Chapter 22 AP objectives


Chapter 22    Darwinian View of Life

Objectives

The Historical Context for Evolutionary Theory
1. Explain the mechanism for evolutionary change proposed by Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species.
2. Define evolution and adaptation.
3. Compare and contrast Aristotle’s scala naturae to Carolus Linnaeus’ classification scheme.
4. Describe the theories of catastrophism, gradualism, and uniformitarianism.
5. Explain the mechanism for evolutionary change proposed by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Explain why modern biology has rejected Lamarck’s theories.
   
  The Darwinian Revolution
6. Describe how Darwin’s observations on the voyage of the HMS Beagle led him to formulate and support his theory of evolution.
7. Explain how the principle of gradualism and Charles Lyell’s theory of uniformitarianism influenced Darwin’s ideas about evolution.
8. Explain what Darwin meant by “descent with modification.”
9. Explain what evidence convinced Darwin that species change over time.
10. Explain how Linnaeus’ classification scheme fit Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.
11. Describe the three inferences Darwin made from his observations that led him to propose natural selection as a mechanism for evolutionary change.
12. Explain how an essay by the Rev. Thomas Malthus influenced Charles Darwin.
13. Distinguish between artificial selection and natural selection.
14. Explain why an individual organism cannot evolve.
15. Describe the experiments that supported Reznick and Endler’s hypothesis that differences in life-history traits between guppy populations are due to selective pressure based on predation.
16. Explain how the existence of homologous and vestigial structures can be explained by Darwin’s theory of natural selection.
17. Explain how evidence from biogeography supports the theory of evolution by natural selection.
18. Explain the problem with the statement that Darwinism is “just a theory.” Distinguish between the scientific and colloquial use of the word theory.

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