chapter 32 ap objectives


Chapter 32     Introduction to Animal Evolution

Objectives

What Is an Animal?
1. List the five characteristics that combine to define animals.
2. Describe the role of Hox genes in animal development.
   
  The Origins of Animal Diversity
3. Describe the evidence that suggests animals may have first evolved about a billion years ago.
4. Explain the significance of the Cambrian explosion. Describe three hypotheses for the cause of the Cambrian explosion.
5. Outline the major grades of the animal kingdom based on symmetry, embryonic germ layers, the presence or absence and type of coelom, and protostome or deuterostome development.
6. Distinguish between radial and bilateral symmetry. Explain how animal symmetry may match the animal’s way of life.
7. Distinguish among the acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate grades. Explain the functions of a body cavity.
8. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms:
a. diploblastic and triploblastic
b. spiral and radial cleavage
c. determinate and indeterminate cleavage
d. schizocoelous and enterocoelous development
9. Compare the developmental differences between protostomes and deuterostomes, including:
a. pattern of cleavage
b. fate of the blastopore
c. coelom formation
10. Name five major features of animal phylogeny that are supported by systematic analyses of morphological characters and recent molecular studies.
11. Distinguish between the ecdysozoans and the lophotrochozoans. Describe the characteristic features of each group.
   

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