Chapter 24 AP objectives


Chapter 24    Origin of Species

Objectives

What Is a Species?
1. Distinguish between anagenesis and cladogenesis.
2. Define Ernst Mayr’s biological species concept.
3. Distinguish between prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms.
4. Describe five prezygotic isolating mechanisms and give an example of each.
5. Explain a possible cause for reduced hybrid viability.
6. Explain how hybrid breakdown maintains separate species even if fertilization occurs.
7. Describe some limitations of the biological species concept.
8. Define and distinguish among the following: ecological species concept, paleontological species concept, phylogenetic species concept, and morphological species concept.
   
  Modes of Speciation
9. Distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation.
10. Explain the allopatric speciation model and describe the mechanisms that may lead to divergence of isolated gene pools.
11. Describe examples of adaptive radiation in the Galápagos and Hawaiian archipelagoes.
12. Explain how reproductive barriers evolve. Describe an example of the evolution of a prezygotic barrier and the evolution of a postzygotic barrier.
13. Define sympatric speciation and explain how polyploidy can cause reproductive isolation.
14. Distinguish between an autopolyploid and an allopolyploid species and describe examples of each.
15. Describe how cichlid fishes may have speciated in sympatry in Lake Victoria.
   
  Adaptive Radiation
16. Define adaptive radiation and describe the circumstances under which adaptive radiation may occur.
17. Describe the two gene loci implicated in speciation in Mimulus.
   
  From Speciation to Macroevolution
18. Explain in general terms how a complex structure can evolve by natural selection.
19. Define exaptation and illustrate this concept with an example.
20. Explain how slight genetic divergences may lead to major morphological differences between species.
21. Explain how the evolution of changes in temporal and spatial developmental dynamics can result in evolutionary novelties.
22. Define evo-devo, heterochrony, allometric growth, and paedomorphosis.
23. Explain why extracting a single evolutionary progression from a fossil record can be misleading.
24. Define and illustrate the concept of species selection.
25. Explain why evolutionary change is not goal-directed.

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