chapter 40 ap intro to systems objectives

Chapter 40     Introduction to Animal Structure & Function


Functional Animal Anatomy: An Overview
1. Define bioenergetics.
2. Distinguish between anatomy and physiology. Explain how functional anatomy relates to these terms.
  Body Plans and the External Environment
3. Explain how physical laws constrain animal form.
4. Explain how the size and shape of an animal’s body affect its interactions with the environment.
5. Define tissue.
6. Distinguish among collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers.
7. From micrographs or diagrams, correctly identify the following animal tissues, explain how their structure relates to their functions, and note examples of each type.
a. Epithelial tissue
b. Connective tissue
    i.  Loose connective tissue
    ii. Adipose tissue
    iii. Fibrous connective tissue
    iv. Cartilage
    v.  Bone
    vi. Blood
c. Muscle tissue
    i.  Skeletal (striated) muscle
    ii. Cardiac muscle
    iii. Smooth muscle
d. Nervous tissue
    i.  Neuron
  Introduction to the Bioenergetics of Animals
8. Describe the basic sources of chemical energy and their fate in animal cells.
9. Define biosynthesis.
10. Define metabolic rate and explain how it can be determined for animals.
11. Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic animals.
12. Describe the relationship between metabolic rate and body size.
13. Distinguish between basal metabolic rate and standard metabolic rate. Describe the major factors that influence energy requirements.
14. Describe the natural variations found in the energy strategies of endotherms and ectotherms.
  Regulating the Internal Environment
15. Distinguish between regulators and conformers for a particular environmental variable.
16. Define homeostasis. Describe the three functional components of a homeostatic control system.
17. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback mechanisms.
18. Define thermoregulation. Explain in general terms how endotherms and ectotherms manage their heat budgets.
19. Name four physical processes by which animals exchange heat with their environment.
20. Discuss the role of hair, feathers, and adipose tissue in insulation.
21. Explain the role of vasoconstriction and vasodilation in modifying the transfer of body heat with the environment.
22. Describe animal adaptations to facilitate evaporative cooling.
23. Describe thermoregulatory mechanisms utilized by endothermic invertebrates.
24. Explain how ectotherms and endotherms may acclimatize to changing environmental temperatures.
25. Explain the role of heat-shock proteins in helping cells to cope with severe temperature changes.
26. Define torpor, hibernation, estivation, and daily torpor.