PCC Fungi Study Guide

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PCC Fungi Study Guide


Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

All fungi are
a.
heterotrophic prokaryotes.
c.
autotrophic prokaryotes.
b.
heterotrophic eukaryotes.
d.
autotrophic eukaryotes.
 

 2. 

Fungi do NOT
a.
carry out photosynthesis.
c.
digest food outside their bodies.
b.
grow on their food source.
d.
absorb food through their cell walls.
 

 3. 

Fungi resemble plants in that they both always
a.
have stems.
c.
act as parasites.
b.
grow from the ground.
d.
have cell walls.
 

 4. 

A mushroom is a fungal
a.
fruiting body.
c.
mycorrhiza.
b.
lichen.
d.
yeast.
 

 5. 

The tangled mass that makes up the body of a fungus is the
a.
hypha.
c.
mycelium.
b.
rhizoid.
d.
stolon.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg

Figure 21–1

 

 6. 

Fungal hyphae, shown in Figure 21–1, differ in that some lack
a.
cell walls.
c.
nuclei.
b.
cross walls.
d.
cytoplasm.
 

 7. 

A circular arrangement of mushrooms sprouting from the same mycelium is known as a(an)
a.
hypha.
c.
imperfect fungus.
b.
fairy ring.
d.
sporangiophore.
 

 8. 

Most fungi reproduce
a.
asexually only.
c.
both sexually and asexually.
b.
sexually only.
d.
by budding.
 

 9. 

Stinkhorns, which mimic the odor of rotting meat, have spores that are dispersed by
a.
wind.
c.
snow.
b.
birds.
d.
flies.
 

 10. 

When hyphae of opposite mating types meet, they first
a.
enter mitosis
c.
enter meiosis.
b.
grow and develop.
d.
fuse.
 

 11. 

Sporangia are found at the tops of specialized hyphae called
a.
sporangiophores.
c.
gametangia.
b.
mycelia.
d.
stolons.
 

 12. 

Which of the following processes is first to occur after the nuclei of opposite mating types fuse?
a.
Spores are produced.
c.
Mitosis occurs.
b.
Gametes are produced.
d.
Meiosis occurs.
 

 13. 

Dark fuzz that grows on bread is an example of
a.
toadstool.
c.
yeast.
b.
spore.
d.
mold.
 

 14. 

Rhizoids in molds are analagous to which structures on plants?
a.
flowers
c.
stems
b.
roots
d.
leaves
 

 15. 

In bread mold, haploid gametes are produced by the
a.
gametangia.
c.
zygospores.
b.
rhizoids.
d.
sporangiophores.
 

 16. 

Which of the following ingredients is NOT added to bread dough in order to make it rise?
a.
sugar
c.
water
b.
yeast
d.
oxygen
 

 17. 

The dry, powdered yeast used to bake bread actually contains
a.
zygospores.
c.
conidia.
b.
ascospores.
d.
sporangia.
 

 18. 

Yeasts obtain energy by alcoholic fermentation in the absence of
a.
moisture.
c.
oxygen.
b.
carbon dioxide.
d.
sugar.
 

 19. 

Mushrooms are classified as
a.
common molds.
c.
club fungi.
b.
sac fungi.
d.
imperfect fungi.
 

 20. 

Which is responsible for the enlargement of fruiting bodies?
a.
water uptake by cells in hyphae
c.
production of haploid spores
b.
rapid cell division
d.
expansion of air spaces between the gills
 

 21. 

The common name for members of the phylum Basidiomycota is derived from the shape of their
a.
spores.
c.
basidia.
b.
hyphae.
d.
stalks.
 

 22. 

Over time, nutrients at the center of a large underground mycelium become depleted, causing new mushrooms to sprout only
a.
in a cluster at the center.
c.
when the nutrients are replaced.
b.
in a ring at the outer edges.
d.
after budding takes place.
 

 23. 

Each of the following is a basidiomycete EXCEPT
a.
shelf fungi.
c.
puffballs.
b.
mushrooms.
d.
cup fungi.
 

 24. 

In basidiomycetes, the primary mycelia of different mating types fuse to form
a.
a secondary mycelium.
b.
haploid zygotes.
c.
gills.
d.
haploid nuclei of the same mating type.
 

 25. 

Which statement about Penicillium is correct?
a.
It produces mushrooms.
c.
It is the source of an antibiotic.
b.
It causes bread to rise.
d.
It causes athlete’s foot.
 

 26. 

Penicillium is classified in phylum Deuteromycota because Penicillium has
a.
fruiting bodies.
c.
no observed sexual phase.
b.
gills.
d.
basidiospores.
 

 27. 

Penicillium may have evolved from an ascomycete that lost its ability to carry out
a.
asexual reproduction.
c.
spore formation.
b.
sexual reproduction.
d.
conidia formation.
 

 28. 

An important role of fungi in an ecosystem is
a.
photosynthesis.
c.
making alcohol.
b.
breaking down dead organisms.
d.
killing bacteria.
 

 29. 

The oldest fossil fungi on record belong to the phylum
a.
Ascomycota.
c.
Basidiomycota.
b.
Deuteromycota.
d.
Zygomycota.
 

 30. 

Fungi that absorb food from decaying organic matter are
a.
parasites.
c.
mutualists.
b.
saprobes.
d.
autotrophs.
 

 31. 

Fungi feed on
a.
only living organisms.
c.
both living and dead organisms.
b.
only dead organisms.
d.
only other fungi.
 

 32. 

The breakdown of dead organisms is accelerated by the fungal production of
a.
alcohols.
c.
digestive enzymes.
b.
acids.
d.
recycled nutrients.
 

 33. 

Which of the following statements about fungi is true?
a.
They bind trace elements and hold them.
b.
They return trace elements to the soil.
c.
They do not affect trace elements.
d.
They deplete the soil of trace elements.
 

 34. 

Athlete’s foot is caused by the same fungus that causes
a.
wheat rust.
c.
ringworm.
b.
moldy bread.
d.
thrush.
 

 35. 

The growth of yeasts in moist regions of the body is kept in check by competition from
a.
antibiotics.
c.
rusts.
b.
bacteria.
d.
mildews.
 

 36. 

Crop damage by fungal diseases is
a.
greatest in tropical areas.
c.
greatest in temperate areas.
b.
least in tropical areas.
d.
not affected by climate.
 

 37. 

Which structures of the fungus Cordyceps digest tropical grasshoppers from the inside out?
a.
spores
c.
fruiting bodies
b.
hyphae
d.
mycelia
 

 38. 

Each of the following is true of wheat rust EXCEPT that it
a.
is caused by a basidiomycete.
b.
is carried by insects into wheat fields.
c.
is controlled by destroying barberry plants.
d.
produces two kinds of spores.
 

 39. 

The normal balance between bacteria and yeasts in the body can be upset by
a.
eating yeast-leavened bread.
c.
using antibiotics.
b.
eating edible mushrooms.
d.
being exposed to mushroom spores.
 
 
nar002-1.jpg

Figure 21–2

 

 40. 

Figure 21–2 illustrates an association of a(an)
a.
cyanobacterium and a plant.
c.
plant and a fungus.
b.
alga or cyanobacterium and a fungus.
d.
alga and a plant.
 

 41. 

Which of the following is NOT a single organism?
a.
mushroom
c.
yeast
b.
smut
d.
lichen
 

 42. 

Which statement about lichens is correct?
a.
They are not tolerant of harsh conditions.
b.
They cannot make their own food.
c.
They grow only in soil.
d.
They can serve as an air quality indicator.
 

 43. 

The association of plants and fungi in mycorrhizae illustrates a type of relationship called
a.
parasitism.
c.
competition.
b.
mutualism.
d.
parallelism.
 

 44. 

In a mycorrhizal relationship, what benefit does the plant get from the fungus?
a.
protection from harsh conditions
c.
products of photosynthesis
b.
aid in seed dispersal
d.
aid in the absorption of water and minerals
 

 45. 

Beneath the forest floor, carbon atoms can be moved from one tree to the next by
a.
orchids.
c.
mycorrhizae.
b.
fungal spores.
d.
lichens.
 

 46. 

Which of the following is not a characteristic of fungi?
a.
membrane-bounded nuclei
b.
mitochondria
c.
cell wall of lipopolysaccharides
d.
primarily terrestrial in habitat
e.
reproduction via spores
 

 47. 

The cell walls of fungi are composed of:
a.
cellulose.
b.
lipids.
c.
glycogen.
d.
chitin.
e.
chlorophyll.
 

 48. 

Fungi can grow under all of the following conditions except:
a.
concentrated salt solutions.
b.
an environment with a very low pH of 3.
c.
a dry environment.
d.
jelly or other sugar solutions.
e.
a cold, refrigerated environment.
 
 
Figure 25-01
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar003-1.jpg

 

 49. 

In Figure 25-01, the structure labeled 1 is:
a.
a conidium.
b.
a perforated septum.
c.
a hypha.
d.
a basidium.
e.
a spore.
 

 50. 

In Figure 25-01, the fungus illustrated in Figure A is:
a.
multicellular.
b.
coenocytic.
c.
septate.
d.
dikaryotic.
e.
None of the above.
 

 51. 

An example of a unicellular fungus is:
a.
a mold.
b.
a mushroom.
c.
a yeast.
d.
a rust.
e.
a smut.
 

 52. 

A ____________ is a filament that makes up the vegetative body of most fungi.
a.
thallus
b.
protonema
c.
fruiting body
d.
hypha
e.
septa
 

 53. 

Which group of fungi have hyphae that are multinucleate and not divided by septa?
a.
monokaryotic
b.
unicellular
c.
ascomycete
d.
coenocytic
e.
sporophyllous
 

 54. 

A ____________ is a tangled mat of hyphae.
a.
sporocarp
b.
sporangia
c.
zygospore
d.
mycelium
e.
coenocyte
 

 55. 

The club fungi typically reproduce by producing:
a.
zygospores.
b.
ascospores.
c.
asci.
d.
basidia.
e.
mycorrhizae.
 

 56. 

Most fungal spores are ____________ reproductive cells that are produced ________________________.
a.
motile; sexually only
b.
motile; asexually only
c.
nonmotile; sexually only
d.
nonmotile; asexually only
e.
nonmotile; sexually or asexually
 

 57. 

In a fungus, a complex multicellular reproductive structure is called:
a.
a hypha.
b.
a gametangium.
c.
a fruiting body.
d.
an oogonium.
e.
an antheridium.
 

 58. 

What makes up most of the mass of an individual mushroom?
a.
underground mycelium
b.
above ground mycelium
c.
underground fruiting body
d.
above ground ascocarp
e.
underground ascocarp
 

 59. 

Dikaryotic cells are denoted as:
a.
n + n.
b.
n – n.
c.
n.
d.
2n.
e.
2n – n.
 

 60. 

Members of phylum ____________ are the most primitive of the fungi and were previously classified as protists.
a.
Chytridiomycota
b.
Zygomycota
c.
Oomycota
d.
Ascomycota
e.
Deuteromycota
 

 61. 

One ancestral characteristic remaining in representatives of the Chytridiomycetes is:
a.
gametes formed by mitosis.
b.
alternation of generations.
c.
cell walls.
d.
flagellated cells.
e.
both sexual and asexual reproduction.
 

 62. 

An example of a member of phylum Zygomycota is:
a.
the common edible mushroom.
b.
yeast.
c.
the black bread mold.
d.
the truffle.
e.
More than one of the above.
 

 63. 

When bread gets moldy with visible black or blue spots, you are looking at masses of the colored:
a.
spores.
b.
hyphae.
c.
mycelia.
d.
ascocarps.
e.
thalli.
 

 64. 

Black bread mold is ___________________, which means that it is self-sterile.
a.
heterozygous
b.
heterothallic
c.
hetertrophic
d.
mycotoxic
e.
coenocytic
 

 65. 

Reproduction in the black bread mold occurs between ___________________ hyphae.
a.
male and female
b.
+ and –
c.
dikaryotic and monokaryotic
d.
heterothallic and homothallic
e.
sterile and self-sterile
 

 66. 

An example of a member of phylum Ascomycota is:
a.
the common edible mushroom.
b.
yeast.
c.
the black bread mold.
d.
the truffle.
e.
More than one of the above.
 

 67. 

The sac fungi are characterized by sexual reproductive structures called:
a.
asci.
b.
basidia.
c.
gemmae.
d.
conidiophores.
e.
conidia.
 

 68. 

Asexual reproduction in sac fungi involves production of spores called:
a.
asci.
b.
basidia.
c.
gemmae.
d.
conidiophores.
e.
conidia.
 
 
Figure 25-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar004-1.jpg

 

 69. 

In Figure 25-02, the structure labeled 11 is:
a.
a zygote.
b.
a female gametangium.
c.
a male gemetangium.
d.
a zoosporangium.
e.
a zoospore.
 

 70. 

The process occurring at point 3 in Figure 25-02 is:
a.
asexual reproduction.
b.
fertilization.
c.
meiosis.
d.
mitosis.
e.
zygote germination.
 

 71. 

The structure labeled 9 in Figure 25-02 was produced by:
a.
fertilization of two zygotes.
b.
meiosis in the resting sporangium.
c.
meiosis in the zoosporangium.
d.
mitosis in the resting sporangium.
e.
mitosis in the zoosporangium.
 

 72. 

An example of a plant disease caused by a basiodiomycete is:
a.
chestnut blight.
b.
Dutch elm disease.
c.
verticillium wilt on potatoes.
d.
stem rust of wheat.
e.
All of the above.
 

 73. 

In a mushroom, the primary mycelium is composed of ______________ cells.
a.
monokaryotic
b.
dikaryotic
c.
homothallic
d.
coenocytic
e.
prokaryotic
 

 74. 

Puffballs and bracket fungi are most closely related to:
a.
molds.
b.
truffles.
c.
the common edible mushroom.
d.
yeast.
e.
the black bread mold.
 

 75. 

Lichens are most typically formed by the symbiotic association of an alga or cyanobacterium and:
a.
an ascomycete.
b.
a deuteromycete.
c.
a basidiomycete.
d.
a zygomycete.
e.
All of the above.
 

 76. 

Lichens reproduce primarily asexually by ____________, which are fragments of the body of the lichen.
a.
conidia
b.
soredia
c.
asci
d.
basidia
e.
thalli
 

 77. 

Which of the following organisms typically grows most slowly?
a.
bread molds
b.
lichens
c.
yeasts
d.
mushrooms
e.
sac fungi
 

 78. 

Which of the following is not produced utilizing fungi?
a.
beer
b.
bread
c.
blue cheese
d.
yogurt
e.
wine
 

 79. 

Claviceps purpurea produces _______________, which infests grain and has been important in many historical events, as ingestion of infested grain milled into flour can cause hallucinations and even death.
a.
an ergot
b.
a smut
c.
a rust
d.
a brown rot
e.
a mildew
 

 80. 

Fungi parasitic on plants produce specialized hyphae, called ____________, that penetrate the host.
a.
soredia
b.
secondary mycelia
c.
basidia
d.
asci
e.
haustoria
 

 81. 

A basidiomycete that infests wheat is the wheat:
a.
rust.
b.
wilt.
c.
strobilus.
d.
scab.
e.
rot.
 

 82. 

Which is not a fungal infection in humans?
a.
ringworm
b.
athlete's foot
c.
yeast infections
d.
histoplasmosis
e.
None of the above, all are fungal infections in humans.
 

 83. 

Examples of plant disease caused by an ascomycete are:
a.
chestnut blight.
b.
Dutch elm disease.
c.
stem rust of wheat.
d.
abnormal leaf fall of rubber.
e.
Both A and B.
 

 84. 

______________________ is a common chytridiomycete, which exhibits alternation of generation.
a.
phytophthora
b.
Allomyces
c.
Ascomycetes
d.
chytrids
e.
None of the above.
 

 85. 

Which one of the following is mismatched?
a.
Bread mold – zygomycetes
b.
Sac fungi – Ascomycota
c.
Yeast – Ascomycota
d.
Truffles – Ascomycota
e.
Ascomycota – ascospores
 

 86. 

The characteristic brown, blue-green, pink, or other tints of ascomycetes are due to the color of their__________.
a.
Mycelia
b.
Hyphae
c.
Conidia
d.
Sporangia
e.
None of the above.
 

 87. 

Yeasts reproduce asexually by:
a.
division.
b.
budding.
c.
ascospores.
d.
Binary fission.
e.
Both B and D.
 

 88. 

Which one of the following statements is true?
a.
Basidiospores are formed within the basidia.
b.
Ascospores are formed outside the ascus.
c.
Both Basidiospores and ascospores are formed within their respective structures.
d.
Both Basidiospores and ascospores are formed outside their respective structures.
e.
Basidiospores are formed outside, and ascospores are formed within, their respective structures.
 

 89. 

Which one of the following is mismatched?
a.
Mushroom – Basidiomycetes
b.
Sac fungi – Ascomycetes
c.
Club fungi – Basidiomycetes
d.
Puff balls – Basidiomycetes
e.
Corn smut disease – Ascomycetes
 

 90. 

Mushrooms that we eat are technically referred to as:
a.
Basidiospores.
b.
Basidiocarp.
c.
Mycelium.
d.
Hyphae.
e.
Gills.
 

 91. 

Color pigments produced by __________________ are used to dye woolens and litmus.
a.
club fungi
b.
mushroom
c.
algae
d.
lichens
e.
puff balls
 

 92. 

Reduction in ____________________ growth is used as a sensitive indicator of air pollution.
a.
fungus
b.
mushroom
c.
algae
d.
lichen
e.
puff balls
 

 93. 

Mycorrhiza is an example of ________________.
a.
Commensalism
b.
Parasitism
c.
Mutualism
d.
All of the above.
e.
None of the above.
 

 94. 

Mycorrhizae benefits plants by:
a.
increasing photosynthetic area.
b.
increasing absorptive surface area of roots.
c.
increasing chlorophyll content.
d.
increasing leaf area.
e.
None of the above.
 

 95. 

____________________ cause enormous economic losses by decaying wood, both living trees and stored lumber.
a.
Sac fungi
b.
Mushrooms
c.
Bracket fungi
d.
Aspergillus
e.
Rhizopus
 

 96. 

Consuming even a single mushroom of the genus _______________ can be fatal.
a.
Agaricus
b.
Shottake
c.
Portobello
d.
Amanita
e.
Oyster
 

 97. 

_________________ is a fungal chemical that shows promise as an anticancer agent.
a.
Pencillin
b.
Fumigallin
c.
Ergot compounds
d.
Psilocybin
e.
None of the above.
 

 98. 

Ergot compounds, produced by _____________________, are used as drugs to induce labor and to stop uterine bleeding.
a.
Aspergillus tamari
b.
Claviceps purpurea
c.
Penicillium notatum
d.
Erwinia carotovora
e.
None of the above.
 


 
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