ch3biochem pptQ

Chapter 3 Biochemistry of Cells PowerPoint Notes

 

1. What is the most abundant organic compound on Earth?
 

2. Approximately how much water makes up the cells of organisms?
 

3. ___________ is known as the universal solvent.

 

4. List 4 properties of water that make it so useful to organisms.

 

 

5. Besides water, what other substance makes up most of the cell?

 

6. ____________ chemistry is the study of carbon compounds.

 

7. Carbon has _______ outer electrons so it can form ___________ bonds by sharing these electrons.

8. Carbon & hydrogen make up compounds called ________________.

 

9. Sketch a simple hydrocarbon with the formula CH4.

 

 

10. Carbon skeletons may be straight _______________, _____________ chains, or ______________ structures.

11. Hydrocarbons in ____________ supply our bodies with energy.

 

12. The _______ of an organic molecule determines its function.

13. ____________ groups give different properties to the organic compound to which they attach.

14. Write the formula for the following functional groups:

      a. Hydroxyl

 

      b. Carbonyl

 

      c. Carboxyl

 

      d. Amino

15. Give examples of organic compounds that contain each of the functional groups from question 14.

 

 

16. Large organic molecules are called _______________.

 

17. Polymers are built from smaller subunits called _____________.

 

18. Biologists call polymers _____________________.

 

19. Name 4 examples of polymers found in living things.

 

 

20. Monomers linked together are called ____________.

 

21. The process of linking monomers together is called _______________________.

 

22. Dehydration synthesis links small molecules or monomers together by removing molecules of _____________.

23. Name the process used to break down large polymers into smaller monomers.

 

24. Hydrolysis involves ____________ a molecule of water in order to break bonds.

 

25. Name some foods that contain lots of carbohydrates.

 

26. _________________ are simple sugars.

 

27. Name 3 monosaccharides & give their chemical formula.

 

 

28. Monosaccharides are called hexose sugars because they contain 6 _______________.

 

29. __________ is the simple sugar made by plants, ___________ is the sugar found in fruits, while _______________ is known as “milk sugar”.  Sugars have an __________ ending.

 

30. What are isomers?

 

31. Name 2 isomers.

32. What does aqueous mean?

33. What happens to simple sugars, monosaccharides, when they are put into aqueous solutions inside cells?

 

34. ___________________ serve as fuel for cells. Saccharide means ________________.

 

35. What is a double sugar called?

 

36. How are disaccharides formed? Name the BOND that joins them together.

 

37. Name 3 disaccharides.

 

38. Name the simple sugars that make up each of these disaccharides:

      a. Sucrose

      b. Maltose

      c. Lactose

 

39. Complex carbohydrates are called ________________ & are made of chains of ________________________.

40. Name 3 examples of polysaccharides and tell the shape of each.

 

41. Plants store carbohydrate energy as ____________.

 

42. Name some starchy foods.

 

43. Animals store their carbohydrate energy as __________________.

 

44. Both starch & glycogen are made of monomers of ____________ or glucose.

 

45. Describe cellulose fibers & tell where in plants it is found.

 

 

46. Cellulose makes up __________ in plants and serves as dietary __________ in animals.

47. How are cows able to digest cellulose?

 

48. Since sugars dissolve in water, they are said to be _____________ or water-loving. What functional group makes them water soluble?

49. Lipids are hydrophobic. What does this mean?

 

50. Name 4 examples of lipids and then give 3 functions for lipids in the body.  

      Examples:

      a.

      b.

      c.

 

51. If the bonds between carbons in a fatty acid are all single bonds, the fatty acid is ___________________.  Sketch a saturated fatty acid.

 

52. If there is a double bond between carbons in a fatty acid, the fatty acid is ___________________. Sketch an unsaturated fatty acid.

 

53. _______________ are the monomers that make up lipids or fats.

 

54. Triglycerides are made of an alcohol called ____________ and 3 ___________ acid chains.

55. ___________ forms the backbone of the fat. Sketch glycerol. 

56. Saturated fatty acids are ___________ at room temperature and include __________,

margarine, and _____________.

57. Unsaturated fats in plants exist as ________ or oils at room temperature.

 

58. (a) What process links the 3 fatty acid chains to the glycerol in lipids?  

     (b) What lipids are in cell membranes?

     (c) Sketch and label a phospholipid.

 

 

      (d) Phospholipid heads are _____________ and attract water, while the 2 tails are _________ and repel water.

 

59. Lipids called _____________ are made of four, fused rings of carbon.

60. Name 3 steroids found in organisms.

      a.

      b.

      c.

 

61. Proteins are polymers made of monomers called ___________________.

62. How many different amino acids are there?

 

63. Give 3 jobs for proteins in cells.

      a.

      b.

      c.

 

64. What four things are bonded to the central carbon of every amino acid?

 

65. Sketch the structure of an amino acid & label the attached groups.

 

 

 

66. Amino acids are linked together by ____________ synthesis and held together by _____________ bonds.

67. Many proteins act as __________ or biological catalysts.

68. Cells have _____________ of enzymes which may ___________ chemical bonds and ____________ the amount of activation energy needed for the reaction to occur.

 

69. Enzymes have what shape?

 

70. Substrates attach to an enzyme at its ___________ site. When a substrate attaches to the active site the active site changes ________________.  This is called ______________ fit.

71. Can enzymes be reused?

 

72. The linear sequence of amino acids (chain) is the ____________ structure of a protein.

 

73. Protein chains are called __________________.  

74. Secondary protein structures occur when proteins ___________ or ___________.

 

75. When polypeptides join together, the _________ groups interact with each other forming the ___________ structure of a protein forms.

76. Proteins take on a _____________ shape in the watery environment inside a cell. This is known as their _______________________ structure. Protein shape is also known as protein _____________________.

 

77. Denaturing a protein involves changing its __________ so it no longer works.

78. Name 2 things that denature proteins.

 

79. (a) What causes sickle cell anemia (disease)?  

 

     (b) What is the function of the protein hemoglobin in red blood cells?

 

     (c) What protein controls blood sugar level?

     (d) Insulin causes excess sugar to be stored in the _____________ as ________________.

     (e) Proteins in the cell membrane that help cells recognize similar cells are called __________ proteins.

 

80. ___________ acids store hereditary information for making all of the body’s ______________.

 

81. Name the 2 types of nucleic acids.

 

82. What are the monomers for nucleic acids? Sketch a nucleotide.

 

83. Name the 4 bases on DNA.

84. What 2 things make up the sides of DNA?

 

85. DNA is ___________ stranded & coiled to make a shape called the double ____________.

 

86. RNA has __________ sugar instead of DEOXYRIBOSE sugar on DNA

 

87. RNA is a _____________ stranded molecule unlike double stranded DNA.

 

88. On RNA, the base ______________ replaces thymine.  

89. _____________ is the cell’s energy molecule.

90. What is the monomer for ATP?

91. What does ATP stand for?

92. How is the nucleotide monomer for ATP DIFFERENT from the nucleotide monomer for nucleic acids?

93. Where is the energy stored in ATP?

94. Which bonds are considered HIGH ENERGY bonds in ATP?

95. When the last phosphate bond is broken, what is released?

96. what is the energy of ATP used for?

97. Besides energy, what two other things are formed when the last phospheta bond of ATP is broken?

98. How can ATP be reformed?