PCC Cell Structure and Function 2011

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PCC Cell Structure and Function 2011

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The smallest units of life in all living things are
a.
cells.
c.
cytoplasm.
b.
mitochondria.
d.
Golgi apparatus.
 

 2. 

When the volume of a cell increases, its surface area
a.
increases at the same rate.
b.
remains the same.
c.
increases at a faster rate.
d.
increases at a slower rate.
 

 3. 

Surface area is an important factor in limiting cell growth because
a.
the cell can burst if the membrane becomes too large.
b.
materials cannot enter the cell if the surface is too large.
c.
the cell may become too large to take in enough food and to remove enough wastes.
d.
waste products cannot leave the cell if the cell is too small.
 

 4. 

The size to which a cell can grow is limited by its
a.
location.
c.
function.
b.
structure.
d.
surface area.
 

 5. 

A cell that can change its shape would be well suited for
a.
receiving and transmitting nerve impulses.
b.
covering the body surface.
c.
moving to different tissues through narrow openings.
d.
All of the above
 

 6. 

One difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that
a.
nucleic acids are found only in prokaryotes.
b.
mitochondria are found in larger quantities in eukaryotes.
c.
the Golgi apparatus is found only in prokaryotes.
d.
prokaryotes have no nuclear membrane.
 

 7. 

Which of the following is characteristic of prokaryotes?
a.
They have a nucleus.
b.
They existed on Earth before eukaryotes.
c.
The organelles in their cytoplasm are surrounded by membranes.
d.
None of the above
 

 8. 

Which of the following is an example of a prokaryotic cell?
a.
an amoeba
c.
a bacterium
b.
a virus
d.
a liver cell
 

 9. 

Only eukaryotic cells have
a.
DNA.
c.
ribosomes.
b.
membrane-bound organelles.
d.
cytoplasm.
 

 10. 

Studying a picture of a cell taken with an electron microscope, you find that the cell has no nucleus and no mitochondria, but it does have a plasma membrane and a cell wall. You conclude that the cell is probably from a(n)
a.
animal.
c.
prokaryote.
b.
plant.
d.
extinct organism.
 

 11. 

Plasma membranes
a.
are part of only a small number of cells.
b.
contain genes.
c.
are made of DNA.
d.
are thin coverings that surround cells.
 

 12. 

The structure that regulates what enters and leaves the cell is called the
a.
nucleus.
c.
nuclear membrane.
b.
cell wall.
d.
plasma membrane.
 

 13. 

The plasma membrane
a.
encloses the contents of a cell.
b.
allows material to enter and leave the cell.
c.
is selectively permeable.
d.
All of the above
 

 14. 

A structure within a cell that performs a specific function is called a(n)
a.
organelle.
c.
tissue.
b.
organ tissue.
d.
biocenter.
 

 15. 

A particularly active cell might contain large numbers of
a.
chromosomes.
c.
mitochondria.
b.
vacuoles.
d.
walls.
 

 16. 

The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that
a.
receives proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum.
b.
labels the molecules made in the endoplasmic reticulum with tags that specify their destination.
c.
releases molecules in vesicles.
d.
All of the above
 

 17. 

One important organelle that helps maintain homeostasis by moving supplies from one part of the cell to the other is the
a.
endoplasmic reticulum.
c.
nucleus.
b.
mitochondrion.
d.
cytoplasm.
 

 18. 

In which of the following organelles is a cell’s ATP produced?
a.
mitochondrion
c.
Golgi apparatus
b.
endoplasmic reticulum
d.
lysosome
 

 19. 

Numerous hairlike organelles that protrude from the surface of a cell and are packed in tight rows are called
a.
flagella.
c.
actin filaments.
b.
microtubules.
d.
cilia.
 

 20. 

Proteins are made on the
a.
mitochondria.
c.
nucleus.
b.
ribosomes.
d.
plasma membrane.
 

 21. 

The packaging and distribution center of the cell is the
a.
nucleus.
c.
central vacuole.
b.
Golgi apparatus.
d.
nuclear envelope.
 

 22. 

The double membrane surrounding the nucleus is called the
a.
nucleolus.
c.
nucleoplasm.
b.
nuclear wall.
d.
nuclear envelope.
 

 23. 

All cells have
a.
a covering called a plasma membrane that surrounds the cell and controls what information and materials enter and leave it.
b.
an internal fluid that gives shape to the cell and supports the other things within it.
c.
either a central zone or a nucleus that contains the cell’s genes.
d.
All of the above
 

 24. 

cell : plasma membrane ::
a.
nucleus : chromosome
b.
nucleus : nuclear envelope
c.
chromosome : DNA
d.
cell : DNA
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 25. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure immediately identifies this cell as a eukaryote?
a.
structure 1
c.
structure 3
b.
structure 2
d.
structure 4
 

 26. 

Refer to the illustration above. The cell uses structure 3
a.
to transport material from one part of the cell to another.
b.
to package proteins so they can be stored by the cell.
c.
as a receptor.
d.
to transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP.
 

 27. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 1 is
a.
the endoplasmic reticulum.
b.
a Golgi apparatus.
c.
a mitochondrion.
d.
the nucleus.
 

 28. 

Refer to the illustration above. This cell’s chromosomes are found in
a.
structure 1.
c.
structure 3.
b.
structure 2.
d.
structure 5.
 

 29. 

Refer to the illustration above. The cell shown is probably an animal cell because
a.
it has mitochondria.
b.
it does not have a cell wall.
c.
it has a plasma membrane.
d.
it does not have a nucleus.
 

 30. 

All of the following are found in both plant and animal cells, except
a.
a cell wall.
c.
mitochondria.
b.
a plasma membrane.
d.
the endoplasmic reticulum.
 

 31. 

How are chloroplasts like mitochondria?
a.
They can both use energy from sunlight.
b.
They look alike.
c.
They both contain DNA.
d.
They are both found in animal cells.
 

 32. 

The organelles associated with photosynthesis are the
a.
mitochondria.
c.
Golgi apparatus.
b.
chloroplasts.
d.
vacuoles.
 

 33. 

The organelles in plant cells that contain a green pigment are the
a.
mitochondria.
c.
chloroplasts.
b.
bilayer lipids.
d.
Golgi apparatus.
 

 34. 

Plant cells have a large membrane-bound space in which water, waste products, and nutrients are stored. This place is known as a
a.
mitochondrion.
c.
Golgi apparatus.
b.
chloroplast.
d.
central vacuole.
 

 35. 

Which of the following pairs contains unrelated items?
a.
eukaryote–amoeba
c.
cell wall–animal cell
b.
ribosomes–protein
d.
mitochondria–energy
 

 36. 

Plant cells
a.
do not contain mitochondria.
b.
have a cell wall instead of a plasma membrane.
c.
have a large central vacuole instead of a Golgi apparatus.
d.
have chloroplasts and a cell wall.
 

 37. 

Which of the following is the correct order of organization of structures in living things, from simplest to most complex?
a.
organ systems, organs, tissues, cells
b.
tissues, cells, organs, organ systems
c.
cells, tissues, organ systems, organs
d.
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
 

 38. 

As a result of diffusion, the concentration of many types of substances
a.
always remains greater inside a membrane.
b.
eventually becomes balanced on both sides of a membrane.
c.
always remains greater on the outside of a membrane.
d.
becomes imbalanced on both sides of a membrane.
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 39. 

Refer to the illustration above. In which direction are water molecules in this system most likely to diffuse?
a.
from 1 to 2
c.
from 4 to 3
b.
from 2 to 4
d.
from 3 to 1
 

 40. 

The dispersal of ink in a beaker of water is an example of
a.
diffusion.
c.
active transport.
b.
osmosis.
d.
endocytosis.
 

 41. 

Sugar molecules can enter cells through the process of
a.
exocytosis.
c.
osmosis.
b.
facilitated diffusion.
d.
ion pumps.
 

 42. 

Channels utilizing facilitated diffusion
a.
work in two directions.
b.
require an electrical signal to function.
c.
Both a and b
d.
None of the above
 

 43. 

Which of the following is not characteristic of facilitated diffusion?
a.
It requires a carrier protein.
b.
It moves substances against a concentration gradient.
c.
It requires no energy input.
d.
It involves a change in the shape of its carrier.
 

 44. 

Which of the following does not expend energy?
a.
diffusion
c.
active transport
b.
endocytosis
d.
a sodium-potassium pump
 

 45. 

Which of the following enters a cell by active transport?
a.
glucose
c.
lactose
b.
water
d.
potassium ion
 

 46. 

The process by which water passes into or out of a cell is called
a.
solubility.
c.
selective transport.
b.
osmosis.
d.
endocytosis.
 

 47. 

The sodium-potassium pump usually pumps
a.
potassium out of the cell.
b.
sodium into the cell.
c.
potassium into the cell.
d.
only a potassium and sugar molecule together.
 

 48. 

Ridding the cell of material by discharging it from sacs at the cell surface is called
a.
pinocytosis.
c.
exocytosis.
b.
phagocytosis.
d.
endocytosis.
 

 49. 

Molecules that are too large to be moved across a cell membrane can be removed from the cell by
a.
diffusion.
c.
lipid carriers.
b.
exocytosis.
d.
osmosis.
 

 50. 

Placing a plant into a hypertonic environment will
a.
cause turgor pressure to increase.
b.
cause the plant to take in water.
c.
have no effect.
d.
cause turgor pressure to decrease.
 


 
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