Drosophila Genetics

Introduction

Drosophila Melanogaster, the fruit fly, is a great organism for genetic use because it has simple food requirements, occupies little space, is hardy, completes its life cycle in 12 days, makes a large number of offspring, can be knocked out easily, and it has many types of hereditary variations that can be seen with low power microscopes. Drosophila has a small number of chromosomes, four pairs. They are easily located in the large salivary glands. The Drosophila can be obtained from many places. Research of Drosophilae has led to a lot of knowledge about many of its genes.

Many factors combine to affect the length of the Drosophila life cycle. Temperature affects the life cycle the most. At room temperature the average life cycle of the Drosophila is about 12 days. Eggs of the Drosophila are small, oval shaped, and have two filaments at one end. They are usually laid on the surface of the culture medium, and with practice, can be seen with the naked eye. After one day the eggs hatch into the larva.

The larval stage of the Drosophila eats all the time. Larvae tunnel into the culture medium when they eat. The larva will shed its skin as it increases in size. In the last of the three larval stages, the cells of the salivary glands contain giant chromosomes that can be seen under low power in a microscope.

The pupal stage. Before a larva becomes a pupa it climbs the side of the container. The last larval covering then becomes harder and darker, forming the pupal case. Through this case the later stages of metamorphosis to an adult fly can be seen. In particular, the eyes, the wings, and the legs become visible.

The adult stage. When metamorphosis is over, the adult fly emerges form the pupal case. They are fragile and light in color and their wings are not fully expanded. They get darker in about an hour. They live about a month and then die. A female refrains from mating for about 12 days after she emerges from the pupal case. After she mates her receptacles contain large amounts of sperm and she lays her eggs. Make sure that the first flies you use are virgins.

The experiment will take several weeks. You will be assigned Drosophila with well-defined mutant traits by your teacher. You will keep a close record of what happens as each of these flies mate and pass there traits off to their offspring over a few generations.

There are three types of crosses that are studied in this lab. In monohybrid crosses the mode of inheritance is determined when a single contrasting pair of characteristics is involved. In a dihybrid cross the mode of inheritance is determined when the two pairs of contrasting of characteristics are considered simultaneously. In a sex-linked cross the mode of inheritance is determined when the mutant characteristic is associated with the X chromosome.

Hypothesis

In the sex linked cross of Drosophila Melanogaster, a phenotypic ratio of 1:1 will be obtained.

Materials

The materials used in this lab are as follows: a vile of Drosophilia with c designated trait, vials containing a medium, a refrigerator, ice packs, Petri dishes, a light microscope, a vial of wild type flies, an incubator, a pencil and paper.

Methods

Begin by obtaining a vial of wild type flies. Practice immobilizing and sexing these flies. Make sure to examine the flies and determine the characteristics of their eyes, wings, bristles, and antennae. Next, these are the steps for immobilizing the flies. Hold the vial containing the flies at an angle and place it in a refrigerator for several minutes. When the flies are immobilized, place them into a small plastic Petri dish. Then place the Petri dish on top of the icepack in order to maintain the cool temperature necessary to keep flies immobilized. Use the dissecting microscope to view the flies. Make sure to top the petri dish on when viewing the flies.

You can easily distinguish male flies from females by looking for the following characteristics: males are usually smaller than the females, males have dark blunt abdomens and females have lighter pointed abdomens. The males have sex combs, which are black bristles on the uppermost joint of the forelegs. Next, get a vial containing experimental flies. Make sure to write down the number of the vial that you have. The flies you now have are the P1 generation. The females should have laid eggs. The eggs and larvae are the F1 generation. Then after there are eggs present knock out remove the adult flies from the vial. Sex the adult flies and write down any mutations. Place the flies in the morgue that contains alcohol. Make sure to label the vial with the symbols for the mating.

After about another week has passed knock out and record characteristics of the remaining F1 flies and record the results in table 7.1. Then place the six pairs of these flies in a new vial and place the remaining flies in the morgue. Label the new vial F1, and tell the cross, date and your name.

After another week has passed, remove the F1 flies and put them in the morgue. The F2 generation are the eggs and larvae in the vial. Place the vial back into the incubator. Once again, after another week has passed remove the F2 flies and record their sex and characteristics and place the results in Table 7.2. Recording a greater number of F2 flies will make your results more accurate. Try to collect at least 200 flies. In order to analyze your data you will first have to be able to be able to complete Chi-Square Analysis.

Results

Table 7.1 F1 Generation

Phenotype

females

males

Red eyes

33

0

White eyes

0

31

 

Table 7.2 F2 Generation

Phenotype

Male

Female

Red eyes

50

52

White eyes

56

67

 

1. Describe the observed mutations? In the F1 generation the males had white eyes and the females had red eyes. In the F2 generation the males and females could have had either red or white eyes.

2. Write a hypothesis which describes the mode of inheritance of the trait you studied. This is your null hypothesis ( as described in the Statistical Analysis Section). For a sex linked cross there will always be a one to one ratio of the phenotypes. In the F1 generation there will be a one to one ratio of red eyed females to the number of white eyed males. In the F2 generation there will be a one to one ratio of red eyed females to white eyed females. There will also be a one to one ratio of red eyed males to white eyed males.

3. Refer to a textbook and review Punnett squares. In the space below construct two Punnett squares to predict the expected results of both the parental and F1 crosses from your null hypothesis.

Parental cross

Y Xr

Xr

YXr

Xr Xr

Xr

YXr

Xr Xr

 

F1 cross

Y Xr Y XR

XR

YXR

XR Xr

YXR

XRXR

XR

YXR

XR Xr

YXr

XR Xr

Xr

YXr

XrXr

YXr

X RXr

Xr

YXr

XrXr

YXr

XRXr

 

4. Refer to the Punnett squares above. Record the expected ratios for the genotypes and phenotypes of the F1 and F2 in the experiment below.

 

 

Expected Genotypic Ratio

Expected Phenotypic ratio

F1

1:1

1:1

F2

1:1

1:1

        5. Do the actual results deviate from what was expected? If so, explain how.
No my results do no deviate much from what was expected. However in the F2 generation there were 67 white females and 52 red females.

6. For the results describe your cross? My cross is a sex linked cross.


7. Are the deviations for the phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation within the limits expected by chance?
To answer this question, statistically analyze the data using the Chi-Square-Analysis. Calculate the Chi-Square for the F2 generation in the chart below. Refer to the critical values of the Chi Square distribution table to determine the P value that is