cell reproduction lecture notes b1

Cell Reproduction Lecture Guide

SECTION 8-1    CHROMOSOMES

DNA stores?                        Estimated length?

Coiled DNA in eukaryote nucleus called?

Chromosome shape?                              Made of?

Can be seen inside nucleus by?

Histones?

Function of histones?

 Function of nonhistone proteins?

Sister chromatids?

            When form?

            Centromere?

            Function of centromere?

Sketch sister chromatids & label centromere. 

Prokaryotic chromosomes?

            Shape?                         Number?                     Location & attachment?

Number of chromosomes in human body cells?               Called what?

            How abbreviated?

Are all diploid numbers in organisms the same?   Explain and give examples. 

Human body cells called what?               Examples?

Reproductive cells are called?                        Name them.

            Chromosome number of gametes?                              Abbreviation?

            Haploid number also called?                                      Haploid number for humans?

 Fertilization?

            Chromosome number that fertilization restores?

Fertilized egg called?                          Sets of chromosomes in zygote?

Chromosomes in egg and sperm called?             Name them.

            Sex chromosomes of female?                                 Male?

Other 22 pairs or 44  chromosomes called?

Karyotype?

Homologous pairs of chromosomes?

            Example of information contained in homologs.

 SECTION 8-2    CELL DIVISION

All cells come from?                          Process called?                     

Same in prokaryotes & eukaryotes?

Binary fission?

            Used by?                               Number of steps or stages.

Stage 1 of binary fission?

Stage 2 of binary fisssion?

Stage 3 of binary fission?

            Is binary fission sexual or asexual reproduction?

Original cell that forms eukaryotes is called?

How new cells compare to each other & the original cell after cell division? Why?

 Phases cell goes through in its life cycle called?

            Number of phases?                  Name them.

            Two parts of cell division?

Mitosis?

 Interphase?

            Also called?                          Length in cell cycle?

            What’s occurring to cells in interphase?

             Number of phases in interphase?                   Name them.

            G1 phase?

             S phase?

             G2 phase?

 Replication?

            Results in forming?                                            Occurs when?

Why all new cells must have exact copy of DNA?

 Daughter cells?

            How form?                                       Compare to each other?

Two steps of cell division called?

            Another name for mitosis?                                    What’s dividing?

            Division of the cytoplasm called?                          When occurs?

Parent cell?

How multicellular organisms grow?

 Number of steps or phases in mitosis?            Name them in order.

             What’s made during mitosis?

            When did the chromosomes replicate (make copies of the DNA)?

Prophase?

            Chromatin condenses into what?                                 Held together by?

            Two structures that disappear in prophase?

             Centrosomes located near?                                        Number of centrosomes?              

Contain what cylindrical bodies?                                 Found in plant &/or animal cells?                
            Made of bundles of?                                                   Where centrosomes move?

Help form?

            Function of mitotic spindle?           

             Two types of spindle fibers?

            Attach to centromere of sister chromatids?                                          Function?

 Metaphase?

             Where are chromosomes moved?

            What moves the chromosomes?

Center of cell called?                                        Ends of cell called?

Anaphase?

            What happens to sister chromatids?

            Once chromatids separate, they’re now individual what?

Telophase?

            What happens to spindle fibers?

            Chromosomes again tightly coil becoming what?

            What two structures reform?

Cytokinesis?

            How occurs in animal cells?

            How occurs in plant cells?

            How many new cells formed?                                    Cells called?

            Size of new cells to each other?                   Size of new cells & parent cell?

            Daughter cells & parent cell genetically identical or different?

Is mitosis sexual or asexual reproduction?

SECTION 8-3    MEIOSIS

Meiosis?

          What happens to chromosome number?

            Cells produced by meiosis are called?              Their chromosome number?

            Fusion of gametes?                                                      Effect on chromosome number?

            Number of chromosomes in human egg?               Sperm?            Zygote?

Sexual reproduction?

            Combines what 2 cells?                                                Forms what cell?

Eggs?

Sperm?

How sperm reaches nonmotile egg?

Gametes produced by what process?

Where occurs in females?                                            In males?

What called in females?                                               In males?

Diploid egg or sperm after meiosis have what chromosome number?

How do daughter cells made in meiosis compare to the original cell?

How many divisions do cells undergo during meiosis?

How many new cells are produced?

How many main stages are there in meiosis?                                   Name them.

What occurs in Meiosis I?

 What occurs in Meiosis II?

 Chromosome number at the beginning of Meiosis I?

            Homolog?

            Synapsis?

             Pair of homologs after synapsis called?                                    Sketch a tetrad.

 First step in Meiosis I called?

            Are chromosomes visible?

            Chromosome number in meiosis I?

            Genes?

             Crossing over?

             Genetic recombination?

             What 2 structures disappear?

            What structure appears & attaches to homologs?

Where are tetrads moved during Metaphase I?

What happens to homologs in Anaphase I?

            What separates the homologs?

            Random separation of homologous chromosomes called?

What happens to cytoplasm during Telophase I?

            Chromosome number of new cells?                             How many new cells formed?

 Do chromosomes replicate before Meiosis II?

            Name the 4 steps in Meiosis II.

             How many new cells form in males?                          In females?

            Polar bodies?

                        What usually happens to polar bodies? Why?

 New cells in females called?                                      Cells after maturing called?               

 New cells in males called?                                         Cells after maturing called?

 Chromosome number of new cells?

 Evolution?

            Which type of reproduction causes change in organisms?

 Reproduction involving one parent?                                               Give 3 examples.

                       Chromosome number of parent & new cells?

Reproduction involving two parents?

            Chromosome number of parent cell?                           Chromosome number of new cells?

Are organisms in a sexually reproducing population genetically identical?

Variations?

“Survival of the fittest”?

 How environmental changes affect asexually reproducing organisms?        Sexually reproducing organisms?

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