Cell Reproduction

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Cell Reproduction


Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true.
 

 1. 

A gene is a segment of DNA that directs the production of RNA and protein. _________________________




 

 2. 

The information needed by a cell to direct its activities and to determine its characteristics is contained in molecules of protein. _________________________


 

 3. 

After the replication of a cell’s DNA, there are twice as many centromeres as there are chromatids. _________________________


 

 4. 

Cells that seldom divide spend most of their time in interphase. _________________________


 

 5. 

After mitosis and interphase, each new cell has a complete set of the parent cell’s chromosomes. _________________________


 

 6. 

In animal cells, cytokinesis results when a cell plate forms across the cell to divide the cytoplasm. _________________________


 

 7. 

Plant cells separate their cytoplasm during cytokinesis when protein threads pinch the cell in half. _________________________


 

 8. 

The cell cycle has four checkpoints that act to inhibit uncontrolled cell division. _________________________


 

 9. 

Offspring formed by asexual reproduction look exactly like their parent. _________________________


 

 10. 

In budding, new individuals develop from pieces of the original individual. _________________________


 

 11. 

Some eukaryotes reproduce asexually, and some produce sexually. _________________________


 

 12. 

In asexual reproduction, two parents each pass genetic material to their offspring. _________________________


 

 13. 

Asexual reproduction provides for genetic diversity, the raw material for evolution. _________________________


 

 14. 

Genetic diversity is the raw material for evolution. _________________________


 

 15. 

Genes on chromosomes are the units of inheritance. _________________________


 

 16. 

Each human somatic cell contains two copies of each chromosome for a total of 23 chromosomes. _________________________


 

 17. 

Gametes are diploid so that when fertilization occurs, the resulting zygote will have the characteristic number of chromosomes for that species. _________________________


 

 18. 

While paired together during the second division of meiosis, two chromosomes may exchange segments of DNA. _________________________


 

 19. 

Crossing-over is the exchange of corresponding portions of chromatids between homologous chromosomes. _________________________


 

 20. 

Random fertilization refers to the fact that homologous chromosomes are distributed randomly during meiosis. _________________________


 

 21. 

The process by which sperm are produced in male animals is called spermatogenesis. _________________________


 

 22. 

During the diploid life cycle, all of the cells are diploid. _________________________


 

 23. 

During the haploid life cycle, the zygote is the only diploid cell. _________________________


 

 24. 

In the life cycle of a plant, the gametophyte is the haploid phase that produces gametes by mitosis. _________________________


 

 25. 

A spore gives rise to a multicellular individual without joining with another cell. _________________________


 

 26. 

Moss plants have haploid life cycles. ______________________________


 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 27. 

Which of the following is not a reason cells divide?
a.
The cell gets too big to process and transport nutrients.
b.
New cells are needed for growth.
c.
DNA cannot be copied quickly enough in large cells.
d.
Surface area-to-volume ratio becomes too large.
 

 28. 

The chromosome of a bacterium
a.
is wrapped around proteins.
b.
has a circular shape.
c.
occurs in multiple pairs within the cell.
d.
is found within the nucleus.
 

 29. 

The region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are held together is called a
a.
spindle.
c.
nucleosome.
b.
centromere.
d.
centriole.
 

 30. 

Chromatids are
a.
dense patches within the nucleus.
b.
bacterial chromosomes.
c.
joined strands of duplicated genetic material.
d.
prokaryotic nuclei.
 

 31. 

When a chromosome condenses,
a.
a histone wraps around chromatin.
b.
beads form on the DNA double helix.
c.
its centromere splits.
d.
looped domains coil into a structure.
 

 32. 

In order to fit within a cell, DNA becomes more compact by
a.
breaking apart into separate genes.
b.
extending to form very long, thin molecules.
c.
wrapping tightly around histones.
d.
being enzymatically changed into a protein.
 

 33. 

In a bacterium, cell division takes place when
a.
its nucleus divides.
b.
the cell splits into two cells, one of which receives all of the DNA.
c.
the DNA is copied, a new cell wall forms between the DNA copies, and the cell splits into two cells.
d.
spindle fibers form.
 

 34. 

The phase of the cell cycle that occupies most of an average cell’s life is
a.
G1.
c.
G2.
b.
mitosis.
d.
S.
 

 35. 

What occurs after cytokinesis is completed?
a.
The cell organizes its microtubules.
c.
The cell enters G1.
b.
The cell begins to replicate its DNA.
d.
The cell enters G2.
 

 36. 

Which of the following shows the correct sequence of the cell cycle?
a.
cytokinesis ® mitosis ® G1 ® S ® G2
b.
S ® G1 ® G2 ® mitosis ® cytokinesis
c.
G1 ® S ® G2 ® mitosis ® cytokinesis
d.
mitosis ® G1 ® S® G2 ® cytokinesis
 

 37. 

Cells that are not dividing remain in the
a.
mitosis phase.
c.
first gap phase.
b.
synthesis phase.
d.
second gap phase.
 

 38. 

The synthesis (S) phase is characterized by
a.
DNA replication.
b.
cell division.
c.
replication of mitochondria and other organelles.
d.
the division of cytoplasm.
 

 39. 

5 steps : the cell cycle ::
a.
6 steps : prophase
c.
3 steps : meiosis
b.
9 steps : cytokinesis
d.
4 steps : mitosis
 

 40. 

The first three phases of the cell cycle are collectively known as
a.
a gap.
c.
mitosis.
b.
telophase.
d.
interphase.
 

 41. 

cell growth : G1 ::
a.
mitosis : cytokinesis
b.
mitosis : meiosis
c.
mitochondria replication : synthesis phase
d.
DNA copying : synthesis phase
 

 42. 

metaphase : prophase ::
a.
G1 : mitosis
c.
mitosis : cytokinesis
b.
G2 : S
d.
S : mitosis
 

 43. 

Mitosis is the process by which
a.
microtubules are assembled.
b.
cytoplasm is divided.
c.
the nucleus is divided into two nuclei.
d.
the cell rests.
 

 44. 

A spindle fiber is a specialized form of
a.
microtubule.
c.
centriole.
b.
centrosome.
d.
chromosome.
 

 45. 

The phase of mitosis that is characterized by the arrangement of all chromosomes along the equator of the cell is called
a.
telophase.
c.
anaphase.
b.
metaphase.
d.
prophase.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 46. 

Refer to the illustration above. The cell in diagram 1 is in
a.
metaphase.
c.
anaphase.
b.
telophase.
d.
prophase.
 

 47. 

Refer to the illustration above. Mitosis begins with the stage shown in diagram
a.
1.
c.
3.
b.
2.
d.
4.
 

 48. 

Refer to the illustration above. The cell shown in diagram 5 is in
a.
metaphase.
c.
anaphase.
b.
telophase.
d.
prophase.
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 49. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which of the following correctly indicates the order in which these events occur?
a.
A, B, C, D
c.
B, A, C, D
b.
C, B, A, D
d.
A, C, B, D
 

 50. 

Refer to the illustration above. During which stage do the centromeres divide?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 51. 

As a result of mitosis, each of the two new cells produced from the parent cell during cytokinesis
a.
receives a few chromosomes from the parent cell.
b.
receives an exact copy of all the chromosomes present in the parent cell.
c.
donates a chromosome to the parent cell.
d.
receives exactly half the chromosomes from the parent cell.
 

 52. 

Cytokinesis in plant cells involves the formation of
a.
a belt of protein threads.
c.
spindle fibers.
b.
a cell plate.
d.
centrioles.
 

 53. 

Which of the following statements is true?
a.
Prokaryotes divide by mitosis.
b.
Eukaryotes have circular chromosomes.
c.
Animal cells form new cell walls when they divide.
d.
Plant cells and animal cells have different strategies for cytokinesis.
 

 54. 

In eukaryotes, the cell cycle is controlled by
a.
proteins.
c.
lipids.
b.
carbohydrates.
d.
fats.
 

 55. 

At the G2 checkpoint, DNA replication is checked by
a.
receptor proteins.
c.
repair enzymes.
b.
electron transport chains.
d.
cell-surface markers.
 

 56. 

The cell cycle is monitored as each cell passes through
a.
the S phase.
c.
the interphase checkpoint.
b.
checkpoints.
d.
cytokinesis.
 

 57. 

Normal cells become cancer cells when
a.
regulation of cell growth and division occurs.
b.
cells respond to control mechanisms.
c.
cells pass through G1.
d.
cells do not respond to checkpoints.
 

 58. 

Which of the following is not a type of asexual reproduction?
a.
budding
c.
binary fission
b.
fragmentation
d.
fertilization
 

 59. 

Hydras reproduce by
a.
budding.
c.
binary fission.
b.
fragmentation.
d.
parthenogenesis.
 

 60. 

Budding is an example of
a.
endosymbiosis.
c.
meiosis.
b.
asexual reproduction.
d.
sexual reproduction.
 

 61. 

The simplest and most primitive method of reproduction is
a.
sexual.
c.
haploid.
b.
diploid.
d.
asexual.
 

 62. 

Binary fission
a.
occurs when two cells collide with each other.
b.
produces excess energy.
c.
creates new species.
d.
is the process by which bacteria reproduce.
 

 63. 

The process of producing offspring is called reproduction and can be
a.
eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
c.
zygotic or gametic.
b.
asexual or sexual.
d.
haploid or diploid
 

 64. 

Sexual reproduction includes
a.
budding.
c.
binary fission.
b.
fragmentation.
d.
fertilization
 

 65. 

Normal human males develop from fertilized eggs containing which of the following sex chromosome combinations?
a.
XY
c.
XO
b.
XX
d.
OO
 

 66. 

Homologous chromosomes are pairs of chromosomes containing genes that code for
a.
different traits.
c.
DNA.
b.
the same traits.
d.
sex.
 

 67. 

In humans, gametes contain
a.
22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome.
b.
1 autosome and 22 sex chromosomes.
c.
45 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome.
d.
1 autosome and 45 sex chromosomes.
 

 68. 

In humans, the male determines the sex of the child because males have
a.
two X chromosomes.
c.
two Y chromosomes.
b.
one X and one Y chromosome.
d.
46 chromosomes.
 

 69. 

The X and Y chromosomes are called
a.
extra chromosomes.
c.
sex chromosomes.
b.
homologous chromosomes.
d.
autosomes.
 

 70. 

female : XX ::
a.
female : gametes
c.
male : YY
b.
female : eggs
d.
male : XY
 

 71. 

How many chromosomes are in the body cells of an organism that has a haploid number of 8?
a.
4
c.
12
b.
8
d.
16
 

 72. 

The diploid number of chromosomes in a human skin cell is 46. The number of chromosomes found in a human egg cell is
a.
46.
c.
23.
b.
92.
d.
12.5.
 

 73. 

diploid : somatic cell :: haploid :
a.
body cell
c.
gamete
b.
chromosome
d.
zygote
 

 74. 

A haploid cell is one that
a.
has two homologues of each chromosome.
b.
is designated by the symbol 2n.
c.
has chromosomes found in pairs.
d.
has one set of chromosomes.
 
 
nar003-1.jpg
 

 75. 

Refer to the illustration above. The process shown is
a.
mitosis.
c.
meiosis.
b.
chromosomal mutation.
d.
dominance.
 

 76. 

Separation of homologues occurs during
a.
mitosis.
c.
meiosis II.
b.
meiosis I.
d.
fertilization.
 

 77. 

When crossing-over takes place, chromosomes
a.
mutate in the first division.
b.
produce new genes.
c.
decrease in number.
d.
exchange corresponding segments of DNA.
 
 
Using the information you have learned about cell reproduction, infer answers to the questions below about a cell with a diploid number of 4 chromosomes. Select from among the diagrams below, labeled A, B, C, D, and E, to answer the questions.

nar004-1.jpg

 

 78. 

Which of the diagrams above depicts a cell at the end of meiosis I?
a.
B
c.
D
b.
C
d.
E
 

 79. 

Which of the diagrams above depicts a cell at the end of meiosis II?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 80. 

Which of the diagrams above depicts a cell at the beginning of mitosis?
a.
B
c.
D
b.
C
d.
E
 

 81. 

Which of the diagrams above depicts a cell at the end of mitosis?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 82. 

The difference between anaphase of mitosis and anaphase I of meiosis is that
a.
the chromosomes line up at the equator in anaphase I.
b.
centromeres do not exist in anaphase I.
c.
chromatids do not separate at the centromere in anaphase I.
d.
crossing-over occurs only in anaphase of mitosis.
 

 83. 

The exchange of segments of DNA between the members of a pair of chromosomes
a.
ensures that variations within a species never occur.
b.
acts as a source of variations within a species.
c.
always produces genetic disorders.
d.
is called genetic crossing.
 

 84. 

Crossing-over occurs
a.
during prophase II.
c.
during prophase I.
b.
during fertilization.
d.
at the centromere.
 

 85. 

Which of the following does not provide new genetic combinations?
a.
random fertilization
c.
independent assortment
b.
cytokinesis
d.
crossing-over
 

 86. 

During cytokinesis in the female, what divides unequally?
a.
the sperm cell
c.
the cytoplasm
b.
the ovary
d.
the DNA
 

 87. 

The more common name for an ovum is a(n)
a.
egg.
c.
nutrient.
b.
hormone.
d.
polar body.
 

 88. 

To create new haploid cells during the haploid life cycle, the zygote undergoes
a.
mitosis.
c.
fusion.
b.
fertilization.
d.
meiosis.
 

 89. 

Which of the following is not a type of sexual life cycle?
a.
alternation of generations
c.
diploid
b.
haploid
d.
parthenogenesis
 

 90. 

In alternation of generations, a diploid spore-forming cell gives rise to four
a.
zygotes.
c.
haploid spores.
b.
sperm cells.
d.
diploid spores.
 

 91. 

During alternation of generations, cells reproduce by
a.
meiosis only.
c.
both meiosis and mitosis.
b.
mitosis only.
d.
binary fission.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 92. 

Growth occurs through cell enlargement and cell ____________________.
 

 

 93. 

The DNA in eukaryotic cells is packaged into structures called ____________________.
 

 

 94. 

A duplicated chromosome consists of two identical ____________________, which are held together at the centromere.
 

 

 95. 

The sequence of events that occurs in a cell from one cell division to the next is called the ____________________.
 

 

 96. 

Collectively, the time spent in G1 + S + G2 is called ____________________.
 

 

 97. 

A cell’s DNA is copied during the ____________________ phase.
 

 

 98. 

Cells that are not dividing remain in the ____________________ phase.
 

 

 99. 

Spindle fibers are made of hollow tubes of protein called ____________________.
 

 

 100. 

The spindle is assembled by the ____________________.
 

 

 101. 

In most eukaryotic cells, ____________________ takes place after the nucleus divides.
 

 

 102. 

In plant cells, a(n) ____________________ forms in the center of the cell during cytokinesis.
 

 

 103. 

Normal cell growth and cell division are regulated by ____________________.
 

 

 104. 

The cell cycle is controlled in eukaryotes at three principal ____________________.
 

 

 105. 

Loss of control and regulation of the ____________________ can result in the development of cancer.
 

 

 106. 

The separation of a parent into two or more individuals of about equal size is called ____________________.
 

 

 107. 

Binary fission is the process by which ____________________ split asexually into two identical organisms.
 

 

 108. 

Only ____________________ cells can produce gametes.
 

 

 109. 

Somatic cells containing two sets of 23 chromosomes each are always ____________________.
 

 

 110. 

After a new nuclear membrane forms during telophase I of meiosis, the ____________________ divides, resulting in two cells.
 

 

 111. 

The process called ____________________ guarantees that the number of chromosomes in gametes is half the number of chromosomes in body cells.
 

 

 112. 

Prophase I of meiosis is different from prophase of mitosis in that every chromosome pairs with its ____________________.
 

 

 113. 

A reciprocal exchange of corresponding segments of DNA is called ____________________ – ____________________.
 

 

 114. 

The four haploid cells formed in the male at the end of meiosis II develop tails and are called ____________________.
 

 

 115. 

The diploid number of chromosomes is re-established through ____________________.
 

 

 116. 

In a haploid life cycle, ____________________ results in the first cell of a multicellular haploid organism.
 

 


 
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