chapter 34 ap objectives


Chapter 34     Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity

Objectives

Invertebrate Chordates and the Origin of Vertebrates
1. Distinguish between the phyla of deuterostomes.
2. Describe the four derived traits that define the phylum Chordata.
3. Distinguish among the three subphyla of the phylum Chordata and give examples of each.
4. Discuss the evidence for and against Garstang’s hypothesis that vertebrates had a tunicate-like ancestor.
5. Explain what lancelets suggest about the evolution of the chordate brain.
   
  Craniates Are Chordates with a Head
6. Discuss the importance of genetic duplication in chordate evolution.
7. Explain the fate of the neural crest cells in craniate development.
8. Explain what Haikouella and Haikouichthys tell us about craniate evolution.
   
  Vertebrates Are Craniates with a Backbone
9. Describe the way of life and unique characters of the lamprey.
10. Describe conodonts, and explain why they are considered vertebrates.
11. Describe the trends in mineralized structures in early vertebrates.
   
  Gnathostomes Are Vertebrates with Jaws
12. Explain one hypothesis for the evolution of the jaws of gnathostomes.
13. List the shared, derived characters that characterize gnathostomes.
14. Describe the evidence that suggests that the loss of bone in Chondrichthyes is a derived feature.
15. Describe the features of sharks that are adaptive for their active, predatory lifestyle.
16. Describe and distinguish between Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, noting the main traits of each group.
17. Identify and describe the main subgroups of Osteichthyes.
18. Name the three living lineages of lobe-fins.
   
  Tetrapods Are Gnathostomes with Limbs and Feet
19. Define and distinguish between gnathostomes, tetrapods, and amniotes.
20. Explain what Acanthostega suggests about the origin of tetrapods.
21. Describe the common traits of amphibians and distinguish among the three orders of living amphibians.
   
  Amniotes Have Amniotic Eggs
22. Describe an amniotic egg and explain its significance in the evolution of reptiles and mammals.
23. Explain why the reptile clade includes birds.
24. Describe a number of reptile features that are adaptive for life on land.
25. Explain why non-bird reptiles should be called “ectothermic” rather than “cold-blooded.”
26. Define and describe the parareptiles.
27. Distinguish between the lepidosaurs and the archosaurs.
28. Compare the interpretations of dinosaurs as ectotherms or endotherms.
29. Describe the specialized adaptations of snakes that make them successful predators.
30. List the modifications of birds that are adaptive for flight.
31. Summarize the evidence supporting the hypothesis that birds evolved from theropod dinosaur ancestors.
32. Explain the significance of Archaeopteryx.
33. Describe the characteristic derived characters of mammals.
34. Describe the evolutionary origin of mammals.
35. Distinguish among monotreme, marsupial, and eutherian mammals.
36. Describe the adaptive radiation of mammals during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary periods.
37. Compare and contrast the four main evolutionary clades of eutherian mammals.
   
  Primates and the Evolution of Homo sapiens
38. Describe the general characteristics of primates. Note in particular the features associated with an arboreal existence.
39. Distinguish between the two subgroups of primates and describe their early evolutionary relationship.
40. Distinguish between hominoid and hominid.
41. Explain what Sahelanthropus tells us about hominid evolution.
42. Describe the evolution of Homo sapiens from australopith ancestors. Clarify the order in which distinctive human traits aro

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