Constructing Monomers

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Macromolecular Chart

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Biochemistry Puzzle

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Water Power Point Worksheet

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Quiz – Biochemistry

 

Biochemistry Quiz
1. All of the following are carbohydrates EXCEPT:
starch
glycogen
chitin
cholesterol2. The structure contains which functional group
aldehyde
ketone
amino
carboxyl

3. Fatty acids that are unsaturated have:
an amino group
a double bond
an excess of protons
a carboxyl group

4. The structure below is a:


monosaccharide
disaccharide
lipid
polymer

5. Which of the following can have a quaternary structure?
fatty acid
protein
polysaccharide
DNA

6. An organic compound is one that:
contains carbon
is slightly acidic
forms long chains
is soluble in water

7. Which of the following elements is the LEAST abundant in living organisms?
oxygen
nitrogen
phosphorous
sodium

8. Which of the following is used in PET scans?
uranium
ions
isotopes
steroids

9. Carbon can form ___ separate bonds with other elements?
1
2
3
4

10. The cohesion of water is caused by:
ionic bonds
hydrophobic compounds
hydrogen bonds
covalent bonds

Score =
Correct answers:

 

 

 

PCC Biochemistry

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PCC Biochemistry
 

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. Write  + for true and  0 for false.
 1.
Atoms have a positive charge.
 2.
An element is made up of more than one kind of atom.
 3.
Hydrogen and oxygen atoms have an equal number of electrons.
 4.
A molecule is an atom that has gained or lost an electron.
 5.
An atom that gains or loses one or more electrons is called an ion.
 6.
An atom with more electrons than protons has a positive charge.
 7.
Ionic bonds form between two negatively charged particles.
 8.
A covalent bond forms between two atoms that share electrons to form a molecule.
 9.
Adhesion is an attraction between different substances.
 10.
The ability of water to retain heat helps cells maintain homeostasis.
 11.
Nonpolar molecules dissolve well in water.
 12.
Water molecules attract nonpolar molecules such as oil.
 13.
Organic compounds contain carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, and other carbon atoms.
 14.
A nucleotide has four parts.
 15.
RNA is made up of a double strand of nucleotides.
 16.
DNA stores hereditary information that can be used to make proteins.
 17.
When cells break down food, the energy from the food is temporarily stored as ATP.
 18.
The amount of energy needed to cause a chemical reaction to start is called activation energy.
 19.
Without enzymes, chemical reactions necessary for life would not occur at a rate sufficient to sustain life.
 20.
Enzymes speed up a chemical reaction by increasing the activation energy of the reaction.
 21.
When an enzyme binds with its substrate, the activation energy needed for the chemical reaction to occur is increased.
 22.
Chemical reactions that occur in cells are called biochemical reactions.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 23.
Atoms are composed of
a.
protons.
c.
electrons.
b.
neutrons.
d.
All of the above
 24.
The electrons of an atom
a.
are found in the nucleus along with the protons.
b.
occupy the space surrounding the nucleus.
c.
have a positive charge.
d.
are attached to the positive charge of neutrons.
 25.
The smallest particle of matter that can retain the chemical properties of carbon is a(n)
a.
carbon molecule.
c.
carbon atom.
b.
carbon macromolecule.
d.
element.
 26.
A substance that is composed of only one type of atom is called a(n)
a.
nucleus.
c.
element.
b.
cell.
d.
molecule.
 27.
All matter is composed of
a.
cells.
c.
atoms.
b.
molecules.
d.
carbon.
 28.
A molecule that has a partial positive charge on one side and a partial negative charge on the other side is called a
a.
nonpolar molecule.
c.
charged molecule.
b.
polar molecule.
d.
bipolar molecule.
 29.
A chemical formula shows the
a.
kinds of bonds found in the molecule.
b.
kinds of bonds found in the compound.
c.
kinds of elements found in the compound.
d.
arrangement of the elements found in the compound.
 30.
Ionic bonds form between molecules that have
a.
opposite charges.
c.
no charges.
b.
the same charge.
d.
neutral charges.
 31.
The bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons is called a(n)
a.
hydrogen bond.
c.
covalent bond.
b.
ionic bond.
d.
water bond.
 32.
Sharing of electrons in the outer energy levels of two atoms
a.
results in ion formation.
b.
occurs in covalent bonds.
c.
only occurs if both are atoms of the same element.
d.
is found only among carbon atoms.
 33.
Water is important to life because it
a.
surrounds all cells.
b.
is found inside cells.
c.
influences the shape of the cell membrane.
d.
All of the above
 34.
Nonpolar molecules have
a.
no negative or positive poles.
c.
only a negative pole.
b.
both negative and positive poles.
d.
only a positive pole.
 35.
When placed in the same container, oil and water do not mix because
a.
they are both polar.
c.
they are both nonpolar.
b.
water is polar and oil is nonpolar.
d.
water is nonpolar and oil is polar.
 36.
Due to the polarity of water, compounds that dissolve best in water contain
a.
nonpolar bonds.
c.
polar bonds.
b.
ionic bonds.
d.
Both (b) and (c)
 37.
Water is a polar molecule because
a.
it contains two hydrogen atoms for each oxygen atom.
b.
it has a charge.
c.
different parts of the molecule have slightly different charges.
d.
it does not have a charge.
 38.
Acidic solutions have a pH that is
a.
less than 7.
c.
a negative number.
b.
between 7 and 14.
d.
more than 7.
 39.
Hydrogen ions, H+, react with hydroxide ions, OH-, to form
a.
water.
c.
a base.
b.
an acid.
d.
None of the above
 40.
Which of the following is not an organic macromolecule?
a.
carbohydrate
c.
lipid
b.
ice
d.
nucleic acid
 41.
All organic compounds contain the element
a.
carbon.
c.
calcium.
b.
nitrogen.
d.
sodium.
 42.
Which of the following organic molecules are classified as carbohydrates?
a.
amino acids
c.
nucleotides
b.
fatty acids
d.
sugars
 43.
Polysaccharides are
a.
carbohydrates.
c.
proteins.
b.
lipids.
d.
unsaturated fats.
 44.
Lipids are
a.
polar molecules.
c.
water soluble.
b.
similar to water molecules.
d.
nonpolar molecules.
 45.
Which of the following organic molecules are most closely related to proteins?
a.
amino acids
c.
nucleotides
b.
fatty acids
d.
sugars
 46.
Long chains of amino acids are found in
a.
carbohydrates.
c.
proteins.
b.
lipids.
d.
sugars.
 47.
All of the following are examples of lipids except
a.
saturated fats.
c.
cholesterol.
b.
starch.
d.
earwax.
 48.
Lipids are soluble in
a.
water.
c.
oil.
b.
salt water.
d.
All of the above
 49.
Which organic molecules below are most closely related to lipids?
a.
amino acids
c.
nucleotides
b.
fatty acids
d.
sugars
 50.
Which of the following organic molecules are most closely related to nucleic acids?
a.
amino acids
c.
nucleotides
b.
fatty acids
d.
sugars
 51.
Which of the following is a carbohydrate?
a.
DNA
c.
wax
b.
insulin
d.
sucrose
 52.
Carbohydrates and lipids have many carbon-hydrogen bonds; therefore, they both
a.
store energy in these bonds.
c.
dissolve only in vinegar.
b.
are easily dissolved in water.
d.
exist only in cells of plants.
nar001-1.jpg
nar001-2.jpg
Molecule A
Molecule B
 53.
Refer to the illustration above. Molecules like Molecule B are found in
a.
carbohydrates.
c.
nucleic acids.
b.
lipids.
d.
proteins.
 54.
Liquid fats called oils contain
a.
mostly unsaturated fatty acids.
c.
many glucose molecules.
b.
mostly saturated fatty acids.
d.
amino acids.
 55.
Animals store glucose in the form of
a.
cellulose.
c.
wax.
b.
glycogen.
d.
lipids.
 56.
The shape of a protein is primarily determined by
a.
the type and sequence of its amino acids.
b.
its size.
c.
its cell location.
d.
None of the above
 57.
The two types of nucleic acids are
a.
chlorophyll and retinal.
c.
lipids and sugars.
b.
DNA and RNA.
d.
glucose and glycogen.
 58.
DNA stores
a.
fat.
c.
protein.
b.
carbohydrates.
d.
heredity information.
 59.
The two strands of a DNA molecule are held together by
a.
ionic bonds.
c.
hydrogen bonds.
b.
covalent bonds.
d.
None of the above
 60.
A molecule shaped like a spiral staircase (double helix) is typical of
a.
deoxyribonucleic acid.
c.
lipids.
b.
ribonucleic acid.
d.
carbohydrates.
 61.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) stores energy for cells to use in the bonds between its
a.
amino acids.
c.
nucleotides.
b.
carbon atoms.
d.
phosphates.
nar002-1.jpg
 62.
Refer to the illustration above. Which graph illustrates what happens during an energy-releasing reaction?
a.
Graph A
b.
Graph B
c.
both graphs because they each show a different stage of an energy releasing reaction
d.
None of the above
 63.
Refer to the illustration above. Which graph illustrates a reaction during which energy is released?
a.
Graph A
b.
Graph B
c.
both graphs because all chemical reactions release energy
d.
None of the above
nar003-1.jpg
 64.
Refer to the illustration above. Which of the following statements regarding the graph is true?
a.
Reaction 2 occurs faster than Reaction 3 because Reaction 2 requires more energy than Reaction 3.
b.
The difference between the graphs shown for Reaction 2 and Reaction 3 is because of a difference in the activation energy of these reactions.
c.
Reactant A contains more energy at the beginning of the reaction than product C has after the reaction.
d.
All of the above
 65.
Refer to the illustration above. Reaction 3 in the graph
a.
probably occurred in the presence of a catalyst.
b.
requires more activation energy than Reaction 2.
c.
is the same as Reaction 1, but faster.
d.
is slower than Reaction 2.
 66.
The molecule on which an enzyme acts is called a(n)
a.
active site.
c.
organic molecule.
b.
inactive site.
d.
substrate.
 67.
An enzyme
a.
is not used up when catalyzing a reaction.
b.
lowers the activation energy of a reaction.
c.
bonds with a substrate molecule at the enzyme’s active site.
d.
All of the above
 68.
Which of the following conditions affects the function of enzymes?
a.
pH
c.
enzyme concentration
b.
heat
d.
All of the above
 69.
Reducing activation energy
a.
is a violation of the laws of nature.
b.
requires higher temperatures than those found within cells.
c.
occurs only when reactants are quickly added to the reaction mixture.
d.
is accomplished by the action of catalysts on reactants.
 70.
Enzymes
a.
are able to heat up molecules so that they can react.
b.
always provide carbon dioxide for chemical reactions.
c.
are biological catalysts.
d.
absorb excess heat so that reactions occur at low temperatures.
 71.
A cell contains
a.
thousands of different kinds of enzymes, each promoting a different chemical reaction.
b.
one kind of enzyme that promotes thousands of different chemical reactions.
c.
approximately 100 kinds of enzymes, each promoting a different chemical reaction.
d.
one enzyme that promotes photosynthesis and one enzyme that promotes cellular respiration.
 72.
Amylase is a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch into
a.
amino acids.
c.
glycogen.
b.
glucose.
d.
cellulose.
 73.
The digestive enzyme pepsin works with hydrochloric acid to break down proteins in the stomach. Pepsin probably works best at a pH of
a.
11.
c.
3.
b.
7.
d.
Both (b) and (c).

 

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PCC Biochemistry 2011

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Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
The three particles that make up atoms are
a.
protons, neutrons, and isotopes.
c.
positives, negatives, and electrons.
b.
neutrons, isotopes, and electrons.
d.
protons, neutrons, and electrons.
 2.
The space surrounding the nucleus of an atom contains
a.
protons.
c.
neutrons.
b.
electrons.
d.
ions.
 3.
Democritus believed that atoms
a.
were composed of electrons.
c.
could be divided.
b.
were composed of protons.
d.
could not be divided.
 4.
If an atom contains 3 protons, 4 neutrons,  and 3 electrons, its mass number would be
a.
3.
c.
7.
b.
4.
d.
11.
 5.
If a chlorine atom had 17 protons and 18 neutrons, it would be called
a.
chlorine-17.
c.
chlorine-35.
b.
chlorine-18.
d.
chlorine-1.
 6.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons and
a.
a different number of electrons.
c.
a different number of neutrons.
b.
a different number of molecules.
d.
the same number of neutrons.
 7.
Which of the following is a use of radioactive isotopes?
a.
can determine the ages of rocks and fossils
b.
can be used to treat cancer and kill bacteria that cause food to spoil
c.
can be used as “tracers” to follow the movements of substances within organisms
d.
all of the above
 8.
If an atom contains 11 protons and 12 neutrons, its atomic number is
a.
1.
c.
12.
b.
11.
d.
23.
 9.
Which of the following terms describes a substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions?
a.
compound
c.
nucleus
b.
isotope
d.
enzyme
 10.
Which of the following makes up a molecule of water?
a.
one atom of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen
b.
one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine
c.
one atom of hydrogen and two atoms of oxygen
d.
two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen
 11.
Which of the following is NOT true about chlorine?
a.
It is a poisonous, greenish gas.
b.
It combines with sodium to form table salt.
c.
It was used to kill many soldiers in World War I.
d.
It is not reactive.
 12.
Which of the following statements about a compound is true?
a.
The physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually very different from those of the elements from which it is formed.
b.
Only the physical properties of a compound are usually the same as those of the elements from which it is formed.
c.
Only the chemical properties of a compound are usually the same as those of the elements from which it is formed.
d.
The physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually the same as those of the elements from which it is formed.
 13.
A covalent bond is formed as the result of
a.
transferring electrons.
c.
transferring protons.
b.
sharing an electron pair.
d.
sharing a proton pair.
 14.
Which term does NOT apply to sodium chloride?
a.
molecule
c.
compound
b.
ionic bonding
d.
crystal
 15.
What type of electron is available to form bonds?
a.
valence
c.
ionic
b.
nucleus
d.
covalent
 16.
What type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons?
a.
neutral
c.
negative
b.
positive
d.
possibly positive or negative
 17.
Ice floats on water because
a.
of cohesion.
c.
water shrinks when it freezes.
b.
ice has a higher density than water.
d.
water expands when it freezes.
 18.
The most abundant compound in most living things is
a.
carbon dioxide.
c.
sodium chloride.
b.
water.
d.
sugar.
 19.
Water molecules are polar, with the
a.
oxygen side being slightly positive and the hydrogen side being slightly negative.
b.
oxygen and hydrogen sides being slightly positive.
c.
oxygen and hydrogen sides being slightly negative.
d.
oxygen side being slightly negative and the hydrogen side being slightly positive.
 20.
In a water molecule, shared electrons spend more time around the oxygen atom than the hydrogen atoms.  As a result, the oxygen atom is
a.
slightly negative.
c.
slightly positive.
b.
very negative.
d.
very positive.
 21.
A solution is a(an)
a.
combination of isotopes.
b.
chemical reaction.
c.
evenly distributed mixture of two or more substances.
d.
combination of two or more liquids.
 22.
If you stir salt into boiling water, you produce a
a.
mixture called a suspension.
c.
solution and suspension.
b.
mixture called a solution.
d.
mixture only.
 23.
When salt is dissolved in water, water is the
a.
reactant.
c.
solute.
b.
solution.
d.
solvent.
 24.
While preparing a cell culture, a scientist places a colony of bacteria into distilled water and stirs it up.  This mixture of water and living cells would best be called a(an)
a.
solution.
b.
suspension.
c.
buffer.
d.
adhesion.
 25.
If the pH of stomach acid and of oven cleaner were measured,
a.
both would be below 7.
b.
both would be above 7.
c.
the pH of stomach acid would be above 7, but the pH of oven cleaner would be below 7.
d.
the pH of stomach acid would be below 7, but the pH of oven cleaner would be above 7.
 26.
A map of eastern North America, showing the pH of rainfall in the various states, indicates that the pH of rain in New York State varies from 4.22 to 4.40. According to these figures, the most acidic rainfall in New York State has a pH of
a.
4.22.
c.
4.35.
b.
4.30.
d.
4.40.
 27.
A substance with a pH of 6 is called
a.
an acid.
c.
both an acid and a base.
b.
a base.
d.
neither an acid nor a base.
 28.
Solutions that contain concentrations of H+ ions lower than pure water
a.
have pH values below 7.
c.
are bases.
b.
are acids.
d.
are enzymes.
 29.
Amino acid is to protein as
a.
fat is to lipid.
c.
sugar is to fat.
b.
DNA is to RNA.
d.
simple sugar is to starch.
 30.
A monosaccharide is a
a.
carbohydrate.
c.
nucleic acid.
b.
lipid.
d.
protein.
 31.
Which of the following is NOT a monomer?
a.
a glucose molecule
c.
a nucleotide
b.
an amino acid
d.
a protein
 32.
Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins?
a.
store and transmit genetic information
b.
help to fight disease
c.
control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes
d.
build tissues such as bone and muscle
 33.
Which statement is true?
a.
Simple sugars are made of polysaccharides.
b.
Glycerol is made of fatty acids.
c.
RNA molecules are made of nucleotides.
d.
Amino acids are made of proteins.
 34.
In chemical reactions, atoms are
a.
created.
c.
rearranged.
b.
destroyed.
d.
neutralized.
 35.
When hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water, water is
a.
a product.
c.
both a product and a reactant.
b.
a reactant.
d.
neither a product nor a reactant.
 36.
Identify the reactant(s) in the chemical reaction, CO2 + H2O ® H2CO3.
a.
CO2, H2O, and H2CO3
c.
H2CO3
b.
CO2 and H2O
d.
CO2
 37.
What is the process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals?
a.
cohesion
c.
chemical reaction
b.
adhesion
d.
dissolving
 38.
What is the term used to describe the energy needed to get a reaction started?
a.
adhesion energy
c.
cohesion energy
b.
activation energy
d.
chemical energy
 39.
Chemical reactions that release energy
a.
will not occur.
c.
will always explode.
b.
will never explode.
d.
often occur spontaneously.
 40.
If a reaction in one direction releases energy, the reaction in the opposite direction
a.
also releases energy.
c.
destroys energy.
b.
absorbs energy.
d.
cannot occur.
 41.
Which of the following is a form of energy that may be released during a chemical reaction?
a.
heat
c.
light
b.
sound
d.
all of the above
 42.
Which of the following statements about enzymes is NOT true?
a.
Enzymes work best at a specified pH.
b.
All enzymes have the same shape as their substrates.
c.
Enzymes are proteins.
d.
The shape of an enzyme allows it to do its job.
 43.
Which of the following statements is true about catalysts?
a.
Catalysts slow down the rate of chemical reactions.
b.
All catalysts are enzymes.
c.
Catalysts are used up during a chemical reaction.
d.
Catalysts lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction.
 44.
A substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction is called a(an)
a.
catalyst.
c.
molecule.
b.
lipid.
d.
element.
 45.
Enzymes affect the reactions in living cells by changing the
a.
products of the reaction.
c.
temperature of the reaction.
b.
speed of the reaction.
d.
pH of the reaction.
 

Short Answer
 46.
Why are atoms considered neutral?

 47.
What is a molecule?

 

Other

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

 

pH Values of Some Common Substances
Substance pH
Hydrochloric acid
1.0
Sulfuric acid
1.2
Tomatoes
4.2
Rainwater
6.2
Pure water
7.0
Sea water
8.5
Ammonium chloride
11.1
Sodium hydroxide
13.0

Figure 2–2
 48.
Applying Concepts What is the strongest acid listed in Figure 2–2?

 49.
Applying Concepts What is the pH of the strongest base listed in Figure 2–2?

 50.
Applying Concepts Using your knowledge of the pH scale, which of the chemicals in Figure 2-2 has the lowest concentration of H+ ions?

 

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Chapter 3 Biochemistry Studyguide