Chapters 1 and 2 PreAP Biology

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Chapters 1 and 2 PreAP Biology
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
Biology is the study of
a.
minerals.
c.
the weather.
b.
life.
d.
energy.
 2.
All organisms possess DNA. DNA
a.
creates energy for cells.
b.
allows sensitivity to environmental stimuli.
c.
contains information for growth and development.
d.
captures energy from the sun.
 3.
Homeostasis means
a.
a change over long periods of time.
b.
keeping things the same.
c.
rapid change.
d.
the same thing as evolution.
 4.
The smallest units that can carry on all the functions of life are called
a.
molecules.
c.
organelles.
b.
cells.
d.
species.
 5.
Living things
a.
need energy for life processes.
b.
have the ability to reproduce.
c.
are composed of cells.
d.
All of the above
 6.
All living things maintain a balance within their cells and the environment through the process of
a.
growth.
c.
homeostasis.
b.
development.
d.
evolution.
 7.
A scientist noticed that in acidic pond water some salamanders developed with curved spines. This was a(n)
a.
hypothesis.
c.
observation.
b.
theory.
d.
control.
 8.
The English physician Ronald Ross wanted to try to find the cause of malaria. Based on his observations, Dr. Ross suggested that the Anopheles mosquito might spread malaria from person to person. This suggestion was a
a.
prediction.
c.
theory.
b.
hypothesis.
d.
scientific “truth.”
 9.
The English physician Ronald Ross knew that the parasite Plasmodium was always found in the blood of malaria patients. He thought that if the Anopheles mosquitoes were responsible for spreading malaria, then Plasmodium would be found in the mosquitoes. This idea was a
a.
prediction.
c.
theory.
b.
hypothesis.
d.
scientific “truth.”
 10.
Scientific hypotheses are most often tested by the process of
a.
communicating.
c.
experimenting.
b.
inferring.
d.
analyzing data.
 11.
A hypothesis is
a.
a definite answer to a given problem.
b.
a testable possible explanation of an observation.
c.
a proven statement.
d.
a concluding statement.
 12.
A unifying explanation for a broad range of observations is a
a.
hypothesis.
c.
prediction.
b.
theory.
d.
controlled experiment.
 13.
A hypothesis that does not explain an observation
a.
is known as an inaccurate forecast.
b.
often predicts a different observation.
c.
is rejected.
d.
None of the above
 14.
Scientists usually design experiments
a.
with a good idea of the expected experimental results.
b.
based on wild guesses.
c.
in order to develop new laboratory tools.
d.
All of the above
 15.
A scientific theory
a.
is absolutely certain.
b.
is unchangeable.
c.
may be revised as new evidence is presented.
d.
is a controlled experiment.
 16.
The word theory used in a scientific sense means
a.
a highly tested, generally accepted principle.
b.
a guess made with very little knowledge to support it.
c.
an absolute scientific certainty.
d.
None of the above
 17.
observation : hypothesis ::
a.
theory : observation
c.
hypothesis : experiment
b.
guess : hypothesis
d.
theory : control
 18.
Which of the following components of a scientific investigation would benefit from communication between scientists?
a.
observing
c.
analyzing data
b.
measuring
d.
All of the above
 19.
Scientists share their research results by
a.
publishing in scientific journals.
b.
presenting at scientific meetings.
c.
avoiding conflicts of interest.
d.
Both a and b
 20.
Atoms are composed of
a.
protons with a positive charge.
b.
neutrons with no charge.
c.
electrons with a negative charge.
d.
All of the above
 21.
The smallest particle of carbon that can retain the chemical properties of carbon is
a.
a carbon molecule.
b.
a carbon macromolecule.
c.
a carbon atom.
d.
the nucleus of a carbon atom.
 22.
A substance that is composed of only one type of atom is called a(n)
a.
nucleus.
c.
element.
b.
cell.
d.
molecule.
 23.
All matter in the universe is composed of
a.
cells.
c.
atoms.
b.
molecules.
d.
carbon.
 24.
The electrons of an atom
a.
are found in the nucleus along with the protons.
b.
orbit the nucleus in various energy levels.
c.
have a positive charge.
d.
are attracted to the positive charge of neutrons.
 25.
Atoms that have gained energy
a.
have protons and neutrons that move farther apart.
b.
lose neutrons from the nucleus.
c.
have electrons that move to higher energy levels.
d.
absorb electrons into the nucleus.
 26.
Which of the following states of matter contain(s) particles that are tightly linked together in a definite shape?
a.
solid
c.
gas
b.
liquid
d.
solid and liquid
 27.
Because carbon has four electrons in its outer energy level,
a.
it can form bonds with carbon atoms only.
b.
these atoms are naturally chemically stable.
c.
it can react with up to four other atoms to form covalent bonds.
d.
it cannot react with anything other than organic molecules.
 28.
The bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons is called a
a.
hydrogen bond.
c.
covalent bond.
b.
nonpolar bond.
d.
water bond.
 29.
Sharing of electrons between atoms of two or more elements
a.
results in the formation of an ion.
b.
results in the formation of a compound.
c.
results in the formation of noble gases.
d.
results in destabilization of the atoms involved.
 30.
An atom that has gained or lost electrons is called a(n)
a.
molecule.
c.
ion.
b.
nucleon.
d.
element.
nar001-1.jpg
 31.
Refer to the graph above. Reaction 1 in the graph
a.
is an energy-storing reaction.
b.
requires a greater activation energy than reaction 2.
c.
may use the same initial reactant condition needed to form product Y.
d.
All of the above
 32.
Refer to the graph above. Reaction 3 in the graph
a.
probably occurred in the presence of a catalyst.
b.
requires a greater activation energy than reaction 2.
c.
is the same as reaction 1, but faster.
d.
takes longer than reaction 2.
 33.
Refer to the graph above. Which of these statements regarding the graph is true?
a.
Reaction 2 occurs faster than reaction 3 because reaction 2 requires more energy than reaction 3.
b.
The difference in the graphs shown for reaction 2 and reaction 3 is due to a difference in the activation energy needed for these reactions.
c.
Reactant X contains more energy at the beginning of the reaction than product Z has after the reaction.
d.
All of the above
 34.
Changing the course or pathway of a chemical reaction so that it requires less activation energy
a.
is a violation of the laws of nature.
b.
requires higher temperatures than those found within cells.
c.
occurs only when reactants are quickly added to the reaction mixture.
d.
is accomplished by the action of catalysts on reactants.
 35.
Enzymes
a.
are able to heat up molecules so that they can react.
b.
provide CO2 for chemical reactions.
c.
are biological catalysts.
d.
absorb excess heat so that reactions occur at low temperatures.
 36.
When a molecule gains an electron, it has been
a.
oxidized.
c.
digested.
b.
reduced.
d.
inactivated.
 37.
Oxidation-reduction reactions are important in organisms because they
a.
allow the passage of energy from molecule to molecule.
b.
prevent nuclear reactions from occurring.
c.
allow the creation and destruction of energy.
d.
None of the above; oxidation-reduction reactions do not occur in living organisms.
 38.
The concentration of a solution is
a.
the number of particles of a substance in a solvent.
b.
the amount of a solvent that is dissolved in a fixed amount of a solution.
c.
the amount of a solute that is dissolved in a fixed amount of a solution.
d.
the ratio of solute to solvent in a solution.
 39.
A neutral solution has an equal number of
a.
hydrogen and hydronium ions.
b.
hydroxide and hydronium ions.
c.
hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
d.
oxygen and hydrogen ions.
 40.
The terms base and alkaline refer to solutions that
a.
contain dissolved sodium hydroxide.
b.
contain more hydronium ions than hydroxide ions.
c.
contain more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions.
d.
contain more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions.
 41.
A solution with a pH of 11 is
a.
acidic.
c.
neutral.
b.
alkaline.
d.
a buffer.
 42.
Acidic solutions have a pH that is
a.
less than 7.
c.
a negative number.
b.
between 0 and 14.
d.
more than 7.
 43.
Buffers
a.
are of relatively little importance in living things.
b.
are formed when a large number of hydroxide ions are released in a solution.
c.
are formed when a large number of hydronium ions are released in a solution.
d.
tend to prevent great fluctuations in pH.
 44.
Atoms become more stable when they form compounds because
a.
they always lose electrons when they form compounds.
b.
their outer orbitals become filled when they form compounds.
c.
they always gain electrons when they form compounds.
d.
their nucleus loses extra protons when they form compounds.
 45.
A water molecule is polar because its hydrogen and oxygen atoms
a.
both lose electrons.
b.
become ions.
c.
both gain electrons.
d.
do not share the electrons equally.
 46.
Polar molecules such as water have
a.
no negative or positive poles.
b.
both negative and positive poles.
c.
only a negative pole.
d.
only a positive pole.
 47.
A molecule that has a partial positive charge on one side and a partial negative charge on the other side is called a
a.
nonpolar molecule.
c.
charged molecule.
b.
polar molecule.
d.
bipolar molecule.
 48.
Water is a polar molecule because
a.
it contains two hydrogen atoms for each oxygen atom.
b.
it has a charge.
c.
different parts of the molecule have slightly different charges.
d.
it does not have a charge.
 49.
Water molecules break up other polar substances
a.
such as salts.
b.
because of the uneven charge distribution that exists in water molecules.
c.
thus freeing ions in these substances for use by the body.
d.
All of the above
 50.
Which of the following characteristics of water is not a result of hydrogen bonding?
a.
adhesive strength
b.
capillarity
c.
cohesive strength
d.
All of the above are a result of hydrogen bonding.

 

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Darwinian Evolution – PreAP Biology

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Darwinian Evolution – PreAP Biology
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
Which of the following are examples of fossils?
a.
shells or old bones
b.
any traces of dead organisms
c.
insects trapped in tree sap
d.
All of the above
 2.
Animal fossils may form when
a.
an animal is buried by sediment.
b.
an animal is buried on the ocean floor, in swamps, in mud, or in tar pits.
c.
an animal’s tissue is replaced by harder minerals.
d.
All of the above
 3.
Darwin drew ideas for his theory from observations of organisms on
a.
the Samoan Islands.
b.
Manhattan Island.
c.
the Hawaiian Islands.
d.
the Galápagos Islands.
 4.
The species of finches that Darwin observed differed in the shape of their beaks. According to Darwin, all of these species probably
a.
had a common ancestor.
b.
had migrated from Africa.
c.
had descended from similar birds in Africa.
d.
ate the same diet.
 5.
Darwin thought that the animals of the Galápagos Islands were similar to those of the nearby coast of South America because
a.
the animals’ ancestors had migrated from South America to the Galápagos Islands.
b.
the animals had all been brought to the islands by humans.
c.
the islands had slowly drifted away from the mainland.
d.
the animals in both places had evolved in nearly identical environments
 6.
According to Darwin, evolution occurs
a.
only through artificial selection.
b.
during half-life periods of 5,715 years.
c.
because of natural selection.
d.
so rapidly that it can be observed easily.
 7.
When Darwin published his first book about evolution, he included all of the following ideas except
a.
the idea that species change slowly over time.
b.
the idea that some organisms reproduce at a greater rate than others.
c.
the idea that species are permanent and unchanging.
d.
the idea that some species become better suited to their environment than others.
 8.
The major idea that Darwin presented in his book The Origin of Species was that
a.
species change over time and never compete with each other.
b.
animals change, but plants remain the same over time.
c.
species may change in small ways but cannot give rise to new species.
d.
species change over time by natural selection.
 9.
Natural selection is the process by which
a.
the age of selected fossils is calculated.
b.
organisms with traits well suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than organisms less suited to the same environment.
c.
acquired traits are passed on from one generation to the next.
d.
All of the above
 10.
Populations of the same species living in different places
a.
do not vary.
b.
always show balancing selection.
c.
are genetically identical to each other.
d.
become increasingly different as each population becomes adapted to its own environment.
 11.
Scarcity of resources and a growing population are most likely to result in
a.
decreased homology.
b.
increased genetic variation.
c.
increased competition.
d.
convergent evolution.
nar001-1.jpg
 12.
Refer to the illustration above. An analysis of DNA from these organisms would indicate that
a.
they have identical DNA.
b.
they all have the same number of bones.
c.
their nucleotide sequences show many similarities.
d.
they all have the same number of chromosomes.
 13.
Refer to the illustration above. The similarity of these structures is one form of evidence that the organisms
a.
share a common ancestor.
b.
all grow at different rates.
c.
evolved instantaneously.
d.
live for a long time.
 14.
Refer to the illustration above. The bones labeled “X” can be referred to as
a.
vestigial structures.
b.
sequential structures.
c.
homologous structures.
d.
fossil structures.
 15.
Which of the following is most likely a vestigial structure?
a.
the human tailbone
c.
flower color
b.
the beak of a finch
d.
a fossil of a snail
 16.
Homologous structures in organisms provide evidence that the organisms
a.
share a common ancestor.
b.
must have lived at different times.
c.
have a skeletal structure.
d.
are now extinct.
 17.
Anatomical structures that appear to be derived from a functional structure in an ancestor, but that currently do not serve an important function, are called
a.
inorganic.
c.
fossilized.
b.
mutated.
d.
vestigial.
 18.
The beak of a bird and the beak of a giant squid evolved independently and serve the same function. The beaks are
a.
divergent structures.
c.
analogous structures.
b.
homologous structures.
d.
hybrid structures.
 19.
Evidence that evolution occurs includes all of the following except
a.
acquired characteristics.
b.
similarities and differences in proteins and DNA sequences between organisms.
c.
the fossil record.
d.
homologous structures among different organisms.
 20.

Cytochrome c is a protein that is involved in cellular respiration in all eukaryotic organisms. Human cytochrome c contains 104 amino acids. The following table compares human cytochrome c with cytochrome c from a number of other organisms.


Organism
Number of cytochrome c amino acids
that differ from human cytochrome c amino acids
Chickens
18
Chimpanzees
0
Dogs
13
Rattlesnakes
20
Rhesus monkeys
1
Yeasts
56

Which of the following is not a valid inference from these data?

a.
Chimpanzees are more closely related to humans than yeasts are.
b.
The cytochrome c of chimpanzees differs from that of rhesus monkeys by only one amino acid.
c.
Dogs are more closely related to humans than chickens are.
d.
All of the proteins produced by chimpanzees and humans are identical.
 21.
The accumulation of differences between populations that once formed a single population is called
a.
coevolution.
b.
adaptation.
c.
divergent evolution.
d.
cumulative differentiation.
 22.
Over millions of years, plants and their pollinators have
a.
coevolved.
c.
become parasites.
b.
crossbred.
d.
become competitive.
 23.

mc023-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. While the shark and dolphin are similar in appearance, dolphins evolved from ancestors that were very different from sharks. The current similarity between sharks and dolphins is an example of

a.
coevolution.
c.
convergent evolution.
b.
biogeography.
d.
divergent evolution.
 24.
What is the idea developed by Charles Lyell which states that the geologic processes that shaped Earth in the past continue to operate in the same way today?
a.
inheritance of acquired characteristics
b.
catastrophism
c.
uniformitarianism
d.
descent with modification
 25.
The idea of inheritance of acquitted characteristics was proposed by
a.
Charles Darwin.
c.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.
b.
George Cuvier.
d.
Charles Lyell.
 26.
Which of the following describes a population?
a.
dogs and cats living in Austin, Texas
b.
four species of fish living in a pond
c.
dogwood trees in Middletown, Connecticut
d.
roses and tulips in a garden
 27.
The movement of alleles into or out of a population due to migration is called
a.
mutation.
c.
nonrandom mating.
b.
gene flow.
d.
natural selection.
 28.
What type of population is most susceptible to loss of genetic variability as a result of genetic drift?
a.
large populations
b.
medium-sized populations
c.
small populations
d.
populations that fluctuate in size
 29.
A change in the frequency of a particular gene in one direction in a population is called
a.
directional selection.
b.
acquired variation.
c.
chromosome drift.
d.
stabilizing selection.
 30.
The type of selection that may eliminate intermediate phenotypes is
a.
direction selection.
b.
disruptive selection.
c.
polygenic selection.
d.
stabilizing selection.
 31.
Directional selection tends to eliminate
a.
both extremes in a range of phenotypes.
b.
one extreme in a range of phenotypes.
c.
intermediate phenotypes.
d.
None of the above; it causes new phenotypes to form.
 32.
The large, brightly colored tail feathers of the male peacock are valuable to him because
a.
they attract potential predators.
b.
they warn off potential competitors for mates.
c.
they attract potential mates.
d.
they attract people who provide them with food.
 33.
The hypothesis that evolution occurs at an irregular rate through geologic time is known as
a.
directional evolution.
b.
directional equilibrium.
c.
punctuated equilibrium.
d.
punctuated evolution.

 

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Pre AP grades

PreAP Grades

 

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Pre AP Grades

 

Pre AP Biology Grades  

August 20, 2011
Fourth Nine Weeks Grades

1st Period 8th Period
CHERYL MASSENGALE COMPLETE DETAILED RECORD – Quarter 1
1 PREAP BIOLOGY 1 2
Qtr. 1 Aug 18, 2011 100100 QUARTER Method: Weight/Categories
Student H T HOMEWORK LAB QUIZ TEST Qtr. 1
= = > 91100 A- 91% A 100% A 99%
= = > 94 94 A 94% A 94% A 94%
= = > 91 94 A- 91% A 94% A 94%
= = > 91 94 A- 91% A 94% A 94%
= = > 88 94 B+ 88% A 94% A- 93%
= = > 88 94 B+ 88% A 94% A- 93%
= = > 91 89 A- 91% B+ 89% B+ 89%
= = > 88 89 B+ 88% B+ 89% B+ 89%
= = > 88 89 B+ 88% B+ 89% B+ 89%
= = > 79 89 C+ 79% B+ 89% B+ 88%
= = > 73 89 C- 73% B+ 89% B+ 87%
= = > 94 83 A 94% B- 83% B 84%
= = > 91 83 A- 91% B- 83% B 84%
= = > 91 83 A- 91% B- 83% B 84%
= = > 88 83 B+ 88% B- 83% B 84%
= = > 88 83 B+ 88% B- 83% B 84%
= = > 85 83 B 85% B- 83% B- 83%
= = > 85 83 B 85% B- 83% B- 83%
= = > 83 B- 83% B- 83%
= = > 80 83 B- 80% B- 83% B- 83%
= = > 73 83 C- 73% B- 83% B- 82%
= = > 97 78 A 97% C+ 78% B- 80%
= = > 91 78 A- 91% C+ 78% C+ 79%
= = > 88 78 B+ 88% C+ 78% C+ 79%
= = > 85 78 B 85% C+ 78% C+ 79%
= = > 82 78 B- 82% C+ 78% C+ 79%
= = > 85 72 B 85% C- 72% C 74%
= = > 73 72 C- 73% C- 72% C- 72%
Average = = > 87 85 B+ 87% B 85% B 85%
WT.10% WT.20% WT.70% Weight/PercentagesASSIGNMENTS FOR 1 PREAP BIOLOGY Quarter 1
AUG 17 1 H 100 SAFETY WKSHT AUG 18 2 T 100 SAFETY TEST
CHERYL MASSENGALE COMPLETE DETAILED RECORD – Quarter 1
8 PREAP BIOLOGY 1 2
Qtr. 1 Aug 18, 2011 100100 QTR PTS. QUARTER Method: Cumulative Points
Student H T HOMEWORK LAB QUIZ TEST Qtr. 1
= = > 91 89 180/200 A- 91% B+ 89% A- 90%
= = > 91 89 180/200 A- 91% B+ 89% A- 90%
= = > 79100 179/200 C+ 79% A 100% B+ 89%
= = > 85 94 179/200 B 85% A 94% B+ 89%
= = > 88 89 177/200 B+ 88% B+ 89% B+ 89%
= = > 88 89 177/200 B+ 88% B+ 89% B+ 89%
= = > 82 94 176/200 B- 82% A 94% B+ 88%
= = > 82 94 176/200 B- 82% A 94% B+ 88%
= = > 85 89 174/200 B 85% B+ 89% B+ 87%
= = > 79 94 173/200 C+ 79% A 94% B 86%
= = > 88 83 171/200 B+ 88% B- 83% B 86%
= = > 82 89 171/200 B- 82% B+ 89% B 86%
= = > 82 89 171/200 B- 82% B+ 89% B 86%
= = > 79 89 168/200 C+ 79% B+ 89% B 84%
= = > 79 89 168/200 C+ 79% B+ 89% B 84%
= = > 73 94 167/200 C- 73% A 94% B 84%
= = > 82 83 165/200 B- 82% B- 83% B- 83%
= = > 82 83 165/200 B- 82% B- 83% B- 83%
= = > 82 83 165/200 B- 82% B- 83% B- 83%
= = > 76 89 165/200 C 76% B+ 89% B- 83%
= = > 79 83 162/200 C+ 79% B- 83% B- 81%
= = > 79 83 162/200 C+ 79% B- 83% B- 81%
= = > 76 78 154/200 C 76% C+ 78% C+ 77%
= = > 55 83 138/200 F 55% B- 83% D+ 69%
= = > NC 94 94/200 F 0% A 94% F 47%
= = > NC 89 89/200 F 0% B+ 89% F 45%
Average = = > 75 89 164/200 C 75% B+ 89% B- 82%
WT. 50% WT. 0% WT. 0% WT. 50% Cumulative PointsASSIGNMENTS FOR 8 PREAP BIOLOGY Quarter 1
AUG 17 1 H 100 SAFETY WKSHT AUG 18 2 T 100 SAFETY TEST

Massengale

Pre AP Lab Reports

 

Pre AP Lab Reports

Calorimetry of Food Energy
Sample 1     Sample 2     Sample 3
Scientific Method – All Thumbs!
Sample 1     Sample 2
Osmosis Through an Egg Membrane
Sample 1     Sample 2    Sample 3     Sample 4
Environmental pH
Sample 1     Sample 2
Chromatography of Plant Pigments
Sample 1     Sample 2     Sample 3
Planarian Regeneration
Sheep Heart Dissection Chromatography of Pigments
Metric Measurement Water Properties
 
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Preap Biochemistry Study Guide

 

Biochemistry Review 

 

1. Molecules with a slightly negative end and a slightly positive end are called ___________________  _____________________________.

2. A monomer of protein is called an __________________  __________________.

3. An attractive force between like particles is called ___________________________.

4. Organic molecules that catalyze reactions in living systems are ______________________.

5. The compound found in living things that supplies the energy in one of its chemical bonds directly to cells is ______________________.

6. Enzymes lower activation energy by___________ to the ____________________ and ______________________ bonds within the ________________________.

7. The monomers that make up nucleic acids are called __________________________.

8. The type of attraction that holds two water molecules together is called __________________________  __________________________.

9. The sharing of three pairs of electrons is called a ___________________  _____________.

10.  The structural building block that determines the characteristics of a compound is called the _____________________________  _______________________.

11.  Large carbon compounds are built from smaller molecules called ______________________________.

12.  What is the type of reaction that forms large molecules from smaller ones? _________________________________  _____________________________.

13.  What type of reaction breaks large molecules into smaller ones? _______________________

14.  What is the by product of a condensation reaction? __________________________

15.  The attractive force between unlike particles is called ____________________________.

16.  A compound that is stored as glycogen in animals and as a starch in plants is ____________________________________.

17.  Lipids are good energy storage molecules because they have many _________________-___________________ bonds.

18.  What are the components of many lipids? ________________________  ______________________

19.  What is the monomer of many polysaccharides? ______________________________

20.  What kind of reaction allows amino acids to become linked together? ________________________________  _____________________________.

21.  Nucleic acids function primarily to carry __________________________  ____________________ and direct _____________________  ______________________.

22. Tends not to react with water, “Water Fearing”  ________________________________

23. Attracted to water molecules, “Water Loving” _________________________________

24. Water is called a ___________________________  ___________________________.
DIRECTIONS: Read Chapter 3, Biochemistry, and Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams or pictures to supplement your answers, but a diagram or picture alone without appropriate discussion is inadequate.

1. Describe the structure of a water molecule, and explain how the electrical charge is distributed over the molecule.

2. Describe the structure of amino acids and proteins.

3. What are the structural differences between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides?

4. What is capillarity? Include defining Adhesion and Cohesion.

5. How does a condensation reaction differ from a hydrolysis reaction?

6. Give Three reasons why water is an effective solvent.

7. What is an organic compound?

8. What property allows carbon compounds to exist in a number of forms?

9. The presence of four electrons in the outermost energy level of a carbon atom enables
carbon atoms to form what THREE Things.

10. Living things contain many different proteins of vastly different shapes and functions.
What determines the shape and thus the function of a particular protein?

11. How does the structure of a phospholipid, linear molecules with a polar end and a
nonpolar end, relate to their function in the cell membrane?

 

Preap Articles

 

PreAP Biology Articles to Abstract

       An abstract is a summary or synopsis of an article in a journal or magazine.  The purpose of preparing an abstract is to acquaint you with scientific literature and to expose you to current topics in biology.

Special Instructions:

·         Articles to be abstracted must be at least two pages (text) in length.

·         Work cited must be included at the top of the abstract page.

·         Triple space between the citation & the start of your paper

·         Abstracts must be handwritten and at least two and a half pages in length.  (DO NOT WRITE ON THE BACK!)

  • Write your name and period at the top of the abstract.

 

 

CLICK HERE FOR PRINTABLE COPY

MLA Style Periodical Citation:

Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine Date: Page(s).

EXAMPLE:

Milton, Katherine. “Diet and Primate Evolution.” Scientific American August 1993: 86-94.

 

 

Abstracts DUE 1st  Wednesday of each month August – May.
(Two abstracts due in January – first & 3rd Tuesday.)

Preap Assignments Sem2

Updated May 2007

Third Nine Weeks

Week of January 8 assignments:
Read & outline chapter 10 on Nucleic Acids; PowerPoint: Nucleic Acids & protein Synthesis; chapter 10 outline due

Week of January 14 assignments:

Chapter 10 study guide; Lab: Strawberry DNA; Chapter 10 TEST on Nucleic Acids; Read & outline chapters 8 & 12 on genetics


Week of January 21 assignments: 

PowerPoint on genetics; Monohybrid crosses & ratios; Chapter 8 outline due

I have a Dream!  Martin Luther King Holiday

Week of January 28 assignments:
Lab: Karyotyping; Work genetics problems; Notes on genetic disorders; genetics review; TEST on chapters * & 12 genetics; Read chapters 13 & 14 on evolution

Week of February 4 assignments:
Cover section 14.1 and chapter 15 on Charles Darwin & natural selection; Lab: Natural Selection in Peanuts

Week of February 11 assignments:  Interims
study guide on evolution; TEST on chapters13 & 14 Evolution; Read & outline chapter 18 on Taxonomy; PowerPoint notes on taxonomy; Peanut lab write up due

Week of February 18 assignments:
Practice taxonomic keying; Complete taxonomy notes; Chapter 18 TEST on Taxonomy; Read & outline chapters 24 & 25 on bacteria & viruses

Monday Holiday — President’s Day!

Parent-Teacher Conference!

Week of February 25 assignments: 
Notes on Bacteria & Viruses; Assign Virus model to build; Chapter 24 outline due

Week of March 3 assignments:
Notes on Sponges & Cnidarians; Assign Invertebrate drawings; study guide & take online quiz; Continue Koch’s lab

Week of March 10 assignments: 

Complete Virus notes; Virus model due; Chapter 25 outline due; TEST on Bacteria & Viruses; Handout & worksheet on plant unit

Week of March 17 assignments:
Cover nonvascular plants, angiosperms, & gymnosperms

Spring Break March 26 – 30!

End of Third Nine weeks

  Pre -AP Biology        Biology I

Fourth Nine Weeks

Week of March 24 assignments: Monday, Teacher Professional development!

Plant worksheet due; review for plant test; *UNIT TEST on Plants; Assign ecosystem collage; Start answering ecology unit worksheet

Week of March 31 assignments:

Work on and finish ecology unit worksheet; review for ecology test; TEST on Ecology; Read & outline chapter 35 on Sponges & Cnidarians

Good Friday, April 4th!

 

Week of April 7 assignments:    

Ecosystem Collage due!; Notes on Sponges & Cnidarians; study guide; Test on Chapter 35 Sponges & Cnidarians; read & outline chapter 36 on Round & Flat worms

Week of April 14 assignments:
Notes on worms; Chapter 36 outline due; read & outline chapter 37 on Mollusks & Annelids; notes on mollusks & annelids

Week of April 23 assignments:  Interims 

Biology End-of-Course Exam on Monday, April 16-17th!

Dissect earthworm; *TEST on chapters 36 & 37 Worms & Mollusks; Read & outline chapters 38 & 39 on Arthropods & Insects; Start notes on arthropods

Week of April 30 assignments:
Notes on Insects; review for arthropod test; TEST on chapters 38 & 39 Insects & other Arthropods; read & outline Chapter 40 on Echinoderms

Week of May 7 assignments:
Notes on Echinoderms; Dissect starfish; TEST on Chapter 40 Echinoderms; Read & outline chapters 41 & 42 on fish & amphibians; Assign vertebrate/invertebrate project

Week of May 14 assignments:
Notes on fish & amphibians; fish & amphibian outlines due; read & outline chapter 43 on reptiles

Click frog for jokes

Week of May 9 assignments:   Graduation May 25!
Notes on reptiles, birds, and mammals; Read chapters 44 & 45 on birds  mammals; UNIT TEST on Vertebrates; Vertebrate/Invertebrate Project due!; semester Test review

Final Exams  Start  Next Week-   Don’t Forget to study!!!

Week of May 28 assignments:  

Semester Exams Tuesday, Wednesday, & Thursday; Textbooks due!

Final Exams  Start  –   Don’t Forget to study!!!

End of Fourth Nine weeks

  Pre -AP Biology        Biology I

Enjoy your summer!  

Preap Bacteria Notes

 

Bacteria Review  

 

1. The most numerous organisms on Earth are ____________________________________.

2. Type of bacteria that peptidoglycan is absent in cell walls _____________________________________________.

3. Type of bacteria that obtain energy from inorganic substances are __________________________________  _________________________________.

4. Type of bacteria that obtain nutrients from dead organisms ____________________________  ______________________________________.

5. Organisms that lack a cell nucleus are called ______________________________.

6.  Most prokaryotes are __________________________________organisms.

7.  Almost all prokaryotes are ____________________ than the smallest Eukaryotes.

8. Prokaryotes have _____________________________ that are different from those of Eukaryotes.

9. The bacteria can be divided into two Kingdoms: ______________________________ and
____________________________________________.

10. The ______________________________________ are a group of bacteria that live in Harsh Environments.

11. The prefix “ARCHEA” means ___________________________________.

12. Archaebacteria can be divided into Three Groups.  LIST AND DESCRIBE EACH GROUP:

A. _____________________  ____________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

B. _____________________  ____________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

C. _____________________  ____________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

13. The Archaebacteria that produce methane are called _______________________________.

14. Archaebacteria that thrive in very salty conditions, such as the Dead Sea, are called
________________________________  ______________________________.

15. Archaebacteria that can live in extremely hot or acidic water are called ______________________________________________________.

16. The prefix “EU” means _________________________.

17. What is the important tool used for classifying Eubacteria  called ________________________  ____________________________.

18. During Gram Staining, depending on structure of their __________  ____________, the
bacteria’s cell walls absorbs either the _______________ or ________________dye.

19.Those bacteria that take on the purple color are called _________________
_________________________  ___________________________

20. Gram-positive Bacteria used to make antibiotics are called __________________________________.

21. Gram-positive bacteria cause many diseases in humans by producing _________________________
which are poisons to our bodies.

22. Bacteria that appear Pink after staining are called  _______________
________________________  ___________________________.

23. Gram-negative bacteria have an extra layer of ________________ on the outside
of the ____________  ____________ and appear ___________ after the Gram staining.

24. The lipid layer _______________ the purple stain from entering the cell wall.

25. Gram-negative bacteria do absorb the ____________ stain during the Gram-staining.

26. The extra layer of lipids also stops many ________________________ from entering the bacteria.

27.  Scientist think that gram-negative bacteria may have evolved from a
____________________________  _____________________________.

28.   ______________________ grow in the root nodules of such plants as soybean, clover, and alfalfa.

29. Rhizobacteria fix ______________________ from the atmosphere into a form that plants
and animals can use (this greatly helps both plants and animals).  They convert the gaseous
nitrogen into compounds such as __________________________  (NH3).

30.  Gram-negative bacteria are distinguished by an extra layer of _________________.

31.   _______________________ are Gram-negative bacteria that perform plant-like
____________________________ and release oxygen as a by-product.
32.   _____________________________ are much _________________ than many other
prokaryotes.

33. Organisms that obtain energy from oxidizing inorganic compound instead of sunlight are called _________________________________.

34. Whiplike structures used by bacteria for movements are called ______________________.

35.   Photoautotrophs are bacteria that use ______________________ as an energy source.

36.   Bacteria can be one of three different shapes:

A. _____________________________________________(Rod)

B. _____________________________________________(Sphere)

C. _____________________________________________(Spiral)

37.  Bacteria usually gain part of their ____________________ from their shape.

38. Two major differences between groups of bacteria are their source of ____________________
and weather or not they use ________________ for cellular respiration.

39.   Most bacteria are _______________________; they get their energy by consuming (eating) organic molecules.

40.   Some are __________________ that make their own food from ________________.

41.   ____________________________ obtain their food from inorganic compound instead of sunlight.

42.  _________________________ use sunlight for energy.

43.   Organisms that use oxygen during cellular respiration are called ________________ Organisms
that do not use oxygen are called __________________________.  Typically they get their energy through _________________________________.

44. Bacteria called ______________  __________________ cannot live without oxygen.

45.   Bacteria called ____________  _______________ cannot live in the presence of oxygen.

46.   Bacteria called ________________  __________________ can use oxygen when it is available,
but do not depend on it.

47. Most bacteria reproduce by a process called _________________ __________________.

48. Binary fission is a process in which the __________________________ replicate,
after which the ________________ divides.

49. Binary fission is a type of _____________________ reproduction.

50. Some bacteria contain smaller pieces of circular DNA called  ________________________.

51. Bacteria can exchange genes by one of three special means: _________________________, __________________________, or _____________________________.

52. The process of exchanging genetic material through cell to cell contact is called
___________________________________.

53. Hair like structures on the surface of bacteria are called ______________________.

54. The process by which bacteria cells pick up and incorporate DNA from dead bacteria cells is called _________________________________.

55. Using a virus to transfer DNA from one bacterial cell to another is called _____________________________.

56. When living conditions become _____________________, some bacteria from special
dehydrated cells called ___________________________________.

57. Bacteria that form ___________________ have an advantage for ____________________.

58. Bacteria the feed on and that break down dead organic material are called ______________________________.

59. Type of bacteria that produces many antibiotics__________________________.

60. Type of bacteria that produces endotoxins ___________________________  ___________________________.

61. Bacteria that can only survive in the absence of oxygen are called _______________________  ____________________________.

62. Gram-negative bacteria appear ________________ when they undergo the Gram-stain procedure.

63. Type of  bacteria that performs nitrogen fixation is _________________________.

64. Type of bacteria that peptidoglycan is present in cell walls _________________________________.

65. What bacteria are thought to be responsible for establishing the Earth’s oxygen-rich atmosphere? ____________________________________

66. Bacteria cells typically lack ____________________________________.

67. Bacterial disease of the intestines are usually transmitted by contaminated __________________________  or __________________________.

68. What are the Three Mechanism of action of an antibiotic?

DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams to supplement your answers, but a diagram alone without appropriate discussion is inadequate.

1. Describe the capsule of a bacterium and its function.

2. Identify the most common shapes of Eubacteria and Describe each.

3. Compare and Contrast Archaebacteria with Eubacteria.

4. Identify Three Ways that bacteria are used to produce substances for human use.

5. Describe the significance of cyanobacteria in the formation of the Earth’s atmosphere.

6. List the various structures of the bacterial cell, and Describe their function.

7. Explain the laboratory technique Gram stain and Explain what it is used for.

8. Define the term genetic recombination as it applies to bacteria, and Describe Three ways that genetic
recombination occurs in bacteria.

9. Explain how chemoautotrophs differ from photosynthetic autotrophs.

10. Explain how the terms bacteria, Eubacteria, and Archaebacteria, relate to one another.

11. Describe Three Types of movement among bacteria.

12. List the characteristics that are used to classify bacteria.

13.  Explain how chemoautotrophs harvest energy from the environment.

14.  Describe Two Ways bacteria cause disease.

15.  Explain why antibiotic resistance among bacteria is increasing.

16. List one distinguishing characteristic of each of the three main groups of Archaebacteria.

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PreAP Biology Project Due Dates

PreAP Biology Project Due Dates

 

Project Due Date