AP Introduction, Chemistry, and Water

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AP Introduction, Chemistry, and Water
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Self-Quiz Questions
 1.
All organisms on your campus make up
a.
an ecosystem.
b.
a community.
c.
a population.
d.
an experimental group.
e.
a taxonomic domain.
 2.
Which of the following is a correct sequence of levels in life’s hierarchy, proceeding downward from an individual animal?
a.
brain, organ system, nerve cell, nervous tissue
b.
organ system, population of cells, nervous tissue, brain
c.
organism, organ system, tissue, cell, organ
d.
nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
e.
organ system, tissue, molecule, cell
 3.
Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which Darwin’s theory of natural selection is based?
a.
Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
b.
There is heritable variation among individuals.
c.
Because of overproduction of offspring, there is competition for limited resources.
d.
Individuals whose inherited characteristics best fit them to the environment will generally produce more offspring.
e.
A population can become adapted to its environment.
 4.
Systems biology is mainly an attempt to
a.
understand the integration of all levels of biological organization from molecules to the biosphere.
b.
simplify complex problems by reducing the system into smaller, less complex units.
c.
model one level of biological organization based on an understanding of the lower levels of organization.
d.
provide a systematic method for interpretation of large amounts of biological data.
e.
speed up the technological application of scientific knowledge.
 5.
Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because
a.
protists eat bacteria.
b.
bacteria are not made of cells.
c.
bacterial cells lack a nucleus.
d.
bacteria decompose protists.
e.
protists are photosynthetic.
 6.
Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all organisms?
a.
matching DNA nucleotide sequences
b.
descent with modification
c.
the structure and function of DNA
d.
natural selection
e.
emergent properties
 7.
Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?
a.
The temperature decreased from 20°C to 15°C.
b.
The plant’s height is 25 centimeters.
c.
The fish swam in a zig-zag motion.
d.
The six pairs of robins hatched an average of three chicks.
e.
The contents of the human stomach are mixed about every 20 seconds.
 8.
Which of the following best describes the logic of hypothesis-based science?
a.
If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
b.
If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
c.
If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis.
d.
If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
e.
If my experiments are set up right, they will lead to a testable hypothesis.
 9.
A controlled experiment is one that
a.
proceeds slowly enough that a scientist can make careful records of the results.
b.
may include experimental groups and control groups tested in parallel.
c.
is repeated many times to make sure the results are accurate.
d.
keeps all environmental variables constant.
e.
is supervised by an experienced scientist.
 10.
Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science?
a.
Theories are hypotheses that have been proved.
b.
Hypotheses are guesses; theories are correct answers.
c.
Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
d.
Hypotheses and theories are essentially the same thing.
e.
Theories are proved true in all cases; hypotheses are usually falsified by tests.
 11.
An element is to a (an) ____ as an organ is to a (an) ____.
a.
atom; organism
b.
compound; organism
c.
molecule; cell
d.
atom; cell
e.
compound; organelle
 12.
In the term trace element, the modifier trace means
a.
the element is required in very small amounts.
b.
the element can be used as a label to trace atoms through an organism’s metabolism.
c.
the element is very rare on Earth.
d.
the element enhances health but is not essential for the organism’s long-term survival.
e.
the element passes rapidly through the organism.
 13.
Compared to 31P, the radioactive isotope 32P has
a.
a different atomic number.
b.
one more neutron.
c.
one more proton.
d.
one more electron.
e.
a different charge.
 14.
Atoms can be represented by simply listing the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons-for example, 2p+; 2n0; 2e- for helium. Which atom represents the 18O isotope of oxygen?
a.
6p+; 8n0; 6e-
b.
8p+; 10n0; 8e-
c.
9p+; 9n0; 9e-
d.
7p+; 2n0; 9e-
e.
10p+; 8n0; 9e-
 15.
The atomic number of sulfur is 16. Sulfur combines with hydrogen by covalent bonding to form a compound, hydrogen sulfide. Based on the electron configuration of sulfur, we can predict that the molecular formula of the compound will be ____.
a.
HS
b.
HS2
c.
H2S
d.
H3S2
e.
H4S
 16.
Review the valences of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, and then determine which of the following molecules is most likely to exist.
a.
O = C-H
b.
H   H
|     |
H – O – C – C = O
|
H
c.
H      H
|      |
H- C- H – C = O
|
H
d.
O
|
H – N = H
 17.
The reactivity of an atom arises from
a.
the average distance of the outermost electron shell from the nucleus.
b.
the existence of unpaired electrons in the valence shell.
c.
the sum of the potential energies of all the electron shells.
d.
the potential energy of the valence shell.
e.
the energy difference between the s and p orbitals.
 18.
Which of these statements is true of all anionic atoms?
a.
The atom has more electrons than protons.
b.
The atom has more protons than electrons.
c.
The atom has fewer protons than does a neutral atom of the same element.
d.
The atom has more neutrons than protons.
e.
The net charge is 1-.
 19.
What coefficients must be placed in the blanks so that all atoms are accounted for in the products?

C6H12O6 ____C2H6O + ____CO2

a.
1; 2
b.
2; 2
c.
1; 3
d.
1; 1
e.
3; 1
 20.
Which of the following statements correctly describes any chemical reaction that has reached equilibrium?
a.
The concentration of products equals the concentration of reactants.
b.
The rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.
c.
Both forward and reverse reactions have halted.
d.
The reaction is now irreversible.
e.
No reactants remain.
 21.
What is the best explanation of the phrase “fitness of the environment” as used in this chapter?
a.
Earth’s environment is constant.
b.
It is the physical environment, not life, that has changed.
c.
The environment of Earth has adapted to life.
d.
Life as we know it depends on certain environmental qualities on Earth.
e.
Water and other aspects of Earth’s environment exist because they make the planet more suitable for life.
 22.
Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which property of water is most directly responsible for the ability of sweat to lower body temperature?
a.
water’s change in density when it condenses
b.
water’s ability to dissolve molecules in the air
c.
the release of heat by the formation of hydrogen bonds
d.
the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds
e.
water’s high surface tension
 23.
For two bodies of matter in contact, heat always flows from
a.
the body with greater heat to the one with less heat.
b.
the body of higher temperature to the one of lower temperature.
c.
the denser body to the less dense body.
d.
the body with more water to the one with less water.
e.
the larger body to the smaller body.
 24.
A slice of pizza has 500 kcal. If we could burn the pizza and use all the heat to warm a 50-L container of cold water, what would be the approximate increase in the temperature of the water? (Note: A liter of cold water weighs about 1 kg).
a.
50°C
b.
5°C
c.
10°C
d.
100°C
e.
1°C
 25.
The bonds that are broken when water vaporizes are
a.
ionic bonds.
b.
bonds between water molecules.
c.
bonds between atoms within individual water molecules.
d.
polar covalent bonds.
e.
nonpolar covalent bonds.
 26.
Which of the following is an example of a hydrophobic material?
a.
paper
b.
table salt
c.
wax
d.
sugar
e.
pasta
 27.
We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their
a.
mass in daltons.
b.
mass in grams.
c.
number of molecules.
d.
number of atoms.
e.
volume.
 28.
How many grams of acetic acid (C2H4O2)would you use to make 10 L of a 0.1 M aqueous solution of acetic acid? (Note: The atomic masses, in daltons, are approximately 12 for carbon, 1 for hydrogen, and 16 for oxygen.)
a.
10.0 g
b.
0.1 g
c.
6.0 g
d.
60.0 g
e.
0.6 g
 29.
Acid precipitation has lowered the pH of a particular lake to 4.0. What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the lake?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
4%
 30.
What is the hydroxide ion concentration of the lake described in question 9?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
10 M


        
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