chapter 49 ap obj sensory

Chapter 49     Sensory & Motor Mechanisms

Objectives

Sensing, Acting, and Brains
1. Differentiate between sensation and perception.
   
  Introduction to Sensory Reception
2. Explain the difference between exteroreceptors and interoreceptors.
3. Describe the four general functions of receptor cells as they convert energy stimuli into changes in membrane potentials and then transmit signals to the central nervous system.
4. Distinguish between sensory transduction and receptor potential.
5. Explain the importance of sensory adaptation.
6. List the five types of sensory receptors and explain the energy transduced by each type.
   
  Hearing and Equilibrium
7. Explain the role of mechanoreceptors in hearing and balance.
8. Describe the structure and function of invertebrate statocysts.
9. Explain how insects may detect sound.
10. Refer to a diagram of the human ear and give the function of each structure.
11. Explain how the mammalian ear functions as a hearing organ.
12. Explain how the mammalian ear functions to maintain body balance and equilibrium.
13. Describe the hearing and equilibrium systems of nonmammalian vertebrates.
   
  Chemoreception: Taste and Smell
14. Explain how the chemoreceptors involved with taste function in insects and humans.
15. Describe what happens after an odorant binds to an odorant receptor on the plasma membrane of the olfactory cilia.
16. Explain the basis of the sensory discrimination of human smell.
   
  Photoreceptors and Vision
17. Compare the structures of, and processing of light by, the eyecups of Planaria, the compound eye of insects, and the single-lens eyes of molluscs.
18. Refer to a diagram of the vertebrate eye to identify and give the function of each structure.
19. Describe the functions of the rod cells and cone cells of the vertebrate eye.
20. Explain and compare how the rods and cones of the retina transduce stimuli into action potentials.
21. Explain how the retina assists the cerebral cortex in the processing of visual information.
   
  Movement and Locomotion
22. Describe three functions of a skeleton.
23. Describe how hydrostatic skeletons function and explain why they are not found in large terrestrial organisms.
24. Distinguish between an exoskeleton and an endoskeleton.
25. Explain how the structure of the arthropod exoskeleton provides both strength and flexibility.
26. Explain how a skeleton combines with an antagonistic muscle arrangement to provide a mechanism for movement.
27. Explain how body proportions and posture impact physical support on land.
28. Using a diagram, identify the components of a skeletal muscle cell.
29. Explain the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction.
30. Explain how muscle contraction is controlled.
31. Explain how the nervous system produces graded contraction of whole muscles.
32. Explain the adaptive advantages of slow and fast muscle fibers.
33. Distinguish among skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle.
34. List the advantages and disadvantages associated with moving through:
a. an aquatic environment
b. a terrestrial environment
c. air
35. Discuss the factors that affect the energy cost of locomotion.

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