Chapter 20   AP objectives


Chapter 20    DNA Technology

Objectives

DNA Cloning
1. Explain how advances in recombinant DNA technology have helped scientists study the eukaryotic genome.
2. Describe the natural function of restriction enzymes and explain how they are used in recombinant DNA technology.
3. Explain how the creation of sticky ends by restriction enzymes is useful in producing a recombinant DNA molecule.
4. Outline the procedures for cloning a eukaryotic gene in a bacterial plasmid.
5. Describe techniques that allow identification of recombinant cells that have taken up a gene of interest.
6. Define and distinguish between genomic libraries using plasmids, phages, and cDNA.
7. Describe the role of an expression vector.
8. Describe two advantages of using yeast cells instead of bacteria as hosts for cloning or expressing eukaryotic genes.
9. Describe two techniques to introduce recombinant DNA into eukaryotic cells.
10. Describe the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and explain the advantages and limitations of this procedure.
11. Explain how gel electrophoresis is used to analyze nucleic acids and to distinguish between two alleles of a gene.
12. Describe the process of nucleic acid hybridization.
13. Describe the Southern blotting procedure and explain how it can be used to detect and analyze instances of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).
14. Explain how RFLP analysis facilitated the process of genomic mapping.
   
  DNA Analysis and Genomics
15. Explain the goals of the Human Genome Project.
16. Explain how linkage mapping, physical mapping, and DNA sequencing each contributed to the genome mapping project.
17. Describe the alternate approach to whole-genome sequencing pursued by J. Craig Venter and the Celera Genomics company.
18. Explain how researchers recognize protein-coding genes within DNA sequences.
19. Describe the surprising results of the Human Genome Project.
20. Explain how the vertebrate genome, including that of humans, generates greater diversity than the genomes of invertebrate organisms.
21. Explain how in vitro mutagenesis and RNA interference help researchers to discover the functions of some genes.
22. Explain the purposes of gene expression studies. Describe the use of DNA microarray assays and explain how they facilitate such studies.
23. Define and compare the fields of proteomics and genomics.
24. Explain the significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the study of the human evolution.
   
  Practical Applications of DNA Technology
25. Describe how DNA technology can have medical applications in such areas as the diagnosis of genetic disease, the development of gene therapy, vaccine production, and the development of pharmaceutical products.
26. Explain how DNA technology is used in the forensic sciences.
27. Describe how gene manipulation has practical applications for environmental and agricultural work.
28. Describe how plant genes can be manipulated using the Ti plasmid carried by Agrobacterium as a vector.
29. Explain how DNA technology can be used to improve the nutritional value of crops and to develop plants that can produce pharmaceutical products.
30. Discuss the safety and ethical questions related to recombinant DNA studies and the biotechnology industry.

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