From Water to Land: 10 Amazing Types Of Amphibians

There are nearly 8,000 types of amphibians, including some of the most unusual and exciting creatures found on land and water.

About two million species of animals inhabit Planet Earth. More than that, scientists discover and categorize about 10,000 other new species every year. Animals are broken down into classes which include vertebrates and invertebrates, or animals with or without spines.

Amphibians belong to the vertebrate class along with birds, fish, mammals, and reptiles. All amphibians are cold-blooded, meaning they cannot generate body heat on their own. For that reason, they must rely on their environment to keep them cold or warm enough for survival.

Going further, most amphibians undergo a metamorphosis from a juvenile to an adult form. For example, frogs begin as tadpoles with gills and a tail. As they mature, they develop lungs. Over time, four legs replace most types of amphibians tails.

The Types of Amphibians

Amphibian species include three subgroups or orders. Firstly, there is the Order Anura which includes about 6,500 species of frogs and toads.

Secondly, the Order Caudata or Urodela includes about 680 species of newts and salamanders. Thirdly, Order Apoda or Gymnophiona, includes about 200 species of caecilians.

Frogs and Toads

Types of amphibians: European Common Frog (Rana temporaria) & European Toad (Bufo bufo) on a grassy patch of soil
European Common Frog (Rana temporaria) & European Toad (Bufo bufo): Image CC by 2.0 Generic, by Thomas Brown, via Wikipedia Commons

Frogs and toads typically have short bodies, webbed fingers and toes, and no tails. And, they usually have bulging eyes.

Newts and salamanders

yellow-spotted salamander, an amphibian, on a white background
Spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum): Image CC by 2.0, by Brian Gratwicke, via Wikipedia Commons

Newts and salamanders look similar to lizards and have short legs, skinny bodies, and long tails. Surprisingly, salamanders and newts have the remarkable ability to re-grow lost limbs and tails.

Caecilians

Caecilian: one of the types of amphibian with eggs in wet soil
Presumed Microcaecilia dermatophaga mother with eggs: Image CC by A 2.5 Generic, by Wilkinson M, Sherratt E, Starace F, Gower DJ (2013), via Wikipedia Commons

Caecilians don’t have any legs and resemble worms or snakes. That is because they mostly live underground, or in the substrate under streams. As a result, they have strong skulls and pointed noses to help them burrow through mud and dirt.

Fun Facts About Types of Amphibians

Amphibians are an evolutionary link between water-dwelling animals such as fish and land-dwelling animals such as mammals. Let’s be honest, they are some of the most fascinating animals on Planet Earth.

For example, amphibians have extremely primitive lungs. However, they have thin, moist skin that absorbs limited amounts of oxygen. So, you could say some types of amphibians breathe through their skin.

Another exciting fact about them, amphibians are carnivores and predators. But, they cannot chew their food. So, they swallow their prey whole.

Amphibians are also one of the planet’s most endangered animal species. It is believed that nearly half of the world’s amphibians are threatened species. That’s due to a combination of factors, including habitat loss, pollution, and climate change.

10 Amazing Types of Amphibians

Amphibians include some of the most amazing and unusual vertebrates found on earth. Much like their ancestors, most of them stick close to water.

We gathered a collection of photos of 10 of the most exciting types of amphibians currently roaming the earth, below. Then, we included a brief introduction to each one.

1. Axolotl

The axolotl is a type of salamander that is native to central Mexico. Unlike many other types of amphibians, axolotl larvae do not undergo metamorphosis when they reach maturity. As a result, they retain their gills, and tails, and are entirely aquatic throughout their life cycle.

photograph of an axolotl under wooden structure in a tank - one of the types of amphibian
Types of amphibians: Axolotl. Image via Instagram.

2. Fire Salamander

Fire salamanders are native to the forests of central and southern Europe. These types of amphibians stay near to ponds and streams, which they rely on for breeding. Another cool fact, they are active both night and day.

photograph of a fire salamander - a type of amphibian
Fire Salamander. Image via Instagram.

3. Golden Toad

The golden toad was native to the tropical mountain regions of Costa Rica, known as montane cloud forests. Sadly, golden toads are one of many types of amphibians thought to be extinct since they have not been seen since 1989.

photograph of a golden toad - a type of amphibian
Golden Toad. Image via Instagram.

4. Green Tree Frog

Green tree frogs are native to New Guinea and Australia. Their colors range from brown to green, depending on the surrounding air temperature. These are one of the most abundant types of amphibians dwelling in trees.

photograph of a green tree frog - a type of amphibian
Green Tree Frog. Image via Instagram.

5. Hellbender

Hellbenders are native to wetlands of Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. However, they are sometimes located in smaller numbers in the surrounding states. Sadly, hellbenders join other types of amphibians on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

photograph of a hellbender - a type of amphibian
Hellbender. Image via Instagram.

6. Luristan Newt

These black and white spotted newts are native to the Luristan Province of Iran. While they look like cows, they are clearly amphibians. The Luristan newt is listed as “critically endangered” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, they are currently protected under Iranian law.

photograph of a black and white spotted luristan newt - a type of amphibian
Luristan Newt. Image via Instagram.

7. Poison Dart Frog

The poison dart frog is native to the subtropical and tropical regions of South America. They can also be found in Central America. Bright colored dart frogs are extremely poisonous. However, dart frogs with cryptic or dull coloring have nominal toxicity. In fact, some are not toxic at all.

photograph of a poison dart frog - a type of amphibian
Poison Dart Frog. Image via Instagram.

8. Red-Eyed Tree Frog

The red-eyed tree frog is native to the Neotropical rainforests of Mexico and Central America. In addition to their bulging red eyes, these tree frogs have webbed orange feet and blue and yellow flanks. Luckily, due to their large number, they are listed as “least concerned” by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

photograph of a red-eyed tree frog - a type of amphibian
Red-Eyed Tree Frog. Image via Instagram.

9. Endemic Tailed Caecilian

The endemic tailed caecilian is native to the tropical regions of Sri Lanka. Resembling a giant earthworm, endemic tailed caecilians range in size from 9 inches to nearly 16 inches. Additionally, the endemic tailed caecilian is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

photograph of a sri lankan endemic tailed caecilian - a type of amphibian
Sri Lankan Endemic Tailed Caecilian. Image via Instagram.

10. Tiger Salamander

The tiger salamander is native to the mountainous and lowland regions of the United States and Mexico. Unlike other types of amphibians, they tend to avoid water. Additionally, they can grow to lengths of 12 inches and larger.

photograph of a tiger salamander - a type of amphibian
Tiger Salamander. Image via Instagram.

What We Learned About the Types of Amphibians

We hope you enjoyed our article and accompanying photos of amazing and unique types of amphibians.

You have seen our favorite types of amphibians. Now we want to know about your faves. Using the comments section, let us know any unusual types of amphibians you would like to see included in future articles.

Featured image: A collage of various amphibians CC by ASA 3.0 Unported, by Various Artists: File:Litoria phyllochroa.JPG, File:Seymouria1.jpg, File:Notophthalmus viridescensPCCA20040816-3983A.jpg, File:Dermophis mexicanus.jpg, via Wikimedia Commons

Your Guide To Your First Earthworm Dissection

Earthworms play essential roles in many ecosystems. They help introduce oxygen to the soil and mix it up. As they tunnel through the ground, they enrich the soil and push it toward the surface where it's easier for plants to get to the nutrients. You can see the organs that help these worms do their jobs by dissecting an earthworm.

Safety First

woman showing earthworms

Safety is critical in all aspects of our lives. It may seem trivial in a controlled environment like a school biology lab, but it's not, and all safety rules should be followed. They are in place to protect you and your classmates, so don't skip any regulations just because you think it will be ok or those rules don't seem to apply to your circumstances. The basic common-sense rules are:

  • Wear safety gear when necessary like goggles, gloves, and aprons.
  • Most preserved specimens contain formaldehyde, so wash them first.
  • Do not play with lab equipment or instruments such as scalpels and scissors.
  • Do not eat any parts of your specimen. Yes, there is an apparent reason for this rule.

Your lab should have the rules and safety measures available plus your instructor will go over them with you. Don’t assume the only rules are the ones we list here. The type of lab and type of specimen determine the rules. Ask for a copy of the rules if you don’t see one posted in the lab. Your teacher should be close by most of the time to help you guide you as well.

Always wear safety goggles and gloves. If you have to carry a sharp instrument, hold it with the pointed end pointing down and away from your body. Don't rush or run while holding a scalpel or scissors. Never carry a knife or scissors by any part other than the handle. Scalpels are razor sharp, and it only takes a split second for them to cut you open.

Keep your station clean and tend to any spills immediately unless they pose a breathing hazard. Dispose of any blades, gloves, aprons, and specimens according to the established rules in your lab. Your teacher will probably explain all the rules to you, but don’t wait to ask if you aren’t sure what to do. Teachers are there to help educate you and keep you safe.

Earthworm Dissection Guide

earthworm dissection

Earthworms are great for helping you understand simple organisms and basic anatomy. They'll help you get a grasp on lab safety before you progress to larger specimens like pigs or frogs. As a bonus, they're small and soft, so handling them is much more comfortable as well.

The first step is to examine the exterior of the earthworm. Earthworms are segmented works, so they look like a long stack of small rings. They don't have a head or any limbs, but they do have a fascinating exterior anatomy to study. The anterior end of the earthworm is a little fatter than the posterior. When you locate the anterior end of the work, pin it to the dissecting pan or tray.

Earthworms are annelids which means their bodies are composed of multiple ring-like sections or segments. This part may not be on your teacher's list, but it's always interesting to count the segments while you study the exterior anatomy of the earthworm. While you count, notice the small setae on the ventral surface. These little bristles help the worms move through the dirt with ease.

Each segment along the worm's exterior has small pores. These pores excrete the sticky film you find when you run your finger along a live worm. You may need a magnifying glass or small microscope to see them. It depends on the size of your earthworm specimen and your eyesight as well.

From the anterior end of the worm, count your way down to segment fourteen. Typically, this is where the oviducts are located. The oviducts release the eggs when the worm reproduces. The exciting part is the next segment after the oviducts; it contains the sperm ducts. Earthworms have both male and female reproductive organs.

Further down the worm at segment 31 is the clitellum. It secretes a sticky mucus that binds two earthworms together while the mate. It develops a cocoon to hold the eggs and sperm after mating is finished. Earthworms are simple worms, but fantastic at the same time. Their exterior anatomy is fascinating to study.

Earthworms are hermaphroditic which means they have both female and male reproductive organs. Eggs come from the ovaries inside segment fourteen, sometimes thirteen. It can be hard to count the segments on small worms. Worms have testes which can form in segments near the oviducts. Study these segments and see if you can find the reproductive organs on your specimen.

When worms mate, they get stuck together briefly to help keep the reproductive organs aligned. Sperm from both worms travels into the other worms seminal receptacle. The clitellum creates the cocoon which moves along the outside of the worm to collect the semen and the eggs. The eggs are fertilized outside the worm in the cocoon.

By now, you should have a good understanding of the exterior anatomy of your earthworm specimen. Remove the pin from the anterior end of the earthworm and place it on its ventral side, then put the pin back in the anterior end of the worm. The ventral side of the worm is a little flatter than the dorsal side, and it may be a lighter color.

Carefully and slowly make a shallow incision using your scalpel from the anterior end of the work to the clitellum. Never cut toward your body or fingers. Be extra careful and keep the incision shallow, so you don't cut into the worm's digestive system and internal organs. Use your forceps to spread the worm open and pin the sides of its body to your dissection pan or tray.

The inside of the worm should be exposed now. You may want to lightly sprinkle water over the worm to keep it from drying out while you study the inside of it. The interior part of the walls is called the septa. See if you can tell the difference. If possible, ask your teacher to point them out and help you see the different layers.

Now, the internal digestive organs should be exposed and available for study. Starting with the mount on the anterior end of the worm, locate the organs. The first organ you see is the pharynx. The worm's esophagus protrudes from the pharynx. About halfway down your incision are the crop and gizzard. Skip the other organs for now and find those two.

The crop is essentially a stomach. It stores food until the food is moved to the gizzard which grinds it up. The food leaves the gizzard and goes into the intestine, much like it does in humans, and travels to the anus. Along the way, the worm's intestines absorb nutrients from the food the gizzard crushed and ground up. Earthworms don't eat dirt. The consume organic materials found in the soil.

Make your way back up to the crop. If you look above the crop on the anterior side, you’ll find five pairs of aortic arches. This is the worm’s version of a heart. The hearts are located around the esophagus, and they connect to the dorsal blood vessel. That's the worm's version of an artery. Most earthworms can take direct damage to half their aortic arches and live.

Move your attention back to the pharynx at the anterior end of the worm. Locate the cerebral ganglia beneath the pharynx on the dorsal side. You may need to use your forceps to move some organs around to get a good look at it. The ventral nerve starts at the cerebral ganglia and runs the length of the worm. It may be hard to see if it is too small.

They are simple creatures speaking purely on their anatomy, but how their bodies and mating works are truly amazing. If you have time, go back over this tutorial again and study the worm longer. When you finish exploring, make sure you clean your workstation and dispose of your specimen correctly. Dispose of your lab gear according to the lab rules. Wash your hand thoroughly with soap and water.

Some Final Notes

earthworm

Earthworms are vital to the health of our soil. The improve drainage, help stabilize the land, and add nutrients to the ground. Worms feed on organic materials they find in the dirt. Their bodies use the nutrients they need and deposit what's left back into the soil as waste. Fortunately for plants, that waste is usually nitrogen-rich along with other nutrients plants need to grow.

Their worm tunnels help loosen the soil which aids plants in root development. We could go on and on about the benefits of earthworms. If you follow our guide to dissecting earthworms and read our interesting facts along the way, we’re sure you’ll be able to dissect an earthworm specimen safely. You may even appreciate these simple creatures a little more when you are done.

Introduction to Animals

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Introduction to Animals

 

 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
Which of the following attributes is not used to characterize animals?
a.
locomotion at some time during the life cycle
b.
multicellular eukaryotes
c.
heterotrophic
d.
sexual reproduction involving motile sperm
e.
None of the above, all of the attributes are typical of animals.
 2.
The kingdom Animalia is divided into about:
a.
325 phyla.
b.
16 classes.
c.
32 classes.
d.
35 phyla.
e.
6 phyla.
 3.
The diverse body plans seen in Animalia apparently developed during the:
a.
Precambrian
b.
Cambrian.
c.
Mesozoic.
d.
Silurian.
e.
Devonian.
 4.
Traditional phylogenies of Animalia are being reconsidered and changed due to:
a.
newly discovered prokaryotes in soil.
b.
extensive fossil finds in China.
c.
new phyla of Protista.
d.
better pictures from scanning electron microscopes.
e.
recent molecular data.
 5.
Which of the following group of animals is sessile?
a.
sponge
b.
jellyfish
c.
ctenophore
d.
planarian
e.
fluke
 6.
Animals apparently evolved:
a.
in freshwater.
b.
in the ocean.
c.
during the Cambrian explosion.
d.
in swamps.
e.
during the Devonian.
 7.
Fewer animals live in freshwater than in the ocean, because:
a.
freshwater is hypotonic and animals must spend energy to remove water from their bodies.
b.
freshwater is a less constant temperature environment.
c.
freshwater contains less food.
d.
freshwater is a much more variable environment.
e.
All of the above.
 8.
All of the following are characteristic of life in marine environments except:
a.
many nutrients and gases are dissolved in the water and are readily available.
b.
buoyancy helps to support the organisms.
c.
currents may wash organisms away from suitable habitats.
d.
osmotic balance is very difficult for invertebrates to maintain.
e.
temperatures are relatively stable.
 9.
The first air-breathing land animals were:
a.
vertebrates.
b.
amphibians.
c.
snails.
d.
reptiles.
e.
arthropods.
 10.
The first land animals, arthropods, moved onto land about:
a.
650 million years ago.
b.
450 million years ago.
c.
250 million years ago.
d.
230 million years ago.
e.
65 million years ago.
 11.
Amphibians appeared on land about:
a.
543 million years ago.
b.
450 million years ago.
c.
420 million years ago.
d.
250 million years ago.
e.
65 million years ago.
 12.
To adapt to land the primary problem was:
a.
mating.
b.
locomotion.
c.
predation.
d.
desiccation.
e.
acquiring enough nitrogen.
 13.
Adaptations of animals to land include:
a.
internal fertilization.
b.
egg shell.
c.
embryo development within the female.
d.
internal respiratory surfaces.
e.
All of the above.
 14.
The only extant Parazoa are the:
a.
jellyfish.
b.
sponges.
c.
flatworms.
d.
roundworms.
e.
ribbon worms.
 15.
A true body cavity completely surrounded by __________ is called a coelom.
a.
ectoderm
b.
mesoderm
c.
endoderm
d.
exoderm
e.
mesoglea
 16.
Because sponges function in ways similar to colonial unicellular protozoans, they are classified among the ____________. All other animals are considered ____________, which are distinct from sponges.
a.
protozoa; metazoa
b.
parazoa; metazoa
c.
parazoa; eumetazoa
d.
metazoa; protozoa
e.
protozoa; parazoa
 17.
Bilateral symmetry:
a.
evolved along with a corresponding trend toward cephalization.
b.
is characteristic of Cnidarians.
c.
characterizes the surfaces of an animal as dorsal and ventral.
d.
results from schizocoelous development.
e.
describes ectoderm and endoderm, the first two germ layers that developed.
 18.
The major phylum of animals that has an asymmetrical body plan is:
a.
Cnidaria.
b.
Ctenophora.
c.
Echinodermata.
d.
Porifera.
e.
All of the above.
 19.
Ctenophores exhibit:
a.
bilateral symmetry.
b.
spherical symmetry.
c.
linear symmetry.
d.
radial symmetry.
e.
circular symmetry.
 20.
The head end of an animal is termed its:
a.
posterior end.
b.
ventral end.
c.
inferior end.
d.
lateral end.
e.
anterior end.
 21.
A ___________ plane divides the animal body into dorsal and ventral parts:
a.
median.
b.
frontal.
c.
sagittal.
d.
cross.
e.
transverse.
 22.
Cnidarians and flatworms:
a.
are coelomate.
b.
are pseudocoelomate.
c.
are acoelomate.
d.
have two germ layers.
e.
have three germ layers.
 23.
The __________ gives rise to muscles, bones, and the circulatory system.
a.
endoderm
b.
ectoderm
c.
mesoderm
d.
blastopore
e.
mesoglea
 24.
The lining of the digestive tube is formed from:
a.
endoderm.
b.
ectoderm.
c.
germ cells.
d.
mesoderm.
e.
pseudoderm.
 25.
Diploblastic animals, such as cnidarians and ____________, have only two germ layers, ectoderm and ____________.
a.
sponges; ectoderm
b.
sponges; mesoderm
c.
ctenophores; mesoderm
d.
ctenophores; endoderm
e.
ctenophores; metaderm
Figure 28-01
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar001-1.jpg

 26.
In Figure 28-01, the tissue layer labeled 5 will give rise to the:
a.
skeletal system.
b.
muscles.
c.
circulatory system.
d.
lining of the digestive system.
e.
All of the above.
 27.
In Figure 28-01, the development pattern labeled Type A is characteristic of:
a.
Ctenophores.
b.
Chordates.
c.
Cnidarians.
d.
Annelids.
e.
Echinoderms.
 28.
The first opening which develops in deuterostomes develops into the:
a.
coelom.
b.
gut.
c.
anus.
d.
mouth.
e.
nostril.
 29.
Radial cleavage is found in the:
a.
arthropods.
b.
mollusks.
c.
echinoderms.
d.
annelids.
e.
cnidarians.
 30.
Pseudocoelomates have a body cavity that is not completely lined with ____________. These animals include ____________ and the roundworms.
a.
endoderm; nemerteans
b.
endoderm; flatworms
c.
mesoderm; rotifers
d.
mesoderm; flatworms
e.
mesoderm; nemerteans
 31.
In most deuterostomes, the mesoderm forms by:
a.
duplication of the ectoderm.
b.
schizocoely.
c.
migration.
d.
enterocoely.
e.
blastocoely.
 32.
Determinate cleavage takes place in ____________ and is characterized by a pattern of development where the ultimate fate of each cell is ____________.
a.
protostomes; not fixed until late in the developmental process
b.
protostomes; fixed early in the developmental process
c.
deuterostomes; not fixed until late in the developmental process
d.
deuterostomes; fixed early in the developmental process
e.
coelomates; fixed early in the developmental process
 33.
All of the following are protostomes except:
a.
Porifera.
b.
Mollusca.
c.
Annelida.
d.
Arthropoda.
e.
Echinodermata.
Figure 28-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar002-1.jpg

 34.
Radial symmetry developed at the point on Figure 28-02 labeled _________.
a.
2
b.
3
c.
4
d.
5
e.
6
 35.
In Figure 28-02, three germ layers arose in a common ancestor at the point labeled:
a.
1.
b.
4.
c.
5.
d.
6.
e.
None of the above.
 36.
The placozoans are the simplest animals, and appear to have evolved:
a.
from poriferans.
b.
from more complex invertebrates.
c.
independently from the remainder of the kingdom Animalia.
d.
from fungi.
e.
None of the above.
 37.
Sponges are believed to have arisen from the choanoflagellates because they possess:
a.
amebocytes.
b.
spicules.
c.
spongin.
d.
collar cells.
e.
oscula.
 38.
Sponge larvae:
a.
are miniature sponges that float about in the plankton.
b.
crawl along the bottom like an amoeba.
c.
are flagellated and able to swim.
d.
bud off the adult sponge.
e.
float out of the adult, fall to the bottom, and attach to form a new sponge.
 39.
Most sponges are ______________, meaning that one individual can produce both male and female gametes.
a.
asexual
b.
hermaphroditic
c.
indeterminate
d.
heterozygous
e.
enterocoelous
 40.
Digestion in a sponge takes place in:
a.
the osculum.
b.
individual cells.
c.
the spongocoel.
d.
the spicule.
e.
the mesohyl.
 41.
Most representatives of the phylum Porifera gain nutrition as:
a.
parasites.
b.
predators.
c.
autotrophs.
d.
herbivores.
e.
None of the above.
 42.
Within the phylum Cnidaria, corals are most closely related to:
a.
Hydra.
b.
jellyfish.
c.
sea anemones.
d.
Portuguese man-of-war.
e.
hydrozoans.
 43.
From an evolutionary perspective, true nerve cells are first seen in the phylum:
a.
Porifera.
b.
Cnidaria.
c.
Ctenophora.
d.
Mollusca.
e.
Arthropoda.
 44.
In the class Anthozoa are found:
a.
Hydra.
b.
Obelia.
c.
Cyanea.
d.
corals.
e.
jellyfish.
 45.
Cnidarians are _______________, meaning they have two tissue layers.
a.
diploid
b.
protostomes
c.
diploblastic
d.
bilateral
e.
hermaphroditic
 46.
The Portuguese man-of-war belongs to the class:
a.
Cnidozoa.
b.
Scyphozoa.
c.
Hydrozoa.
d.
Anthozoa.
e.
Cubezoa.
 47.
In cnidarians, nematocysts are housed in specialized cells, the ___________, located primarily on the tentacles.
a.
choanocytes
b.
cnidocils
c.
pseudopodia
d.
nerve nets
e.
cnidocytes
 48.
Hundreds or thousands of individuals of certain _________ form colonies in which each polyp has a special function such as feeding, reproduction, or defense.
a.
sea anemones
b.
hydrozoans
c.
jellyfish
d.
ctenophores
e.
sponges
 49.
The larvae of some cnidarians are known as ____________ larvae.
a.
veliger
b.
trochophore
c.
planula
d.
nauplius
e.
zoea
 50.
Corals can capture prey, but also depend for nutrition on:
a.
symbiotic photosynthetic zooxanthellae.
b.
symbiotic lichens.
c.
dead animals they colonize on the bottom.
d.
photosynthesis in the shallow water since they are part animal and plant.
e.
suspended materials captured by filter feeding.
 51.
Among the scyphozoans, the ____________ stage is reduced or absent.
a.
polyp
b.
hydra
c.
medusa
d.
larval
e.
juvenile
 52.
Sea anemones, unlike scyphozoans, have a partitioned gastrovascular cavity. This serves as a means of:
a.
harboring enteric bacteria.
b.
digesting very large food items.
c.
harboring photosynthetic zooxanthellae.
d.
digesting different categories of organic molecules in different areas.
e.
decreasing the surface area of the gastrovascular cavity.
Figure 28-03
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar003-1.jpg

 53.
The type of larva pictured at # 4 in Figure 28-03 is a:
a.
planula.
b.
miracidium.
c.
cercaria.
d.
polyp.
e.
medusa.
 54.
In Figure 28-03, asexual reproduction is occurring at point:
a.
1.
b.
2.
c.
4.
d.
7.
e.
9.
 55.
In Figure 28-03, which of the following structures was produced by meiosis?
a.
1
b.
3
c.
4
d.
5
e.
6
 56.
Members of the phylum _______________ are the simplest organisms that have a separate mouth and anus.
a.
Platyhelminthe
b.
Ctenophora
c.
Cnidaria
d.
Porifera
e.
Placozoa
 57.
Ctenophores capture food by:
a.
sticky mucus on their tentacles that capture small invertebrates.
b.
adhesive glue cells that trap prey.
c.
stinging hair cells that immobilize small invertebrates.
d.
digging through the bottom muds for small invertebrates.
e.
filter feeding.
 58.
Comb jellies move by:
a.
floating in the water, since they are so small.
b.
flagella.
c.
ameboid movements in the water.
d.
rows of cilia.
e.
jet propulsion of water from the gastrovascular cavity.
 59.
The body wall of cnidarians and ctenophores consist of:
a.
three tissue layers.
b.
a single epidermal layer.
c.
loosely organized cells.
d.
two epidermal layers with scattered mesophyll cells in between.
e.
inner and outer cell layers separated by a jelly-like mesoglea.
 60.
Deuterostomes are characterized by ____________ and ____________ cleavage.
a.
radial; determinate
b.
radial; indeterminate
c.
spiral; determinate
d.
spiral; indeterminate
e.
None of the above.
 61.
Deuterostomes evolved during the:
a.
Cambrian.
b.
Precambrian.
c.
Paleozoic.
d.
Cenozoic.
e.
Devonian.
 62.
Molecular data suggests that hemichordates are most closely related to:
a.
tunicates
b.
lancelets.
c.
echinoderms.
d.
vertebrates.
e.
annelids
 63.
Echinoderms are unusual invertebrates as they have:
a.
an endoskeleton.
b.
pentaradial symmetry.
c.
a water vascular system.
d.
pedicellariae present in some classes.
e.
All of the above.
 64.
All Echinodermata are found:
a.
in marine habitats.
b.
in freshwater.
c.
on land.
d.
on the bottom of the ocean or lakes.
e.
in shallow ocean waters.
 65.
Class ___________ includes mostly extinct species and a few extant species such as feather stars and sea lilies.
a.
Asteroidea
b.
Holothuroidea
c.
Ophiuroidea
d.
Echinoidea
e.
Crinoidea
 66.
Echinoderms are unique because:
a.
the larvae are radially symmetrical and the adult is bilaterally symmetrical.
b.
the adults and larva are both pentaradially symmetrical.
c.
the adult and larva are both radially symmetrical.
d.
the adult and larva are both biradially symmetrical.
e.
their larvae are bilaterally symmetrical while the adult is pentaradially symmetrical.
 67.
Which class within the echinoderms has the greatest species diversity?
a.
Asteroidea
b.
Holothuroidea
c.
Ophiuroidea
d.
Echinoidea
e.
Crinoidea
 68.
The most unique feature of the echinoderms is their:
a.
digestive system.
b.
nervous system.
c.
closed circulatory system.
d.
water vascular system.
e.
mantle.
 69.
Prominent spines are found on __________ of the phylum Echinodermata.
a.
Ophiuroidea
b.
Echinoidea
c.
Asteroidea
d.
Concentricycloidea
e.
Holothuroidea
 70.
One characteristic of the class Holothuroidea is:
a.
that most are predators that consume partially digested prey.
b.
that most of the species are extinct.
c.
that they have a reduced endoskeleton consisting of microscopic plates embedded in the body wall.
d.
that moveable spines are used to facilitate locomotion.
e.
that they have a distinct central disk with very long, slender arms.
 71.
Sea stars eat:
a.
large fish.
b.
mostly algae.
c.
sea weed.
d.
mostly bivalves.
e.
debris on the bottom.
 72.
Sea cucumbers will __________ when environmental conditions deteriorate.
a.
eject their digestive tract, respiratory structures, and gonads.
b.
crawl to an area with more favorable conditions.
c.
form a resistant spore.
d.
float to the surface and then later drop to a more favorable location.
e.
crawl deep into the ocean muds on the bottom.
 73.
Which of the following is not a characteristic shared by all chordates at some point in their life cycle?
a.
possession of a coelom
b.
three primary cell layers
c.
dorsal tubular nerve cord
d.
pharyngeal gill slits
e.
vertebrae
 74.
Urochordates are odd chordates, as typically only the ____________ shows the basic chordate characteristics.
a.
head end
b.
tail end
c.
adult
d.
larva
e.
egg
 75.
Adult tunicates resemble ______________ and are _________________.
a.
eels; carnivorous.
b.
corals; photosynthetic
c.
starfish; carnivorous
d.
sponges; filter feeders
e.
earthworms; detritivores
 76.
The neural crest cells of vertebrates influence the development of all of the following except the:
a.
lungs.
b.
nerves.
c.
cranium.
d.
jaws.
e.
head muscles.
 77.
The most closely related animal to vertebrates are the:
a.
Hemichordata.
b.
Urodela.
c.
Cephalochordata.
d.
Ophiuroidea.
e.
Urochordates.
Figure 30-01
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar004-1.jpg

 78.
The organism in Figure 30-01 is a representative of:
a.
the phylum Hemichordata.
b.
the phylum Echinodermata.
c.
the phylum Chordata.
d.
the subphylum Urochordata.
e.
the subphylum Cephalochordata.
 79.
The structure in Figure 30-01 labeled ___________ is characteristic of the phylum to which this organism belongs.
a.
9
b.
6
c.
5
d.
4
e.
10
 80.
Lancelets are:
a.
carnivores.
b.
filter feeders.
c.
parasites.
d.
herbivores.
e.
algae feeders.
 81.
There are about _______________ identified species of vertebrates.
a.
2,000
b.
6,000
c.
32,000
d.
48,000
e.
124,000
 82.
The coelacanth is found in the class:
a.
Dipnoi.
b.
Actinistia.
c.
Placoderms.
d.
Cephalochordata.
e.
Urochordata.
 83.
The two groups representing the “jawless” fishes are:
a.
Cephalochordata and Placoderms.
b.
Chondrichthyes and Actinistia.
c.
Myxiniformes and Cephalaspidormorphi.
d.
Dipnoi and Actinistia.
e.
Placoderms and Petromyzontiformes.
 84.
Which of the following characteristics is used to characterize vertebrates?
a.
a bony endoskeleton
b.
blood containing hemoglobin
c.
a four-chambered heart
d.
lungs
e.
live birth
 85.
The superclass Tetrapods includes:
a.
fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
b.
lancelets, cartilage, and bony fish.
c.
amphibians and reptiles.
d.
amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
e.
echinoderms and chordates.
 86.
Hagfishes are differentiated from lampreys and all other fishes in that:
a.
hagfishes do not have gills.
b.
hagfishes lack a jaw.
c.
hagfishes are parasitic.
d.
hagfishes lack vertebrae.
e.
All of the above.
 87.
Extinct jawless fish include the:
a.
lungfish.
b.
lancelets.
c.
placoderms.
d.
acanthodians.
e.
ostracoderms.
 88.
A fish with a cartilaginous skeleton and paired fins would be:
a.
an Agnathan.
b.
a Crinoid.
c.
a Cephalochordate.
d.
a Urochordate.
e.
a Chondrichthyean.
 89.
Scales of enamel are found on:
a.
lungfish.
b.
sharks.
c.
ray-finned fish.
d.
lob-finned.
e.
snakes.
 90.
Sharks may detect their prey using all of the following except:
a.
olfaction.
b.
their lateral lines.
c.
electroreceptors.
d.
sight.
e.
None of the above, all are used by sharks to detect their prey.
 91.
Sharks detect motion in the water or waves by their:
a.
lateral lines.
b.
electroreceptors.
c.
keen olfaction.
d.
sight.
e.
dorsal fin.
 92.
Sharks that are __________________ incubate their eggs in the uterus.
a.
oviparous
b.
viviparous
c.
ovoviviparous
d.
placental
e.
eutherial
 93.
The chordate class with the most species is the:
a.
Osteichythyes.
b.
Reptilia.
c.
Amphibia.
d.
Mammalia.
e.
Chondrichthyes.
 94.
The first members of classes Osteichythyes and Chondrichthyes appeared in the ____________ period.
a.
Permian
b.
Paleozoic
c.
Devonian
d.
Jurassic
e.
Cretaceous
Figure 30-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar005-1.jpg

 95.
The structure labeled 18 in Figure 30-02 is the:
a.
brain.
b.
gills.
c.
heart.
d.
stomach.
e.
swim bladder.
 96.
The function of the structure labeled ________ in Figure 30-02 is to aid buoyancy regulation of the fish.
a.
4
b.
16
c.
14
d.
5
e.
None of the above.
 97.
Based on Figure 30-02, which of the following structures places this fish in the class Actinopterygii?
a.
5
b.
19
c.
6
d.
13
e.
7
 98.
The amphibians are believed to have arisen from ancestral:
a.
chondrichthyean fish.
b.
actinopterygian fish.
c.
reptiles.
d.
dipnoi.
e.
actinistia.
 99.
The first amphibians were the ____________.
a.
squamata
b.
anurans
c.
lungfish
d.
labyrinthodonts
e.
coelacanths
 100.
Which taxon is not part of the class Amphibia?
a.
Squamata
b.
Anura
c.
Apoda
d.
Urodela
e.
None of the above, all belong to the class Amphibia.
 101.
Salamanders are members of the order:
a.
Apoda.
b.
Urodela.
c.
Anuran.
d.
Tetrapoda.
e.
Squamata.
 102.
Metamorphosis occurs in which of the following vertebrate classes?
a.
Chondrichthyes
b.
Reptilia
c.
Myxiniformes
d.
Amphibia
e.
All of the above.
 103.
At some point in their life cycle, amphibians may respire via all of the following except:
a.
gills.
b.
lungs.
c.
swim bladder.
d.
skin.
e.
book lungs.
 104.
The heart of amphibians has ________ chambers. The hearts of birds and mammals have _______ chambers.
a.
two; three
b.
three; four
c.
two; four
d.
three; five
e.
three; two
 105.
Which of the following is not an adaptation of reptiles for life in a terrestrial habitat?
a.
internal fertilization
b.
an amniotic egg
c.
excretion of uric acid
d.
dry, scaly skin
e.
None of the above, all are adaptations of reptiles for life in a terrestrial habitat.
 106.
Because most reptiles are terrestrial, fertilization is ____________ and they are ____________.
a.
external; ovoviviparous
b.
external; oviparous
c.
internal; ovoviviparous
d.
internal; oviparous
e.
external; viviparous
 107.
Which of these pairings is correct?
a.
diapsids: lizards
b.
diapsids: turtles
c.
synapsids: dinosaurs
d.
anapsids: mammals
e.
synapsids: crocodiles
 108.
Fish excrete nitrogenous wastes in the form of ____________; reptiles and birds excrete it as __________.
a.
uric acid; ammonia
b.
ammonia; uric acid
c.
urea; ammonia
d.
urea; uric acid
e.
ammonia; urea
 109.
Order ____________ includes the snakes.
a.
Apoda
b.
Chelonia
c.
Aves
d.
Squamata
e.
Reptilia
 110.
Order ____________ includes the turtles and tortoises.
a.
Crocodilia
b.
Squamata
c.
Chelonia
d.
Apoda
e.
Anapsida
 111.
Snakes are most closely related to:
a.
lizards.
b.
turtles.
c.
eels.
d.
caecilians.
e.
synapsids.
 112.
Birds are most closely related to:
a.
lizards.
b.
turtles.
c.
mammals.
d.
labyrinthodonts.
e.
terrapins.
 113.
Within the chordate classes, the unique characteristic of the class Aves is:
a.
flight.
b.
production of uric acid.
c.
feathers.
d.
endothermy.
e.
All of the above.
 114.
The only living descendant of the dinosaurs are the:
a.
marsupials
b.
monotremes.
c.
birds.
d.
mammals.
e.
amphibians.
 115.
Which of the following functions is not associated with the presence of feathers in birds?
a.
temperature regulation
b.
minimization of water loss
c.
respiration
d.
flight
e.
protection
 116.
Feathers probably first provided primarily _________ before they aided flight.
a.
protection from predators
b.
insulation
c.
camouflage
d.
bright colors
e.
protection from parasites
 117.
Which of the following adaptations is associated with the ability of birds to fly?
a.
high metabolic rate
b.
broad, keeled breast bone
c.
“one-way” air flow through the respiratory system
d.
hollow bones
e.
All of the above.
 118.
About ____________ species of birds have been described.
a.
1,000
b.
2,000
c.
4,500
d.
9,000
e.
20,000
 119.
A characteristic seen only in mammals is:
a.
hair.
b.
mammary glands.
c.
three middle ear bones.
d.
incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
e.
All of the above.
 120.
Mammals descended from a group of reptiles known as:
a.
euthurians.
b.
lancelets.
c.
therapsids.
d.
holothurians.
e.
labyrnthodonts.
 121.
The earliest mammals resembled small:
a.
dogs.
b.
koalas.
c.
kangaroos.
d.
monkeys.
e.
shrews.
 122.
The wide adaptive radiation of mammals occurred during the early:
a.
Cenozoic.
b.
Paleozoic.
c.
Tertiary.
d.
Devonian.
e.
Jurassic.
 123.
Marsupials include the:
a.
cat.
b.
armadillo.
c.
opossum.
d.
crocodile.
e.
spiny anteater.
 124.
The monotremes are unusual as they:
a.
lack mammary glands.
b.
lack hair.
c.
lay eggs.
d.
have pouches.
e.
exhibit parthenogenesis.
 125.
Horses and cattle are in different mammalian orders based on differences in their:
a.
diet.
b.
foot structure.
c.
locomotion.
d.
teeth.
e.
reproductive mechanisms.
Figure 30-03
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar006-1.jpg

 126.
The animals pictured in Figure 30-03 belong to the order:
a.
Xenarthra.
b.
Rodentia.
c.
Lagomorpha.
d.
Perissodactyla.
e.
Insectivora.
 127.
Which of the following characteristics does not apply to members of the order in Figure 30-03?
a.
nocturnal
b.
insectivores
c.
aquatic
d.
placental mammals
e.
some weigh less than 5 g
Figure 30-04
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar007-1.jpg

 128.
The animal pictured in Figure 30-04 belongs to the order:
a.
Xenarthra.
b.
Rodentia.
c.
Lagomorpha.
d.
Perissodactyla.
e.
Insectivora.
 129.
Which of the following characteristics does not apply to members of the order in Figure 30-04?
a.
teeth reduced or absent
b.
insectivores
c.
some are arboreal
d.
complex social interactions
e.
All of the above, none of these characteristics apply to this order.
 130.
All of the following are linked to the development of the coelom except:
a.
a hydrostatic skeleton.
b.
protection of internal organs.
c.
transport of food and wastes.
d.
the pumping action of the heart.
e.
None of the above, all are linked to the development of the coelom.
 131.
The protostome coelomates are divided into 2 major groups, the:
a.
flatworms and roundworms.
b.
Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa.
c.
Mollusca and Arthropoda.
d.
invertebrates and vertebrates
e.
Chelicerata and Mandibulata.
 132.
A coelom provides several benefits, including:
a.
a hydrostatic skeleton.
b.
transport of materials.
c.
independent movement of the digestive system and the body wall.
d.
a space for internal organs.
e.
All of the above.
 133.
A lophophore is:
a.
a ciliated ring of tentacles surrounding the mouth.
b.
Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa.
c.
a muscular foot for locomotion.
d.
invertebrates and vertebrates.
e.
Chelicerata and Mandibulata.
 134.
The trend toward cephalization is first seen in the:
a.
scyphozoans.
b.
poriferans.
c.
platyhelminths.
d.
nematodes.
e.
nemerteans.
 135.
The type of excretory structures characteristic of platyhelminths are:
a.
protonemas.
b.
protonephridia.
c.
nephridia.
d.
Malpighian tubules.
e.
antennal organs.
 136.
Like the cnidarians, flatworms depend on ____________ for achieving circulation and gas exchange.
a.
blood
b.
hemolymph
c.
diffusion
d.
hearts
e.
lungs
 137.
The intermediate host for many flukes is a:
a.
human.
b.
cow.
c.
dog.
d.
cat.
e.
snail
Figure 29-01
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar008-1.jpg

 138.
In Figure 29-01, which structure is responsible for circulation in this animal?
a.
1
b.
4
c.
5
d.
6
e.
None of the above.
 139.
In Figure 29-01, the structure labeled 5 is used for:
a.
food intake.
b.
digestion.
c.
locating food.
d.
coordination of movement.
e.
locomotion.
 140.
The anterior end of a tapeworm is known as the:
a.
proglottid.
b.
cnidocyte.
c.
auricle.
d.
protonephridia.
e.
scolex.
 141.
The nervous system of flatworms:
a.
consists of a single, large ganglia in the head region.
b.
is sometimes referred to as tube like.
c.
includes two dorsal nerve cords.
d.
is diffuse and net like.
e.
None of the above.
 142.
Free-living flatworms belong to the class:
a.
Monogena.
b.
Lophotrochozoa.
c.
Turbellaria.
d.
Cestoda.
e.
Chelicerata.
 143.
Planaria are:
a.
detritivores.
b.
omnivores.
c.
herbivores.
d.
carnivores.
e.
parasites.
 144.
Tapeworm(s):
a.
have a tube like digestive system.
b.
have a closed circulatory system.
c.
bodies consist of hundreds of reproductive segments.
d.
have a well developed sensory system to find vertebrate hosts.
e.
life cycles are simple and completed in their vertebrate hosts.
 145.
Which of the following characteristics is not associated with nemerteans?
a.
presence of a true coelomic space, the rhynchocoel
b.
blood vessels
c.
a heart
d.
a proboscis
e.
None of the above, all are characteristic of nemerteans.
 146.
Ribbons worms have a unique ___________ that is used to capture prey.
a.
proboscis
b.
tentacle
c.
set of jaws
d.
claw
e.
forked leg
 147.
Which of the following terms can be associated with many molluscan species?
a.
chelicerae
b.
pupa
c.
radula
d.
pen
e.
internal shell
 148.
Most molluscs are:
a.
found in freshwater.
b.
marine.
c.
terrestrial.
d.
arboreal.
e.
None of the above.
 149.
The veliger larval form is unique to:
a.
insects.
b.
annelids.
c.
molluscs.
d.
arthropods.
e.
crustaceans.
 150.
Closed circulatory systems are found in the:
a.
Cephalopoda.
b.
Mollusca.
c.
Bivalvia.
d.
Gastropoda.
e.
Polyplacophora.
 151.
An animal found in the rocky intertidal zone has eight overlapping plates and is tightly adhering to the rock with a muscular foot. This animal is most likely a member of the class:
a.
Polyplacophora.
b.
Polychaeta.
c.
Bivalvia.
d.
Gastropoda.
e.
Cephalopoda.
 152.
Members of the class Bivalvia:
a.
have gills that secrete the shell.
b.
have a mantle that may form pearls.
c.
are all sessile.
d.
all have a radula.
e.
have a broad foot used for locomotion.
 153.
Bivalves are:
a.
detritivores.
b.
herbivores
c.
omnivores.
d.
carnivores.
e.
filter feeders.
 154.
Torsion may be an adaptation in __________ that allows the ___________ to be withdrawn first into the shell.
a.
bivalves; foot
b.
bivalves; head
c.
gastropods; foot
d.
gastropods; head
e.
cephalopods; head
 155.
Which of the following are shell-less molluscs?
a.
nudibranchs
b.
scallops
c.
pulmonate gastropods
d.
chitons
e.
squids
 156.
Which of the following is an adaptation that enables cephalopods to escape from their predators?
a.
torsion
b.
poisonous salivary secretions
c.
a hard shell
d.
rapidly changing colors
e.
a modified radula
 157.
Which of the following terms is associated with polychaetes?
a.
radula
b.
metamorphosis
c.
parapodia
d.
mantle
e.
visceral mass
 158.
Annelids:
a.
have a visceral mass.
b.
have a segmented body.
c.
surround their body with a mantle.
d.
move with a muscular foot.
e.
have an open circulatory system.
 159.
In both mollusks and annelids, the first larval stage is known as:
a.
a veliger.
b.
a glochidium.
c.
a zoea.
d.
a protostome.
e.
a trochophore.
 160.
Critical to polychaete and oligochaete locomotion are:
a.
jointed appendages.
b.
parapodia.
c.
setae.
d.
fins.
e.
tentacles.
Figure 29-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar009-1.jpg

 161.
The larva in Figure 29-02 is:
a.
a veliger.
b.
a glochidium.
c.
a trochophore.
d.
a nauplius.
e.
a pupa.
 162.
The larva in Figure 29-02 is representative of the phyla:
a.
Annelida and Arthropoda.
b.
Mollusca and Annelida.
c.
Nemertea and Rotifera.
d.
Nemertea and Nematoda.
e.
Rotifera and Arthropoda.
 163.
Members of the class ________________ include blood-sucking parasites.
a.
Oligochaeta
b.
Polychaeta
c.
Polyplacophora
d.
Hirudinea
e.
Cephalopoda
 164.
The class __________ includes Lumbricus terrestris, the common earthworm.
a.
Oligochaeta
b.
Polychaeta
c.
Polyplacophora
d.
Hirudinea
e.
Malacostraca
 165.
Some spawning marine polychaetes ensure fertilization by:
a.
synchronizing release of sperm and eggs.
b.
using internal fertilization.
c.
being hermaphroditic.
d.
living in close colonies.
e.
None of the above.
 166.
Hermaphroditic earthworms reproduce sexually by connecting their bodies by their ____________. This allows transfer of ____________ from one worm to the other.
a.
setae; zygotes
b.
setae; eggs
c.
setae; sperm
d.
clitellum; eggs
e.
clitellum; sperm
 167.
Segmentation is important in annelids as an aid in:
a.
respiration.
b.
reproduction.
c.
movement.
d.
sensation.
e.
eating.
Figure 29-03
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar010-1.jpg

 168.
The dorsal blood vessel is the structure labeled ____ in Figure 29-03.
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
5
e.
6
 169.
The cross section in Figure 29-03 is representative of the architecture found in:
a.
phoronids.
b.
nemerteans.
c.
Diplopoda.
d.
Polyplacophora.
e.
oligochaetes.
 170.
_________________ is an anticoagulant used by leeches.
a.
Chitin
b.
Calcium carbonate
c.
Hirudin
d.
Pheromone
e.
Saxitoxin
 171.
________________ superficially resemble bivalves.
a.
Brachiopods
b.
Rotifera
c.
Mollusca
d.
Bryozoa
e.
Chelicerata
 172.
After embryonic development, members of the phylum Rotifera are incapable of:
a.
locomotion.
b.
cell division.
c.
ingestion.
d.
reproduction.
e.
None of the above, all are functions of post-embryonic rotifers.
 173.
Animals with a crown of cilia that look like a spinning wheel are the:
a.
bryozoans.
b.
phoronids.
c.
ctenophores.
d.
rotifers.
e.
platyhelminths.
 174.
You have a sample of cat emesis (vomit) and find worms in the sample. The cylindrical worms are long and slender, pointed at each end, with no other distinguishing characteristics. They are members of the phylum:
a.
Platyhelminthes.
b.
Nematoda.
c.
Cnidaria.
d.
Annelida.
e.
Nemertea.
 175.
The ____________ of roundworms allows them to resist desiccation in terrestrial environments.
a.
epidermis
b.
endodermis
c.
shell
d.
cuticle
e.
mesoglea
 176.
________________ are parasites that infect humans, and, as adults, reside in the small intestines of the host.
a.
Pinworms
b.
Ascarid worms
c.
Trichina worms
d.
Rotifers
e.
Caenorhabditis elegans
 177.
A Trichinella infection is most common in persons who:
a.
eat undercooked beef.
b.
eat undercooked pork.
c.
eat undercooked fish.
d.
walk barefoot in a cow pasture.
e.
walk barefoot in a rice field.
 178.
The phylum name Arthropoda refers to:
a.
a hard exoskeleton.
b.
the ability to fly.
c.
jointed appendages.
d.
respiratory capabilities.
e.
a segmented coelom.
 179.
Which of the following does not characterize arthropods?
a.
presence of a coelom
b.
segmentation
c.
an open circulatory system
d.
an exoskeleton
e.
an incomplete digestive tract
 180.
One of the disadvantages of exoskeletons in arthropods is that:
a.
they severely limit locomotion.
b.
they interfere with ingestion.
c.
they must be shed when the animal grows.
d.
they do not provide adequate protection from predators.
e.
they do not prevent desiccation.
 181.
Velvet worms belong to the phylum:
a.
Nematoda.
b.
Annelida.
c.
Mollusca.
d.
Onychophora.
e.
Arthropoda.
 182.
The ___________ are very common arthropod Paleozoic fossils, and are extinct today.
a.
moss animals
b.
trilobites
c.
lophophorate animals
d.
tardigrades
e.
phoronids
 183.
Members of the subphylum ________ lack antenna but possess unique mouthparts, which are not mandibles.
a.
Crustacea
b.
Uniramia
c.
Chelicerata
d.
Chilopoda
e.
Arachnida
 184.
Segmentation in arthropods differs from that of annelids because arthropod segments are:
a.
smaller.
b.
less specialized.
c.
only present in adults.
d.
more specialized.
e.
only present in larvae.
 185.
Biramous appendages in arthropods are only present in:
a.
crustaceans.
b.
horseshoe crabs.
c.
insects.
d.
arachnids.
e.
centipedes.
 186.
The dragline that is laid by many spiders serves as a means of:
a.
capturing prey.
b.
capturing a mate.
c.
detecting the pull of gravity.
d.
communicating with other spiders of the same species.
e.
holding the eggs of spiders.
 187.
An arthropod with chelicerae, pedipalps, and silk glands would be:
a.
a scorpion.
b.
a tick.
c.
a mite.
d.
a spider.
e.
a barnacle.
 188.
Scorpion pincers are enlarged:
a.
chelicerae.
b.
maxillae.
c.
mandibles.
d.
pedipalps.
e.
legs.
 189.
_________________ are the most economically important chelicerate pests.
a.
Spiders
b.
Scorpions
c.
Mites and ticks
d.
Horseshoe crabs
e.
Trilobites and eurypterids
 190.
Arthropods with mandibles, gills, antennal glands, and statocysts are the:
a.
insects.
b.
spiders.
c.
scorpions.
d.
crustaceans.
e.
mites.
 191.
Arthropods with mandibles, a single pair of antennae, and two legs on most body segments are:
a.
ribbon worms.
b.
centipedes.
c.
millipedes.
d.
trilobites.
e.
mites.
 192.
As adults, ______________ are sessile crustaceans.
a.
ticks
b.
the decapods
c.
shrimp
d.
the uniramids
e.
barnacles
 193.
A nauplius larva is characteristic of:
a.
echinoderms.
b.
gastropods.
c.
molluscs.
d.
crustaceans.
e.
ctenophores.
 194.
__________________ are used by crustaceans for detecting the pull of gravity.
a.
Antennal glands
b.
Maxillae
c.
Draglines
d.
Statocysts
e.
Swimmerets
 195.
Insects are most closely related to:
a.
mites.
b.
ticks.
c.
millipedes.
d.
lobsters.
e.
crustaceans.
 196.
Gas exchange in terrestrial insects is accomplished through:
a.
the use of gills.
b.
the use of book lungs.
c.
the use of tracheae.
d.
diffusion across the epidermal layer.
e.
a closed circulatory system.
 197.
The largest class of animals in terms of the number of different species is the class:
a.
Arachnida.
b.
Insecta.
c.
Gastropoda.
d.
Bivalvia.
e.
Arthropoda.
 198.
Horseshoe crabs belong to:
a.
the subphylum Uniramia.
b.
the subphylum Crustacea.
c.
the class Chilopoda.
d.
the class Merostomata.
e.
the class Malacostraca.
 199.
One adaptation of insects that is specific to this group among all arthropods is:
a.
cephalization.
b.
hard exoskeletons.
c.
segmentation.
d.
specialized mouthparts.
e.
wings.
 200.
An elongate uniramid with many legs as well as poison claws is called:
a.
a mite.
b.
a tick.
c.
an insect.
d.
a centipede.
e.
a millipede.
 201.
Which of the following arthropod groups is almost exclusively aquatic in habitat?
a.
Arachnida
b.
Crustacea
c.
Insecta
d.
Chilopoda
e.
Diplopoda
 202.
Which of the following animals has an open circulatory system?
a.
clams
b.
crabs
c.
insects
d.
snails
e.
All of the above.
Figure 29-04
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar011-1.jpg

 203.
Which of the insects in Figure 29-04 represents orders that have incomplete metamorphosis?
a.
2 and 3
b.
1 and 4
c.
3 and 5
d.
1 and 6
e.
5 and 6
 204.
Which insect in Figure 29-04 represents a group that parasitizes plants?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
4
e.
5

 

Introduction to Animals Quiz

Name: 

Introduction to Animals

 

 

True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.
1.
A tissue is a group of dissimilar cells that are organized into a functional unit.
2.
The development of a particular animal’s body plan depends on the animal’s environment, rather than on the genetic information it carries.
3.
Flatworms are bilaterally symmetrical and cephalized.
4.
The fluid in the body cavity of an animal acts as a medium of transport for nutrients and wastes.
5.
All chordates retain their postanal tail in their adult life.
6.
Most invertebrates have kidneys that filter waste products from the blood.
7.
Terrestrial animals have a protective outer covering that helps prevent excessive water loss.
8.
Segmentation is evident in vertebrates in the repeating bony units of their backbones and ribs.
9.
During spiral cleavage, each cell of the blastula rests directly above or below an adjacent cell.
10.
In a cnidarian, endoderm forms the outer tissue and nervous system.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
11.
A group of similar cells organized into a functional unit is called
a.
a nervous system.
c.
a tissue.
b.
specialized cells.
d.
an organ.
12.
Most animals have a head that is located at the ____ end of their body and a tail that is located at the ____ end of their body.
a.
ventral; dorsal
c.
anterior; posterior
b.
dorsal; ventral
d.
posterior; anterior
      introduction_to_ani_files/i0150000.jpg
13.
Refer to the illustration above. The organism labeled “B” in the diagram
a.
is asymmetrical.
c.
exhibits radial symmetry.
b.
is bilaterally symmetrical.
d.
has reverse symmetry.
14.
Refer to the illustration above. The organism labeled “A” in the diagram
a.
has no symmetry.
c.
exhibits radial symmetry.
b.
is bilaterally symmetrical.
d.
has reverse symmetry.
15.
Which of the following is found in vertebrates but not in invertebrates?
a.
dorsal nerve cord
c.
three germ layers
b.
coelom
d.
bilateral symmetry
16.
A characteristic shared by all chordates at some stage of their development is
a.
a dorsal hollow nerve cord.
c.
pharyngeal pouches.
b.
a notochord.
d.
All of the above
17.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the largest phylum of invertebrates, the arthropods?
a.
segmentation
c.
closed circulatory system
b.
exoskeleton
d.
digestive tract
18.
The acoelomate body type is exemplified by
a.
flatworms.
c.
mollusks.
b.
roundworms.
d.
annelids.
19.
Which of the following is an incorrect match?
a.
ectoderm—nervous system
c.
endoderm—muscular system
b.
mesoderm—skeletal system
d.
endoderm—digestive system
The diagrams below are cross sections of three types of animal bodies.
      introduction_to_ani_files/i0230000.jpg
20.
Refer to the illustration above. Humans have the type of body cavity shown in diagram
a.
“A.”
c.
“C.”
b.
“B.”
d.
None of the above

 

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Elephants Can

Elephants Can’t Jump
& Other Freaky Scientific Facts

Welcome to a Fun Site about Science!

Did you know that elephants can’t jump even though they have the same number of bones in their feet as other mammals?
The bones in an elephant’s foot are more closely packed together than other mammals so they do not have the flexibility or spring mechanisms that would enable them to jump.
How many bones are in an elephant’s trunk? The elephant’s trunk has numerous muscles but NO BONE.

 

What is a baby oyster called? They are called spats!
Three fruits are native to North America. Cranberries, Concord grapes, and blueberries!
What was the name of the captain and the ship on which Darwin made his famous voyage? Captain Fitzroy on the H.M.S. Beagle
A Swedish botanist, naturalist, physician and zoologist — Who am I? Carolus Linnaeus
Protozoan can move by cilia, flagella, or pseudopodia.
Give an example of a protist that moves by each of these means.

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Introduction to Animals

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Name: 

 

Introduction to Animals

 

 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
Which of the following attributes is not used to characterize animals?
a.
locomotion at some time during the life cycle
b.
multicellular eukaryotes
c.
heterotrophic
d.
sexual reproduction involving motile sperm
e.
None of the above, all of the attributes are typical of animals.
 2.
The kingdom Animalia is divided into about:
a.
325 phyla.
b.
16 classes.
c.
32 classes.
d.
35 phyla.
e.
6 phyla.
 3.
The diverse body plans seen in Animalia apparently developed during the:
a.
Precambrian
b.
Cambrian.
c.
Mesozoic.
d.
Silurian.
e.
Devonian.
 4.
Traditional phylogenies of Animalia are being reconsidered and changed due to:
a.
newly discovered prokaryotes in soil.
b.
extensive fossil finds in China.
c.
new phyla of Protista.
d.
better pictures from scanning electron microscopes.
e.
recent molecular data.
 5.
Which of the following group of animals is sessile?
a.
sponge
b.
jellyfish
c.
ctenophore
d.
planarian
e.
fluke
 6.
Animals apparently evolved:
a.
in freshwater.
b.
in the ocean.
c.
during the Cambrian explosion.
d.
in swamps.
e.
during the Devonian.
 7.
Fewer animals live in freshwater than in the ocean, because:
a.
freshwater is hypotonic and animals must spend energy to remove water from their bodies.
b.
freshwater is a less constant temperature environment.
c.
freshwater contains less food.
d.
freshwater is a much more variable environment.
e.
All of the above.
 8.
All of the following are characteristic of life in marine environments except:
a.
many nutrients and gases are dissolved in the water and are readily available.
b.
buoyancy helps to support the organisms.
c.
currents may wash organisms away from suitable habitats.
d.
osmotic balance is very difficult for invertebrates to maintain.
e.
temperatures are relatively stable.
 9.
The first air-breathing land animals were:
a.
vertebrates.
b.
amphibians.
c.
snails.
d.
reptiles.
e.
arthropods.
 10.
The first land animals, arthropods, moved onto land about:
a.
650 million years ago.
b.
450 million years ago.
c.
250 million years ago.
d.
230 million years ago.
e.
65 million years ago.
 11.
Amphibians appeared on land about:
a.
543 million years ago.
b.
450 million years ago.
c.
420 million years ago.
d.
250 million years ago.
e.
65 million years ago.
 12.
To adapt to land the primary problem was:
a.
mating.
b.
locomotion.
c.
predation.
d.
desiccation.
e.
acquiring enough nitrogen.
 13.
Adaptations of animals to land include:
a.
internal fertilization.
b.
egg shell.
c.
embryo development within the female.
d.
internal respiratory surfaces.
e.
All of the above.
 14.
The only extant Parazoa are the:
a.
jellyfish.
b.
sponges.
c.
flatworms.
d.
roundworms.
e.
ribbon worms.
 15.
A true body cavity completely surrounded by __________ is called a coelom.
a.
ectoderm
b.
mesoderm
c.
endoderm
d.
exoderm
e.
mesoglea
 16.
Because sponges function in ways similar to colonial unicellular protozoans, they are classified among the ____________. All other animals are considered ____________, which are distinct from sponges.
a.
protozoa; metazoa
b.
parazoa; metazoa
c.
parazoa; eumetazoa
d.
metazoa; protozoa
e.
protozoa; parazoa
 17.
Bilateral symmetry:
a.
evolved along with a corresponding trend toward cephalization.
b.
is characteristic of Cnidarians.
c.
characterizes the surfaces of an animal as dorsal and ventral.
d.
results from schizocoelous development.
e.
describes ectoderm and endoderm, the first two germ layers that developed.
 18.
The major phylum of animals that has an asymmetrical body plan is:
a.
Cnidaria.
b.
Ctenophora.
c.
Echinodermata.
d.
Porifera.
e.
All of the above.
 19.
Ctenophores exhibit:
a.
bilateral symmetry.
b.
spherical symmetry.
c.
linear symmetry.
d.
radial symmetry.
e.
circular symmetry.
 20.
The head end of an animal is termed its:
a.
posterior end.
b.
ventral end.
c.
inferior end.
d.
lateral end.
e.
anterior end.
 21.
A ___________ plane divides the animal body into dorsal and ventral parts:
a.
median.
b.
frontal.
c.
sagittal.
d.
cross.
e.
transverse.
 22.
Cnidarians and flatworms:
a.
are coelomate.
b.
are pseudocoelomate.
c.
are acoelomate.
d.
have two germ layers.
e.
have three germ layers.
 23.
The __________ gives rise to muscles, bones, and the circulatory system.
a.
endoderm
b.
ectoderm
c.
mesoderm
d.
blastopore
e.
mesoglea
 24.
The lining of the digestive tube is formed from:
a.
endoderm.
b.
ectoderm.
c.
germ cells.
d.
mesoderm.
e.
pseudoderm.
 25.
Diploblastic animals, such as cnidarians and ____________, have only two germ layers, ectoderm and ____________.
a.
sponges; ectoderm
b.
sponges; mesoderm
c.
ctenophores; mesoderm
d.
ctenophores; endoderm
e.
ctenophores; metaderm
Figure 28-01
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar001-1.jpg

 26.
In Figure 28-01, the tissue layer labeled 5 will give rise to the:
a.
skeletal system.
b.
muscles.
c.
circulatory system.
d.
lining of the digestive system.
e.
All of the above.
 27.
In Figure 28-01, the development pattern labeled Type A is characteristic of:
a.
Ctenophores.
b.
Chordates.
c.
Cnidarians.
d.
Annelids.
e.
Echinoderms.
 28.
The first opening which develops in deuterostomes develops into the:
a.
coelom.
b.
gut.
c.
anus.
d.
mouth.
e.
nostril.
 29.
Radial cleavage is found in the:
a.
arthropods.
b.
mollusks.
c.
echinoderms.
d.
annelids.
e.
cnidarians.
 30.
Pseudocoelomates have a body cavity that is not completely lined with ____________. These animals include ____________ and the roundworms.
a.
endoderm; nemerteans
b.
endoderm; flatworms
c.
mesoderm; rotifers
d.
mesoderm; flatworms
e.
mesoderm; nemerteans
 31.
In most deuterostomes, the mesoderm forms by:
a.
duplication of the ectoderm.
b.
schizocoely.
c.
migration.
d.
enterocoely.
e.
blastocoely.
 32.
Determinate cleavage takes place in ____________ and is characterized by a pattern of development where the ultimate fate of each cell is ____________.
a.
protostomes; not fixed until late in the developmental process
b.
protostomes; fixed early in the developmental process
c.
deuterostomes; not fixed until late in the developmental process
d.
deuterostomes; fixed early in the developmental process
e.
coelomates; fixed early in the developmental process
 33.
All of the following are protostomes except:
a.
Porifera.
b.
Mollusca.
c.
Annelida.
d.
Arthropoda.
e.
Echinodermata.
Figure 28-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar002-1.jpg

 34.
Radial symmetry developed at the point on Figure 28-02 labeled _________.
a.
2
b.
3
c.
4
d.
5
e.
6
 35.
In Figure 28-02, three germ layers arose in a common ancestor at the point labeled:
a.
1.
b.
4.
c.
5.
d.
6.
e.
None of the above.
 36.
The placozoans are the simplest animals, and appear to have evolved:
a.
from poriferans.
b.
from more complex invertebrates.
c.
independently from the remainder of the kingdom Animalia.
d.
from fungi.
e.
None of the above.
 37.
Sponges are believed to have arisen from the choanoflagellates because they possess:
a.
amebocytes.
b.
spicules.
c.
spongin.
d.
collar cells.
e.
oscula.
 38.
Sponge larvae:
a.
are miniature sponges that float about in the plankton.
b.
crawl along the bottom like an amoeba.
c.
are flagellated and able to swim.
d.
bud off the adult sponge.
e.
float out of the adult, fall to the bottom, and attach to form a new sponge.
 39.
Most sponges are ______________, meaning that one individual can produce both male and female gametes.
a.
asexual
b.
hermaphroditic
c.
indeterminate
d.
heterozygous
e.
enterocoelous
 40.
Digestion in a sponge takes place in:
a.
the osculum.
b.
individual cells.
c.
the spongocoel.
d.
the spicule.
e.
the mesohyl.
 41.
Most representatives of the phylum Porifera gain nutrition as:
a.
parasites.
b.
predators.
c.
autotrophs.
d.
herbivores.
e.
None of the above.
 42.
Within the phylum Cnidaria, corals are most closely related to:
a.
Hydra.
b.
jellyfish.
c.
sea anemones.
d.
Portuguese man-of-war.
e.
hydrozoans.
 43.
From an evolutionary perspective, true nerve cells are first seen in the phylum:
a.
Porifera.
b.
Cnidaria.
c.
Ctenophora.
d.
Mollusca.
e.
Arthropoda.
 44.
In the class Anthozoa are found:
a.
Hydra.
b.
Obelia.
c.
Cyanea.
d.
corals.
e.
jellyfish.
 45.
Cnidarians are _______________, meaning they have two tissue layers.
a.
diploid
b.
protostomes
c.
diploblastic
d.
bilateral
e.
hermaphroditic
 46.
The Portuguese man-of-war belongs to the class:
a.
Cnidozoa.
b.
Scyphozoa.
c.
Hydrozoa.
d.
Anthozoa.
e.
Cubezoa.
 47.
In cnidarians, nematocysts are housed in specialized cells, the ___________, located primarily on the tentacles.
a.
choanocytes
b.
cnidocils
c.
pseudopodia
d.
nerve nets
e.
cnidocytes
 48.
Hundreds or thousands of individuals of certain _________ form colonies in which each polyp has a special function such as feeding, reproduction, or defense.
a.
sea anemones
b.
hydrozoans
c.
jellyfish
d.
ctenophores
e.
sponges
 49.
The larvae of some cnidarians are known as ____________ larvae.
a.
veliger
b.
trochophore
c.
planula
d.
nauplius
e.
zoea
 50.
Corals can capture prey, but also depend for nutrition on:
a.
symbiotic photosynthetic zooxanthellae.
b.
symbiotic lichens.
c.
dead animals they colonize on the bottom.
d.
photosynthesis in the shallow water since they are part animal and plant.
e.
suspended materials captured by filter feeding.
 51.
Among the scyphozoans, the ____________ stage is reduced or absent.
a.
polyp
b.
hydra
c.
medusa
d.
larval
e.
juvenile
 52.
Sea anemones, unlike scyphozoans, have a partitioned gastrovascular cavity. This serves as a means of:
a.
harboring enteric bacteria.
b.
digesting very large food items.
c.
harboring photosynthetic zooxanthellae.
d.
digesting different categories of organic molecules in different areas.
e.
decreasing the surface area of the gastrovascular cavity.
Figure 28-03
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar003-1.jpg

 53.
The type of larva pictured at # 4 in Figure 28-03 is a:
a.
planula.
b.
miracidium.
c.
cercaria.
d.
polyp.
e.
medusa.
 54.
In Figure 28-03, asexual reproduction is occurring at point:
a.
1.
b.
2.
c.
4.
d.
7.
e.
9.
 55.
In Figure 28-03, which of the following structures was produced by meiosis?
a.
1
b.
3
c.
4
d.
5
e.
6
 56.
Members of the phylum _______________ are the simplest organisms that have a separate mouth and anus.
a.
Platyhelminthe
b.
Ctenophora
c.
Cnidaria
d.
Porifera
e.
Placozoa
 57.
Ctenophores capture food by:
a.
sticky mucus on their tentacles that capture small invertebrates.
b.
adhesive glue cells that trap prey.
c.
stinging hair cells that immobilize small invertebrates.
d.
digging through the bottom muds for small invertebrates.
e.
filter feeding.
 58.
Comb jellies move by:
a.
floating in the water, since they are so small.
b.
flagella.
c.
ameboid movements in the water.
d.
rows of cilia.
e.
jet propulsion of water from the gastrovascular cavity.
 59.
The body wall of cnidarians and ctenophores consist of:
a.
three tissue layers.
b.
a single epidermal layer.
c.
loosely organized cells.
d.
two epidermal layers with scattered mesophyll cells in between.
e.
inner and outer cell layers separated by a jelly-like mesoglea.
 60.
Deuterostomes are characterized by ____________ and ____________ cleavage.
a.
radial; determinate
b.
radial; indeterminate
c.
spiral; determinate
d.
spiral; indeterminate
e.
None of the above.
 61.
Deuterostomes evolved during the:
a.
Cambrian.
b.
Precambrian.
c.
Paleozoic.
d.
Cenozoic.
e.
Devonian.
 62.
Molecular data suggests that hemichordates are most closely related to:
a.
tunicates
b.
lancelets.
c.
echinoderms.
d.
vertebrates.
e.
annelids
 63.
Echinoderms are unusual invertebrates as they have:
a.
an endoskeleton.
b.
pentaradial symmetry.
c.
a water vascular system.
d.
pedicellariae present in some classes.
e.
All of the above.
 64.
All Echinodermata are found:
a.
in marine habitats.
b.
in freshwater.
c.
on land.
d.
on the bottom of the ocean or lakes.
e.
in shallow ocean waters.
 65.
Class ___________ includes mostly extinct species and a few extant species such as feather stars and sea lilies.
a.
Asteroidea
b.
Holothuroidea
c.
Ophiuroidea
d.
Echinoidea
e.
Crinoidea
 66.
Echinoderms are unique because:
a.
the larvae are radially symmetrical and the adult is bilaterally symmetrical.
b.
the adults and larva are both pentaradially symmetrical.
c.
the adult and larva are both radially symmetrical.
d.
the adult and larva are both biradially symmetrical.
e.
their larvae are bilaterally symmetrical while the adult is pentaradially symmetrical.
 67.
Which class within the echinoderms has the greatest species diversity?
a.
Asteroidea
b.
Holothuroidea
c.
Ophiuroidea
d.
Echinoidea
e.
Crinoidea
 68.
The most unique feature of the echinoderms is their:
a.
digestive system.
b.
nervous system.
c.
closed circulatory system.
d.
water vascular system.
e.
mantle.
 69.
Prominent spines are found on __________ of the phylum Echinodermata.
a.
Ophiuroidea
b.
Echinoidea
c.
Asteroidea
d.
Concentricycloidea
e.
Holothuroidea
 70.
One characteristic of the class Holothuroidea is:
a.
that most are predators that consume partially digested prey.
b.
that most of the species are extinct.
c.
that they have a reduced endoskeleton consisting of microscopic plates embedded in the body wall.
d.
that moveable spines are used to facilitate locomotion.
e.
that they have a distinct central disk with very long, slender arms.
 71.
Sea stars eat:
a.
large fish.
b.
mostly algae.
c.
sea weed.
d.
mostly bivalves.
e.
debris on the bottom.
 72.
Sea cucumbers will __________ when environmental conditions deteriorate.
a.
eject their digestive tract, respiratory structures, and gonads.
b.
crawl to an area with more favorable conditions.
c.
form a resistant spore.
d.
float to the surface and then later drop to a more favorable location.
e.
crawl deep into the ocean muds on the bottom.
 73.
Which of the following is not a characteristic shared by all chordates at some point in their life cycle?
a.
possession of a coelom
b.
three primary cell layers
c.
dorsal tubular nerve cord
d.
pharyngeal gill slits
e.
vertebrae
 74.
Urochordates are odd chordates, as typically only the ____________ shows the basic chordate characteristics.
a.
head end
b.
tail end
c.
adult
d.
larva
e.
egg
 75.
Adult tunicates resemble ______________ and are _________________.
a.
eels; carnivorous.
b.
corals; photosynthetic
c.
starfish; carnivorous
d.
sponges; filter feeders
e.
earthworms; detritivores
 76.
The neural crest cells of vertebrates influence the development of all of the following except the:
a.
lungs.
b.
nerves.
c.
cranium.
d.
jaws.
e.
head muscles.
 77.
The most closely related animal to vertebrates are the:
a.
Hemichordata.
b.
Urodela.
c.
Cephalochordata.
d.
Ophiuroidea.
e.
Urochordates.
Figure 30-01
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar004-1.jpg

 78.
The organism in Figure 30-01 is a representative of:
a.
the phylum Hemichordata.
b.
the phylum Echinodermata.
c.
the phylum Chordata.
d.
the subphylum Urochordata.
e.
the subphylum Cephalochordata.
 79.
The structure in Figure 30-01 labeled ___________ is characteristic of the phylum to which this organism belongs.
a.
9
b.
6
c.
5
d.
4
e.
10
 80.
Lancelets are:
a.
carnivores.
b.
filter feeders.
c.
parasites.
d.
herbivores.
e.
algae feeders.
 81.
There are about _______________ identified species of vertebrates.
a.
2,000
b.
6,000
c.
32,000
d.
48,000
e.
124,000
 82.
The coelacanth is found in the class:
a.
Dipnoi.
b.
Actinistia.
c.
Placoderms.
d.
Cephalochordata.
e.
Urochordata.
 83.
The two groups representing the “jawless” fishes are:
a.
Cephalochordata and Placoderms.
b.
Chondrichthyes and Actinistia.
c.
Myxiniformes and Cephalaspidormorphi.
d.
Dipnoi and Actinistia.
e.
Placoderms and Petromyzontiformes.
 84.
Which of the following characteristics is used to characterize vertebrates?
a.
a bony endoskeleton
b.
blood containing hemoglobin
c.
a four-chambered heart
d.
lungs
e.
live birth
 85.
The superclass Tetrapods includes:
a.
fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
b.
lancelets, cartilage, and bony fish.
c.
amphibians and reptiles.
d.
amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
e.
echinoderms and chordates.
 86.
Hagfishes are differentiated from lampreys and all other fishes in that:
a.
hagfishes do not have gills.
b.
hagfishes lack a jaw.
c.
hagfishes are parasitic.
d.
hagfishes lack vertebrae.
e.
All of the above.
 87.
Extinct jawless fish include the:
a.
lungfish.
b.
lancelets.
c.
placoderms.
d.
acanthodians.
e.
ostracoderms.
 88.
A fish with a cartilaginous skeleton and paired fins would be:
a.
an Agnathan.
b.
a Crinoid.
c.
a Cephalochordate.
d.
a Urochordate.
e.
a Chondrichthyean.
 89.
Scales of enamel are found on:
a.
lungfish.
b.
sharks.
c.
ray-finned fish.
d.
lob-finned.
e.
snakes.
 90.
Sharks may detect their prey using all of the following except:
a.
olfaction.
b.
their lateral lines.
c.
electroreceptors.
d.
sight.
e.
None of the above, all are used by sharks to detect their prey.
 91.
Sharks detect motion in the water or waves by their:
a.
lateral lines.
b.
electroreceptors.
c.
keen olfaction.
d.
sight.
e.
dorsal fin.
 92.
Sharks that are __________________ incubate their eggs in the uterus.
a.
oviparous
b.
viviparous
c.
ovoviviparous
d.
placental
e.
eutherial
 93.
The chordate class with the most species is the:
a.
Osteichythyes.
b.
Reptilia.
c.
Amphibia.
d.
Mammalia.
e.
Chondrichthyes.
 94.
The first members of classes Osteichythyes and Chondrichthyes appeared in the ____________ period.
a.
Permian
b.
Paleozoic
c.
Devonian
d.
Jurassic
e.
Cretaceous
Figure 30-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.nar005-1.jpg

 95.
The structure labeled 18 in Figure 30-02 is the:
a.
brain.
b.
gills.
c.
heart.
d.
stomach.
e.
swim bladder.
 96.
The function of the structure labeled ________ in Figure 30-02 is to aid buoyancy regulation of the fish.
a.
4
b.
16
c.
14
d.
5
e.
None of the above.
 97.
Based on Figure 30-02, which of the following structures places this fish in the class Actinopterygii?
a.
5
b.
19
c.
6
d.
13
e.
7
 98.
The amphibians are believed to have arisen from ancestral:
a.
chondrichthyean fish.
b.
actinopterygian fish.
c.
reptiles.
d.
dipnoi.
e.
actinistia.
 99.
The first amphibians were the ____________.
a.
squamata
b.
anurans
c.
lungfish
d.
labyrinthodonts
e.
coelacanths
 100.
Which taxon is not part of the class Amphibia?
a.
Squamata
b.
Anura
c.
Apoda
d.
Urodela
e.
None of the above, all belong to the class Amphibia.
 101.
Salamanders are members of the order:
a.
Apoda.
b.
Urodela.
c.
Anuran.
d.
Tetrapoda.
e.
Squamata.
 102.
Metamorphosis occurs in which of the following vertebrate classes?
a.
Chondrichthyes
b.
Reptilia
c.
Myxiniformes
d.
Amphibia
e.
All of the above.
 103.
At some point in their life cycle, amphibians may respire via all of the following except:
a.
gills.
b.
lungs.
c.
swim bladder.
d.
skin.
e.
book lungs.
 104.
The heart of amphibians has ________ chambers. The hearts of birds and mammals have _______ chambers.
a.
two; three
b.
three; four
c.
two; four
d.
three; five
e.
three; two