chapter 41 ap obj animal nutrition

Chapter 41    Animal Nutrition

Objectives

Nutritional Requirements of Animals
1. Compare the bioenergetics of animals when energy balance is positive and when it is negative.
2. Name the three nutrition needs that must be met by a nutritionally adequate diet.
3. Distinguish among undernourishment, overnourishment, and malnourishment.
4. Explain why fat hoarding may have provided a fitness advantage to our hunter-gatherer ancestors.
5. Explain the role of leptin in the regulation of fat storage and use.
6. Define essential nutrients and describe the four classes of essential nutrients.
7. Distinguish between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.
   
  Overview of Food Processing
8. Define and compare the four main stages of food processing.
9. Compare intracellular and extracellular digestion.
   
  The Mammalian Digestive System
10. Describe the common processes and structural components of the mammalian digestive system.
11. Name three functions of saliva.
12. Compare where and how the major types of macromolecules are digested and absorbed within the mammalian digestive system.
13. Explain why pepsin does not digest the stomach lining.Explain how the small intestine is specialized for digestion and absorption.
14. Explain how the small intestine is specialized for digestion and absorption.
15. Describe the major functions of the large intestine.
   
  Evolutionary Adaptations of Vertebrate Digestive Systems
16. Relate variations in dentition and length of the digestive system to the feeding strategies and diets of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores.
17. Describe the roles of symbiotic microorganisms in vertebrate digestion.

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