|Chapter 3 Water & the Fitness of the Environment|
|The Properties of Water
1. With the use of a diagram or diagrams, explain why water molecules are:
b. capable of hydrogen bonding with four neighboring water molecules
2. List four characteristics of water that are emergent properties resulting from hydrogen bonding.
3. Define cohesion and adhesion. Explain how water’s cohesion and adhesion contribute to the movement of water from the roots to the leaves of a tree.
4. Distinguish between heat and temperature, using examples to clarify your definitions.
5. Explain the following observations by referring to the properties of water:
n Coastal areas have milder climates than adjacent inland areas.
n Ocean temperatures fluctuate much less than air temperatures on land.
n Insects like water striders can walk on the surface of a pond without breaking the surface.
n If you slightly overfill a water glass, the water will form a convex surface above the top of the glass.
n If you place a paper towel so that it touches spilled water, the towel will draw in the water.
n Ice floats on water.
n Humans sweat and dogs pant to cool themselves on hot days.
6. Distinguish among a solute, a solvent, and a solution.
7. Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances.
8. Explain how you would make up a one molar (1M) solution of ethyl alcohol.
The Dissociation of Water Molecules
9. Name the products of the dissociation of water and give their concentration in pure water.
10. Define acid, base, and pH.
11. Explain how acids and bases may directly or indirectly alter the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
12. Using the bicarbonate buffer system as an example, explain how buffers work.
13. Briefly explain the causes and effects of acid precipitation.