first semester review

First Semester Review      

What is the study of life called?
What are the smallest units that can carry on life functions called?
Living things are composed of ______________.
Give an example of a scientific observation.
What is a hypothesis?
What 3 things compose an atom?
Matter is made of ________________.
When atoms gain energy, what happens to electrons?
Do  cells contain a few or thousands of different kinds of enzymes?
__________________ reactions are important in organisms because they allow the passage of energy from one molecule to another.
What is a polar molecule?
Water molecules break up other polar substances. Give an example of such a polar molecule.
What happens to ionic compounds in water?
Which is not a carbohydrate —– glycogen, steroids, cellulose, or sugars?
Amino acids are the monomers for making ________________.
Is ice an example of an organic molecule?
The type & order of the amino acids determines the ___________ of a protein.
Very active cells need more of which organelle?
What organelle is the packaging & distribution center of the cell?
What membrane surrounds the nucleus?
What is the function of mitochondria. Sketch their shape.
Where is chlorophyll found in plants?
Diffusion takes place from ________________ concentration to ___________.
If a cell has a high water content, will it lose or gain water?
Ink dispersing in a beaker is an example of ________________.
Very large molecules enter cells by a process called ________________.
Endocytosis and exocytosis occur in ______________ directions across a cell membrane.
What is photosynthesis?
Where do the dark reactions of photosynthesis take place?
When chlorophyll absorbs light energy ATP is made and what other energy carrying molecule?
When chlorophyll absorbs light energy, what happens to its electrons?
_______________ molecules are responsible for the photosystems.
Electrons that have absorbed energy & moved to a higher energy level enter what chain?
When cells break down food molecules, energy is temporarily stored in what molecule?
When muscles do not get enough oxygen, what acid forms during exercise?
If you are growing bacteria in a culture and lactic acids starts to form, the bacteria are not getting enough of what gas?
The 2 stages of cellular respiration are _____________ & oxidative respiration.
Citric acid forms in which cycle during cellular respiration?
ATP molecules are formed inside what cellular organelle?
The first filial generation is the result of  a __________________ cross.
If a genetic trait appears in every generation is it dominant or recessive?
When Mendel crossed pea plants & looked at 2 different traits (flower color & plant height), did the inheritance of one trait influence the other?
If a heterozygous individual is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual, how many phenotypes will result?
What is the expected genotypic ratio from a homozygous dominant X heterozygous monohybrid cross?
List several reasons for genetic counseling.
If a genetic disorder is found equally in males & females, is it autosomal dominant or recessive?
If both parents carry the gene for cystic fibrous, what is the chance that their child will develop the disease?
If a trait is sex-linked, will it occur more often in males or females?
If a gene is located on the X-chromosome, it is said to be ________________.