Drosophila Genetics
Introduction
Drosophila Melanogaster, the fruit fly, is a great organism for genetic use because it has simple food requirements, occupies little space, is hardy, completes its life cycle in 12 days, makes a large number of offspring, can be knocked out easily, and it has many types of hereditary variations that can be seen with low power microscopes. Drosophila has a small number of chromosomes, four pairs. They are easily located in the large salivary glands. The Drosophila can be obtained from many places. Research of Drosophilae has led to a lot of knowledge about many of its genes.
Many factors combine to affect the length of the Drosophila life cycle. Temperature affects the life cycle the most. At room temperature the average life cycle of the Drosophila is about 12 days. Eggs of the Drosophila are small, oval shaped, and have two filaments at one end. They are usually laid on the surface of the culture medium, and with practice, can be seen with the naked eye. After one day the eggs hatch into the larva.
The larval stage of the Drosophila eats all the time. Larvae tunnel into the culture medium when they eat. The larva will shed its skin as it increases in size. In the last of the three larval stages, the cells of the salivary glands contain giant chromosomes that can be seen under low power in a microscope.
The pupal stage. Before a larva becomes a pupa it climbs the side of the container. The last larval covering then becomes harder and darker, forming the pupal case. Through this case the later stages of metamorphosis to an adult fly can be seen. In particular, the eyes, the wings, and the legs become visible.
The adult stage. When metamorphosis is over, the adult fly emerges form the pupal case. They are fragile and light in color and their wings are not fully expanded. They get darker in about an hour. They live about a month and then die. A female refrains from mating for about 12 days after she emerges from the pupal case. After she mates her receptacles contain large amounts of sperm and she lays her eggs. Make sure that the first flies you use are virgins.
The experiment will take several weeks. You will be assigned Drosophila with welldefined mutant traits by your teacher. You will keep a close record of what happens as each of these flies mate and pass there traits off to their offspring over a few generations.
There are three types of crosses that are studied in this lab. In monohybrid crosses the mode of inheritance is determined when a single contrasting pair of characteristics is involved. In a dihybrid cross the mode of inheritance is determined when the two pairs of contrasting of characteristics are considered simultaneously. In a sexlinked cross the mode of inheritance is determined when the mutant characteristic is associated with the X chromosome.
Hypothesis
In the sex linked cross of Drosophila Melanogaster, a phenotypic ratio of 1:1 will be obtained.
Materials
The materials used in this lab are as follows: a vile of Drosophilia with c designated trait, vials containing a medium, a refrigerator, ice packs, Petri dishes, a light microscope, a vial of wild type flies, an incubator, a pencil and paper.
Methods
Begin by obtaining a vial of wild type flies. Practice immobilizing and sexing these flies. Make sure to examine the flies and determine the characteristics of their eyes, wings, bristles, and antennae. Next, these are the steps for immobilizing the flies. Hold the vial containing the flies at an angle and place it in a refrigerator for several minutes. When the flies are immobilized, place them into a small plastic Petri dish. Then place the Petri dish on top of the icepack in order to maintain the cool temperature necessary to keep flies immobilized. Use the dissecting microscope to view the flies. Make sure to top the petri dish on when viewing the flies.
You can easily distinguish male flies from females by looking for the following characteristics: males are usually smaller than the females, males have dark blunt abdomens and females have lighter pointed abdomens. The males have sex combs, which are black bristles on the uppermost joint of the forelegs. Next, get a vial containing experimental flies. Make sure to write down the number of the vial that you have. The flies you now have are the P_{1 }generation. The females should have laid eggs. The eggs and larvae are the F_{1 }generation. Then after there are eggs present knock out remove the adult flies from the vial. Sex the adult flies and write down any mutations. Place the flies in the morgue that contains alcohol. Make sure to label the vial with the symbols for the mating.
After about another week has passed knock out and record characteristics of the remaining F_{1 }flies and record the results in table 7.1. Then place the six pairs of these flies in a new vial and place the remaining flies in the morgue. Label the new vial F_{1}, and tell the cross, date and your name.
After another week has passed, remove the F_{1 }flies and put them in the morgue. The F_{2 }generation are the eggs and larvae in the vial. Place the vial back into the incubator. Once again, after another week has passed remove the F_{2 }flies and record their sex and characteristics and place the results in Table 7.2. Recording a greater number of F_{2 }flies will make your results more accurate. Try to collect at least 200 flies. In order to analyze your data you will first have to be able to be able to complete ChiSquare Analysis.
Results
Table 7.1 F_{1 }Generation
Phenotype 
females 
males 

Red eyes 
33 
0 


0 
31 

Table 7.2 F_{2 }Generation 

Phenotype 

Female 

Red eyes 
50 
52 

White eyes 
56 
67 
1. Describe the observed mutations? In the F_{1 }generation the males had white eyes and the females had red eyes. In the F_{2 }generation the males and females could have had either red or white eyes.
2. Write a hypothesis which describes the mode of inheritance of the trait you studied. This is your null hypothesis ( as described in the Statistical Analysis Section). For a sex linked cross there will always be a one to one ratio of the phenotypes. In the F_{1 }generation there will be a one to one ratio of red eyed females to the number of white eyed males. In the F_{2 }generation there will be a one to one ratio of red eyed females to white eyed females. There will also be a one to one ratio of red eyed males to white eyed males.
3. Refer to a textbook and review Punnett squares. In the space below construct two Punnett squares to predict the expected results of both the parental and F_{1 }crosses from your null hypothesis.
Parental cross
Y X^{r} X^{r}
YX^{r}
X^{r} X^{r}
X^{r}
YX^{r}
X^{r} X^{r}
F_{1 }cross
Y  X^{r}  Y  X^{R}  
X^{R} 
YX^{R} 
X^{R }X^{r} 
YX^{R} 
X^{R}X^{R} 
X^{R} 
YX^{R} 
X^{R }X^{r} 
YX^{r} 
X^{R} X^{r} 
X^{r} 
YX^{r} 
X^{r}X^{r} 
YX^{r} 
X ^{R}X^{r} 
X^{r} 
YX^{r} 
X^{r}X^{r} 
YX^{r} 
X^{R}X^{r} 
4. Refer to the Punnett squares above. Record the expected ratios for the genotypes and phenotypes of the F_{1 }and F_{2 }in the experiment below.

Expected Genotypic Ratio 
Expected Phenotypic ratio 

F_{1} 
1:1 
1:1 

F_{2} 
1:1 
1:1 
5. Do the actual results deviate from what was expected? If so, explain how.
No my results do no deviate much from what was expected. However in the F_{2
}generation there were 67 white females and 52 red females.
6. For the results describe your cross? My cross is a sex linked cross.
7. Are the deviations for the phenotypic ratio of the F_{2 }generation within the limits expected by chance? To answer this question, statistically analyze the data using the ChiSquareAnalysis. Calculate the ChiSquare for the F_{2 }generation in the chart below. Refer to the critical values of the Chi Square distribution table to determine the P value that is associated with your statistic.
Observed Phenotypes (o) 
Expected (e) 
(oe) 
(oe)^{2} 
(oe)^{2} e 

67 X^{r }X^{r} 
56 
11 
121 
2.16 

52 X^{R }X^{R} 
56 
4 
16 
.28 

50 YX^{R} 
56 
6 
36 
.64 

56YX^{r} 
56 
0 
0 
0 

3.02 
(a) Calculate the ChiSquare value for these data.
1. How many degrees of freedom are there? 3 degrees of freedom
2. Chi Square=2.52
3. Referring to the critical values chart what is the probability value for these data? Greater than .05 probabilities that the null hypothesis is right.
(b) According to the probability value, can you accept or reject your null hypothesis? Explain why. I can accept the null hypothesis because my ChiSquare answer is less than the critical value form the table. I have 3 degrees of freedom and my Chi Square answer was3.0 which is less than 7.82.
1. Why was it necessary for the females of the parental generation to be virgins? The females store sperm in their receptacles and if they were not virgins we would not be able to tell who the fathers were.
2. Why was it not necessary to isolate virgin females for the F_{1 }cross? The females store sperm in their receptacles and if they were not virgins we would not be able to tell who the fathers were
3. Why the adult flies were removed from the vials at weeks 2 and 4? So, they are not be able to mate with the next generation.
ChiSquare Analysis
Introduction
Statistics can be used to determine if differences among groups are significant, or simply the result of predictable error. The statistical test most frequently used to determine whether data obtained experimentally provide a good fit, or approximation to the expected or theoretical data is the Chisquare test. This test can be used to determine if deviations from the expected values are due to chance alone or to comeother circumstance.
To determine if the observed data fall with in acceptable limits, a ChiSquare analysis is performed to test the validity of a null hypothesis; that there is no statistically significant difference between the observed and expected data. If the ChiSquare analysis indicates that the data vary too much from the expected 3: 1 an alternative hypothesis is accepted.
Methods
The formula for Chisquare is:
X_{2=}E(oe)^{2 } ^{ E }
O= observed number of individuals
e= expected number of individuals
E= the sum of the values
The (df) are determined by taking the number of possible phenotypes and subtracting one from it. If the Chi Square answer is greater than the number from the critical values chart then the null hypothesis is incorrect. The results are said to be significant at .05. This means that only 5 % of the time you would expect to see similar data if the null hypothesis were correct. The probability can also be rejected at .001. This time it means that less than 1 % of the time would you expect to see similar data.
Results
Critical Values Chart
Degrees of Freedom (df) 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

.05 
3.84 
5.99 
7.82 
9.49 
11.1 
.01 
6.64 
9.21 
11.3 
13.2 
15.1 
.001 
10.8 
13.8 
16.3 
18.5 
20.5 
Practice Problem
An investigator observes that when purebreeding long winged Drosophila are mated with pure breeding short wing flies the F_{1 }have an intermediate wing length. When several intermediate wing length flies are allowed to interbreed the following results are obtained. 230 long wings. 510 intermediate length wings. 260 short wings.
a. What is the genotype of the F intermediate wing length flies? The genotype is Ll.
b. Write a hypothesis describing the mode of inheritance of wing length in Drosophila. There will be 333 long winged flies. 666 intermediate winged flies. There will be 33 short wing flies.
c. Complete the table
Table 7.8
Observed Phenotypes 
Expected (e) 
(oe) 
(oe)^{2} 
(oe)^{2}/ e 
LL 
333 
103 
10609 
31.86 
Ll 
666 
156 
24336 
36.54 
ll 
333 
73 
5329 
16.00 
84.4 
1. How many degrees of freedom are there? There are 2 degrees of freedom.
2. ChiSquare= 84.4
3. Referring to the critical values chart, what is the probability value for these data? Less than .001.
4. According to the probability value can you except or reject the null hypothesis?
I can reject the null hypothesis because the Chisquare answer is greater than the critical value from the table.
Error Analysis
Results from this lab could have been affected by many things. The constant knocking out of flies could have caused some of the larvae to not hatch therefore affecting our numbers. Also, incorrectly identifying the characteristics of the flies could have also greatly affected the results received. Improper calculation of numbers could have also caused inaccurate results. Finally, some flies could have gotten stuck in the medium and could have been identified.
Conclusion
From the results of the experiment I can conclude that I received results that were close to a 1:1 ratio. The Chi Square worked from my data was accepted at a possibility greater than .05. The null hypothesis in this case can be accepted.