evolution & phylogeny ap study guide

Unit 6  Evolution & Phylogeny Study Guide

  • Be able to give an example of an idea that Charles Darwin borrowed from Thomas Malthus
  • Know some anatomical structures that would be homologous to the wing of a bat
  • Know what important information was unavailable to Darwin in the mid-nineteenth century when he formulated his theory of evolution
  • Know the name of Darwin’s 1859 publication
  • Be able to explain all parts of the Darwin-Wallace theory of natural selection
  • Be able to explain how phylogenetic relationships are determined for closely related species
  • Be able to differentiate between analogous & homolgous structures
  • Know the requirements for the maintenance of  Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
  • Be able to use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to determine allele frequencies and genotypic frequencies
  • Be able to describe and give an example of a cline
  • Be able to explain the bottleneck effect
  • Know what process creates new alleles and serves to balance natural selection
  • Be able to explain & give an example of genetic drift
  • Know what is meant by the "gene pool"
  • Know the major divisions of geologic time
  • Be able to give several examples of fossil types
  • Be able to explain binomial nomenclature
  • Be able to list in order the major taxonomic categories
  • Know what individuals in a population would most often carry copies of harmful recessive alleles
  • Be able to explain & give an example of hybrid sterility
  • Be able to explain & give an example of ecological isolation of species
  • Know what polyploidy is & how it can cause rapid speciation
  • Know the effect of mitosis & meiosis on allelic frequencies in nature
  • Be able to explain the effect on alleles when new members move into a population
  • Know the difference in prezygotic & postzygotic barriers 
  • Be able to name & and give examples of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers
  • Be able to explain & give examples of mechanical and behavioral isolation
  • Know the difference between sympatric isolation and allopatric isolation
  • Be able to explain why such a great diversity of life exists on the Hawaiian & Galapagos Islands
  • Be able to tell the difference between anagenesis & cladogenesis
  • Know what taxonomic level can exist as a discrete unit in nature
  • Know what taxonomic unit would show the most genetic variation
  • Be able to explain & give an example of adaptive radiation
  • Be able to determine the age of a fossil using the half-life of carbon-14
  • Know what major evolutionary episode occurred closely with the formation of Pangaea
  • Be able to explain phylogeny
  • Know the significance of the asteroid hypothesis
  • Be able to explain & give examples of divergent & convergent evolution