.
b.
pseudopods.
c.
flagella.
d.
cilia.
e.
etrichomes.
 

 44. 

Symbiotic association in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is called:
a.
symbiosis.
b.
mutualism.
c.
commensalism.
d.
parasitism.
e.
None of the above.
 

 45. 

Symbiotic association in which one partner lives on or in another is called:
a.
symbiosis.
b.
mutualism.
c.
commensalisms.
d.
parasitism.
e.
None of the above.
 

 46. 

The base of the food web in aquatic ecosystem is:
a.
Algae.
b.
Euglena.
c.
Plankton.
d.
plants.
e.
fish.
 

 47. 

First eukaryotic cells to evolve from ancestral prokaryotes were:
a.
Fungi.
b.
Protists.
c.
Endosymbionts.
d.
Plants.
e.
None of the above.
 

 48. 

Mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells probably originated from:
a.
Fungi.
b.
Protists.
c.
Endosymbionts.
d.
Plants.
e.
None of the above.
 

 49. 

Ancestors of ____________________ represent an intermediate stage in eukaryotic evolution when cells each had two haploid nuclei but fusion had not occurred.
a.
plasmodium
b.
Amoeba
c.
Euglena
d.
Giardia
e.
Paramecium
 

 50. 

Backpackers' diarrhea, a common infection among campers and hikers, particularly in the mountains of the western United States, is caused by _________________.
a.
plasmodium
b.
Amoeba
c.
Euglena
d.
Trypanosomas
e.
Giardia
 

 51. 

Euglenoids reproduce:
a.
asexually.
b.
sexually.
c.
both asexually and sexually.
d.
do not reproduce.
e.
by mating.
 

 52. 

Researchers use ______________________ protists as indicator species of organic pollution.
a.
plasmodium
b.
Amoeba
c.
Euglenoids
d.
Giardia
e.
Paramecium
 

 53. 

Trypanosomes reproduce:
a.
asexually.
b.
sexually.
c.
both asexually and sexually.
d.
do not reproduce.
e.
by mating.
 

 54. 

In paramecium, the surface of the cell is covered with thousands of short, hairlike ___________.
a.
plasmadesmata
b.
pseudopods
c.
flagella
d.
cilia
e.
trichomes
 

 55. 

In freshwater ciliates, special organelles called ______________________________ control water regulation.
a.
flagella
b.
contractile vacuole
c.
Food vacuole
d.
Lysosome
e.
peroxisome
 

 56. 

In ciliates macronuclei controls ____________________________.
a.
reproduction
b.
growth
c.
metabolism
d.
movement
e.
Both B and C.
 

 57. 

The symbiotic dinoflagellates, which live in the bodies of marine invertebrates such as mollusks, jellyfish, and corals, are called __________________________.
a.
Zooxanthellae
b.
apicomplexans
c.
sporozites
d.
ciliates
e.
None of the above.
 

 58. 

Dinoflagellates that contribute substantially to the productivity of coral reefs are ____________.
a.
Zooxanthellae
b.
apicomplexans
c.
sporozites
d.
ciliates
e.
None of the above.
 

 59. 

Water molds are members of the kingdom___________________.
a.
Protists
b.
Fungi
c.
Plantae
d.
Eubacteria
e.
Animalia
 

 60. 

Sudden death of oak is caused by a (an):
a.
Protist.
b.
Fungi.
c.
archaebacteria.
d.
Eubacteria.
e.
animal parasite.
 

 61. 

Protists are alike in that all are
a.
multicellular.
b.
photosynthetic.
c.
marine.
d.
nonparasitic.
e.
eukaryotic.
 

 62. 

All of the following groups had taxonomic significance in the past, but only one is now considered to be a diverse clade. Which group is it?
a.
algae
b.
protist
c.
protozoa
d.
monera
e.
euglenozoa
 

 63. 

Which of the following statements concerning living phytoplanktonic organisms are true?

1. They are important members of communities surrounding deep-sea hydrothermal vents.
2. They are important primary producers in most aquatic food webs.
3. They are important in maintaining oxygen in Earth's seas and atmosphere.
4. They are most often found growing in the sediments of seas and oceans.
5. They can be so concentrated that they affect the color of seawater.
a.
1 and 4
b.
1, 2, and 4
c.
2, 3, and 4
d.
2, 3, and 5
e.
3, 4, and 5
 

 64. 

Biologists have discovered the kingdom Protista to be paraphyletic. Which of the following statements is true, and consistent with this conclusion?
a.
Various combinations of prokaryotic ancestors gave rise to different lineages of protists.
b.
Animals, plants, and fungi arose from different protistan ancestors.
c.
Multicellularity has evolved only once among the protists.
d.
Chloroplasts among various protists are similar to those found in prokaryotes.
e.
The protists arose from a common ancestor that was a parabasalid.
 

 65. 

The strongest evidence for the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotic organelles is the similarity between extant prokaryotes and which of the following?
a.
nuclei and chloroplasts
b.
mitochondria and chloroplasts
c.
cilia and mitochondria
d.
mitochondria and nuclei
e.
mitochondria and cilia
 

 66. 

According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria originate?
a.
from infoldings of the plasma membrane, coupled with mutations of genes for oxygen-using metabolism
b.
from engulfed, originally free-living prokaryotes
c.
by tertiary endosymbiosis
d.
from the nuclear envelope folding outward and forming mitochondrial membranes
e.
when a protoeukaryote engaged in a symbiotic relationship with a protobiont
 

 67. 

Which of the following statements is consistent with the hypothesis that certain eukaryotic organelles originated as prokaryotic endosymbionts? Such organelles
a.
are roughly the same size as bacteria.
b.
can be cultured on agar since they make all their own proteins.
c.
contain circular DNA molecules.
d.
have ribosomes that are similar to those of bacteria.
e.
A, C, and D
 

 68. 

Which process allows nucleomorphs to be first reduced, and then lost altogether, without the loss of any genetic information from the host cell that ultimately surrounds the nucleomorph?
a.
conjugation
b.
horizontal gene transfer
c.
binary fission
d.
phagocytosis
e.
meiosis
 

 69. 

Which organisms represent the common ancestor of all photosynthetic plastids found in eukaryotes?
a.
autotrophic euglenids
b.
diatoms
c.
dinoflagellates
d.
red algae
e.
cyanobacteria
 

 70. 

The chloroplasts of modern plants are thought to have been derived according to which sequence?
a.
cyanobacteria green algae green plants
b.
cyanobacteria green algae fungi green plants
c.
red algae brown algae green algae green plants
d.
red algae cyanobacteria green plants
e.
cyanobacteria red algae green algae green plants
 

 71. 

The evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes probably
a.
occurred many times.
b.
involved endosymbiosis on multiple occasions.
c.
allowed for the formation of both complexity and multicellularity.
d.
B and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 72. 

The goal in classifying organisms should be to create categories that reflect the evolutionary histories of organisms. What system would be best to use?
a.
a three-kingdom classification system
b.
a five-kingdom classification system
c.
an eight-kingdom classification system
d.
a system that uses as many kingdoms as necessary to be accurate
e.
a system that returns to that used by Linnaeus
 

 73. 

The current state of the revision of "protistan" taxonomy is an example of which feature of good scientific practice?
a.
the need to suspend judgment until enough evidence is available to make an informed decision
b.
the need to base hypothetical phylogenies solely on fossil evidence
c.
the need to be willing to change or drop one's hypotheses when the data warrant it
d.
the need to avoid sampling techniques that can introduce bias
e.
both A and C
 

 74. 

A mixotroph loses its plastids yet continues to survive. Which of the following most likely accounts for its continued survival?
a.
It relies on photosystems that float freely in its cytosol.
b.
It must have gained extra mitochondria when it lost its plastids.
c.
It engulfs organic material by phagocytosis.
d.
It has an endospore.
e.
It is protected by a siliceous case.
 
 
For the following questions, refer to the figure below, which represents a hypothetical eukaryotic cell that is the result of serial endosymbioses involving its mitochondria, one of which is pictured. Labeled arrows (A-E) indicate various membranes in this cell. Responses may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

nar004-1.jpg

 

 75. 

This membrane is homologous to the plasma membrane of the ancestral, gram-negative, aerobically respiring bacterium.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 76. 

This membrane is homologous to an ancestral host plasma membrane and was derived from the primary (first) endosymbiotic event.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 77. 

Which one of the mitochondrial membranes should bear the strongest similarity to the outer membrane of the cell wall of the ancestral, gram-negative, aerobically respiring bacterium?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 78. 

If the genes for ATP synthase underwent horizontal gene transfer and are no longer within the mitochondrion, then which membrane most immediately surrounds the genes for ATP synthase?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 79. 

A biologist discovers a new unicellullar organism that possesses more than two flagella and two small, but equal-sized, nuclei. The organism has reduced mitochondria and no chloroplasts. How would you classify this organism?
a.
apicomplexan
b.
diplomonad
c.
ciliate
d.
prokaryote
e.
Chlamydomonas
 

 80. 

Assuming that all of the flagella found among the various types of protists require the same amount of ATP per unit time to operate, and assuming that all of an individual protist's flagella are in use simultaneously, then which of these protists should use the greatest amount of ATP per unit time to move about?
a.
Chlamydomonas
b.
dinoflagellates
c.
euglenids
d.
diplomonads
e.
golden algae
 

 81. 

Which of the following groups does not include many planktonic species?
a.
kinetoplastids.
b.
golden algae.
c.
diatoms.
d.
dinoflagellates.
e.
radiolarians.
 

 82. 

Organisms classified as Euglenozoa have previously been classified as protozoans, protista, plants, and animals. Why the confusion?
a.
Like protozoans, they are unicellular.
b.
Like animals, many are heterotrophic.
c.
Like plants, many are photosynthetic.
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 83. 

When a protist possesses two flagella, both are generally used for propulsion. Assuming that a flagellum containing a crystalline rod cannot undulate back and forth, and assuming that two undulatory flagella can produce more effective locomotion than can a single flagellum, which of these organisms should have the least effective locomotion?
a.
golden algae
b.
dinoflagellates
c.
euglenids
d.
Chlamydomonas
e.
oomycetes
 

 84. 

Which two genera have members that can evade the human immune system by frequently changing their surface proteins?

1. Plasmodium
2. Trichomonas
3. Paramecium
4. Trypanosoma
5. Entamoeba
a.
1 and 2
b.
1 and 4
c.
2 and 3
d.
2 and 4
e.
4 and 5
 

 85. 

Which of the following marine organisms produce potent neurotoxins that cause extensive fish kills, contaminate shellfish, and create severe respiratory irritation to humans along the shore?
a.
red algae
b.
dinoflagellates
c.
diplomonads
d.
euglenids
e.
golden algae
 

 86. 

Which structure(s) consist(s), at least in part, of DNA?
a.
Trypanosoma kinetoplast
b.
diplomonad mitochondrion
c.
chlorarachniophytes nucleomorph
d.
A and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 87. 

Which of the following is mismatched?
a.
apicomplexa-internal parasites
b.
golden algae;-planktonic producers
c.
euglenozoa-unicellular flagellates
d.
ciliates-red tide organisms
e.
entamoeba-ingestive heterotrophs
 

 88. 

Which of the following statements about dinoflagellates is false?
a.
They possess two flagella.
b.
Some cause red tides.
c.
their walls are composed of cellulose plates.
d.
Many types contain chlorophyll.
e.
Their fossil remains form limestone deposits.
 

 89. 

Which group(s) within the Alveolata include(s) members that are important in ocean food webs, cause(s) red tides that kill many fish, and may even be carnivorous?
a.
ciliates
b.
apicomplexans
c.
dinoflagellates
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 90. 

Which of the following correctly pairs a protist with one of its characteristics?
a.
kinetoplastids;-slender pseudopodia
b.
plasmodial slime molds-flagellated stages
c.
apicomplexans-parasitic
d.
gymnamoebas-calcium carbonate shell
e.
foraminiferans-abundant in soils
 

 91. 

Which of the following statements concerning protists is false?
a.
All protists are eukaryotic organisms; many are unicellular or colonial.
b.
The organism that causes malaria is transmitted to humans by the bite of the tsetse fly.
c.
All apicomplexans are parasitic.
d.
Cellular slime molds have an amoeboid stage that may be followed by a stage during which spores are produced.
e.
The euglenozoans that are functionally mixotrophic contain chloroplasts.
 

 92. 

You are given an unknown organism to identify. It is unicellular and heterotrophic. It is motile, using many short extensions of the cytoplasm, each featuring the 9+2 pattern. It has well-developed organelles and three nuclei, one large and two small. This organism is most likely to be a member of which group?
a.
foraminiferans
b.
radiolarians
c.
ciliates
d.
kinetoplastids
e.
slime molds
 

 93. 

Which of the following is not characteristic of ciliates?
a.
They use cilia as locomotory or feeding structures.
b.
They are relatively complex cells.
c.
They can exchange genetic material with other ciliates by the process of mitosis.
d.
Most live as solitary cells in fresh water.
e.
They have two or more nuclei.
 

 94. 

If one speculates that it requires ten times as many ATP molecules to power a typical flagellum as to power a typical cilium for a given unit of time, and if one assumes that locomotion is the largest energy drain for protists, then which protist should have the largest number of ATP synthases per cell?
a.
Euglena
b.
Chlamydomonas
c.
Giardia
d.
Plasmodium
e.
Paramecium
 

 95. 

Which process results in genetic recombination, but is separate from the process wherein the population size of paramecium increases?
a.
budding
b.
meiotic division
c.
mitotic division
d.
conjugation
e.
binary fission
 

 96. 

Which statement regarding resistance is false?
a.
Many of the oomycetes that cause late potato blight have become resistant to pesticides.
b.
Many of the mosquitoes that transmit malaria to humans have become resistant to pesticides.
c.
Many of the malarial parasites have become resistant to antimalarial drugs.
d.
Many humans have become resistant to antimalarial drugs.
e.
Trichomonas vaginalis is resistant to the normal acidity of the human vagina.
 

 97. 

Why is the filamentous morphology of the water molds considered a case of convergent evolution with the hyphae of fungi?
a.
Fungi are closely related to the water molds.
b.
Body shape reflects ancestor-descendant relationships among organisms.
c.
Filamentous shape is an adaptation for a nutritional mode as a decomposer.
d.
Hyphae and filaments are necessary for locomotion in both groups.
e.
Filamentous body shape is evolutionarily primitive for all eukaryotes.
 

 98. 

The Irish potato famine was caused by an organism that belongs to which group?
a.
bacterium
b.
stramenopile
c.
foraminiferan
d.
apicomplexan
e.
virus
 

 99. 

If one were to apply the most recent technique used to fight late potato blight to the fight against the malarial infection of humans, then one would
a.
increase the dosage of the least-expensive antimalarial drug administered to humans.
b.
increase the dosage of the most common pesticide used to kill Anopheles mosquitoes.
c.
introduce a predator of the malarial parasite into infected humans.
d.
use a "cocktail" of at least three different pesticides against Anopheles mosquitoes.
e.
insert genes from a Plasmodium-resistant strain of mosquito into Anopheles mosquitoes.
 

 100. 

Which of the following is correctly described as a primary producer?
a.
oomycete
b.
kinetoplastid
c.
apicomplexan
d.
diatom
e.
radiolarian
 

 101. 

A certain unicellular eukaryote has a siliceous (glasslike) shell and autotrophic nutrition. To which group does it belong?
a.
dinoflagellate
b.
diatom
c.
gymnamoeba
d.
foraminiferan
e.
slime mold
 

 102. 

Diatoms are members of the phytoplankton. Diatoms lack any organelles that might have the "9+2 pattern." They obtain their nutrition from functional chloroplasts, and each diatom is encased within two porous, glasslike valves. Which question would be most important for one interested in the day-to-day survival of individual diatoms?
a.
How does carbon dioxide get into these protists?
b.
How do diatoms move across the surfaces of bodies of water?
c.
How do diatoms keep from sinking into poorly lit waters?
d.
How do diatoms avoid being crushed by the action of waves?
e.
How do diatom sperm cells locate diatom egg cells?
 

 103. 

Concerning diatoms' potential use as drug-delivery systems, which anatomical feature would seem to be most important?
a.
their ability to withstand immense pressure
b.
the chemical composition of their cell walls
c.
the porous nature of their cell walls
d.
the chemical composition of their food-storage material
e.
the nuclear envelope
 

 104. 

The largest seaweeds belong to which group?
a.
cyanobacteria
b.
red algae
c.
green algae
d.
brown algae
e.
golden algae
 

 105. 

A large seaweed that floats freely on the surface of deep bodies of water would be expected to lack which of the following?
a.
thalli
b.
bladders
c.
blades
d.
holdfasts
e.
gel-forming polysaccharides
 

 106. 

The following are all characteristic of the water molds (Oomycota) except
a.
the presence of filamentous feeding structures.
b.
flagellated zoospores.
c.
a nutritional mode that can result in the decomposition of dead organic matter.
d.
a similarity to fungi that is the result of evolutionary convergence.
e.
a feeding plasmodium.
 

 107. 

Theoretically, which two of the following present the richest potential sources of silica?

1. marine sediments consisting of foram tests
2. diatomaceous earth
3. marine sediments consisting of radiolarian tests
4. marine sediments consisting of dinoflagellate plates
a.
1 and 2
b.
1 and 4
c.
2 and 3
d.
2 and 4
e.
3 and 4
 

 108. 

Thread-like pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic of which group?
a.
cercozoans
b.
gymnamoebas
c.
entamoebas
d.
amoeboid stage of cellular slime molds
e.
oomycetes
 

 109. 

Which two heterotrophic organisms most commonly derive nutrition from endosymbiotic relationships with photosynthetic protists?

1. ciliates
2. slime molds
3. parabasalids
4. reef-building coral animals
5. foraminiferans
a.
1 and 2
b.
2 and 3
c.
2 and 4
d.
3 and 4
e.
4 and 5
 

 110. 

Which of the following produce the dense glassy ooze of the deep-ocean floor?
a.
forams
b.
dinoflagellates
c.
radiolarians
d.
ciliates
e.
apicomplexans
 

 111. 

A snail-like, coiled, porous shell of calcium carbonate is characteristic of which group?
a.
diatoms
b.
foraminiferans
c.
radiolarians
d.
gymnamoebas
e.
ciliates
 

 112. 

What provides the best rationale for not classifying the slime molds as fungi? Their
a.
SSU-rRNA sequences.
b.
nutritional modes.
c.
choice of habitats.
d.
physical appearance.
e.
reproductive methods.
 

 113. 

Which dichotomous pair of alternatives is highlighted by the life cycle of the cellular slime molds?
a.
prokaryotic versus eukaryotic
b.
plant versus animal
c.
unicellular versus multicellular
d.
diploid versus haploid
e.
autotroph versus heterotroph
 

 114. 

What makes certain red algae appear red?
a.
They live in warm coastal waters.
b.
They possess pigments that reflect and transmit red light.
c.
They use red light for photosynthesis.
d.
They lack chlorophyll.
e.
They contain the water-soluble pigment anthocyanin.
 

 115. 

The structure and biochemistry of chloroplasts in red algae are most like the structure and biochemistry of chloroplasts in which of the following organisms?
a.
golden algae
b.
diatoms
c.
dinoflagellates
d.
green algae
e.
brown algae
 

 116. 

A biologist discovers an alga that is marine, multicellular, and lives at a depth reached only by blue light. This alga probably belongs to which group?
a.
red algae
b.
brown algae
c.
green algae
d.
dinoflagellates
e.
golden algae
 

 117. 

If blue light is the component of the visible spectrum that can penetrate to the greatest depth in water, then what should be expected of photosynthetic protists that survive at great depths?
a.
They should absorb green light preferentially.
b.
They should absorb blue light preferentially.
c.
They should absorb red light preferentially.
d.
They should absorb white light preferentially.
e.
They should reflect green light preferentially.
 

 118. 

Members of the green algae often differ from members of the plant kingdom in that some green algae
a.
are heterotrophs.
b.
are unicellular.
c.
have chlorophyll a.
d.
store carbohydrates as starch.
e.
have cell walls containing cellulose.
 

 119. 

Which taxonomic group containing eukaryotic organisms is thought to be directly ancestral to the plant kingdom?
a.
golden algae
b.
radiolarians
c.
foraminiferans
d.
apicomplexans
e.
green algae
 

 120. 

Which of the following are actual mutualistic partnerships that involve a protist and a host organism?
a.
green alga : fungal partner of lichen
b.
dinoflagellate : reef-building coral animal
c.
Trichomonas : human
d.
alga : certain foraminiferans
e.
A, B, and D
 
 
Choose the organism from the list below that best fits each of the following descriptions.

A. euglenozoans
B. Chlamydomonas
C. dinoflagellates
D. stramenopiles
E. diplomonads
 

 121. 

possess more than two identical, functional flagella
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 122. 

have one normal and one crystalline-rod-containing flagellum
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 123. 

have one flagellum oriented at 90 degrees to the second flagellum
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 124. 

have one hairy and one smooth flagellum
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 125. 

have two identical, functional flagella, roughly parallel to each other and emerging from about the same site
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 
 
Choose the nutritional mode that is primarily employed by each of the protists listed below.

A. autotrophic
B. mixotrophic
C. heterotrophic (by absorption)
D. heterotrophic (by ingestion)
 

 126. 

diatoms
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 127. 

oomycetes
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 128. 

phagocytic euglenids that possess functional chloroplasts
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 129. 

amoebozoans that do not possess endosymbionts
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 
 
You are given five test tubes, each containing an unknown protist, and your task is to read the description below and match these five protists to the correct test tube.

A. Paramecium
B. Navicula (diatom)
C. Pfiesteria (dinoflagellate)
D. Entamoeba
E. Plasmodium


In test tube 1, you observe an organism feeding. Your sketch of the organism looks very similar to the figure below. When light, especially red and blue light, is shone on the tubes, oxygen bubbles accumulate on the inside of test tubes 2 and 3. Chemical analysis of test tube 3 indicates the presence of substantial amounts of silica. Chemical analysis of test tube 2 indicates the presence of a chemical that is toxic to fish and humans. Microscopic analysis of organisms in tubes 2, 4, and 5 reveals the presence of permanent, membrane-bounded sacs just under the plasma membrane. Microscopic analysis of organisms in tube 4 reveals the presence of an apicoplast in each. Microscopic analysis of the contents in tube 5 reveals the presence of one large nucleus and several small nuclei in each organism.

nar007-1.jpg

 

 130. 

Test tube 2 contains
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 131. 

Test tube 4 contains
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 132. 

Test tube 5 contains
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 133. 

Test tube 3 contains
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 134. 

Test tube 1 contains
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 


 
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