chapter 48 ap obj nervous systems

Chapter 48     Nervous Systems

Objectives

An Overview of Nervous Systems
1. Compare and contrast the nervous systems of the following animals and explain how variations in design and complexity relate to their phylogeny, natural history, and habitat: hydra, sea star, planarian, insect, squid, and vertebrate.
2. Name the three stages in the processing of information by nervous systems.
3. Distinguish among sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons.
4. List and describe the major parts of a neuron and explain the function of each.
5. Describe the function of astrocytes, radial glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells.
   
  The Nature of Nerve Signals
6. Define a membrane potential and a resting potential.
7. Describe the factors that contribute to a membrane potential.
8. Explain why the membrane potential of a resting neuron is typically around 260 to 280 mV.
9. Explain the role of the sodium-potassium pump in maintaining the resting potential.
10. Distinguish between gated and ungated ion channels and among stretch-gated ion channels, ligand-gated ion channels, and voltage-gated ion channels.
11. Define a graded potential and explain how it is different from a resting potential or an action potential.
12. Describe the characteristics of an action potential. Explain the role of voltage-gated ion channels in this process.
13. Describe the two main factors that underlie the repolarizing phase of the action potential.
14. Define the refractory period.
15. Explain how an action potential is propagated along an axon.
16. Describe the factors that affect the speed of action potentials along an axon and describe adaptations that increase the speed of propagation. Describe saltatory conduction.
17. Compare an electrical synapse and a chemical synapse.
18. Describe the structures of a chemical synapse and explain how they transmit an action potential from one cell to another.
19. Explain how excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) affect the postsynaptic membrane potential.
20. Define summation and distinguish between temporal and spatial summation. Explain how summation applies to EPSPs and IPSPs.
21. Explain the role of the axon hillock.
22. Describe the role of signal transduction pathways in indirect synaptic transmission.
23. Describe the specific properties of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and biogenic amines.
24. Identify and describe the functions of the four amino acids and several neuropeptides that work as neurotransmitters.
25. Explain how endorphins function as natural analgesics.
26. Describe the roles of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide as local regulators.
   
  Vertebrate Nervous Systems
27. Compare the structures and functions of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
28. Distinguish between the functions of the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system.
29. Describe the embryonic development of the vertebrate brain.
30. Describe the structures and functions of the following brain regions: medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrum.
31. Describe the specific functions of the reticular system.
32. Explain how the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) function as a mammalian biological clock.
33. Relate the specific regions of the cerebrum to their functions.
34. Distinguish between the functions of the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum.
35. Describe the specific functions of the brain regions associated with language, speech, emotions, memory, and learning.
36. Explain the possible role of long-term potentiation in memory storage and learning in the vertebrate brain.
37. Describe our current understanding of human consciousness.
38. Explain how research on stem cells and neural development may lead to new treatments for injuries and disease.
39. Describe current treatments for schizophrenia.
40. Distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depression.
41. Describe the symptoms and brain pathology that characterize Alzheimer’s disease. Discuss possible treatments for this disease.
42. Explain the cause of Parkinson’s disease.
   

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