Unit 9B Vertebrates Study Guide

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Unit 9B Vertebrates Study Guide


Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following is not a shared characteristic of all chordates?
a.
pharyngeal clefts
b.
post-anal tail
c.
notochord
d.
dorsal, hollow nerve cord
e.
four-chambered heart
 

 2. 

What is one characteristic that separates chordates from all other animals?
a.
true coelom
b.
dorsal, hollow nerve cord
c.
blastopore, which becomes the anus
d.
bilateral symmetry
e.
segmentation
 

 3. 

Which of these are characteristics of all chordates during at least a portion of their development?
a.
a dorsal, hollow nerve cord
b.
pharyngeal clefts
c.
post-anal tail
d.
A and B only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 4. 

Pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as
a.
the digestive system’s opening.
b.
suspension-feeding devices.
c.
components of the jaw.
d.
gill slits for respiration.
e.
portions of the inner ear.
 

 5. 

Which of the following statements would be least acceptable to most zoologists?
a.
The extant cephalochordates are contemporaries, not ancestors, of vertebrates.
b.
The first fossils resembling cephalochordates appeared in the fossil record around 550 million years ago.
c.
Recent work in molecular systematics supports the hypothesis that cephalochordates are the most recent common ancestor of all vertebrates.
d.
The extant cephalochordates are the immediate ancestors of the fishes.
e.
Cephalochordates display the same method of swimming as do fishes.
 

 6. 

Which extant chordate group is postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?
a.
Cephalochordata
b.
adult Urochordata
c.
Amphibia
d.
Reptilia
e.
Chondrichthyes
 

 7. 

Which are extinct organisms that may represent a transition between cephalochordates and vertebrates?
a.
Haikouella and Haikouichthys
b.
Archaeopteryx
c.
Acanthostega
d.
conodonts
e.
acanthodians
 

 8. 

A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics: external armor of bony plates, no paired fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?
a.
legs
b.
no jaws
c.
an amniotic egg
d.
metamorphosis
e.
endothermy
 

 9. 

Lampreys differ from hagfishes in
a.
lacking jaws.
b.
having a cranium.
c.
having pharyngeal clefts that develop into pharyngeal slits.
d.
having a notochord throughout life.
e.
having a notochord that is surrounded by a tube of cartilage.
 

 10. 

Parasitism is to most species of lampreys as ____ seems to have been to the extinct conodonts.
a.
herbivory
b.
suspension feeding
c.
predation
d.
filter feeding
e.
absorptive feeding
 

 11. 

What do hagfishes and lampreys have in common with the extinct conodonts?
a.
lungs
b.
the jawless condition
c.
bony vertebrae
d.
their mode of feeding
e.
swim bladders
 

 12. 

The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?
a.
reproduction
b.
feeding
c.
locomotion
d.
defense
e.
respiration
 

 13. 

The exoskeletons of marine arthropods are made of calcified ____, and the endoskeletons of vertebrates are mostly composed of calcified ____.
a.
cartilage; cartilage
b.
silica; bone
c.
chitin; silica
d.
dentin; enamel
e.
chitin; cartilage
 

 14. 

A team of researchers has developed a poison that has proven effective against lamprey larvae in freshwater cultures. The poison is ingested and causes paralysis by detaching myomeres from the skeletal elements. The team wants to test the poison’s effectiveness in streams feeding Lake Michigan, but one critic worries about potential effects on lancelets, which are similar to lampreys in many ways. Why is this concern misplaced?
a.
A chemical poisonous to lampreys could not also be toxic to organisms as ancestral as lancelets.
b.
Lamprey larvae and lancelets have very different feeding mechanisms.
c.
Lancelets do not have myomeres.
d.
Lancelets live only in salt-water environments.
e.
Lancelets and lamprey larvae eat different kinds of food.
 

 15. 

The lamprey species whose larvae live in freshwater streams, but whose adults live most of their lives in seawater, are similar in this respect to certain species of
a.
chondrichthyans.
b.
actinopterygians.
c.
lungfishes.
d.
coelacanths.
e.
hagfishes.
 

 16. 

In which extant class did jaws occur earliest?
a.
Cephalaspidomorphi
b.
Chondrichthyes
c.
Actinopterygii
d.
Dipnoi
e.
Placodermi
 

 17. 

According to one hypothesis, the jaws of vertebrates were derived by the modification of
a.
scales of the lower lip.
b.
skeletal rods that had supported pharyngeal (gill) slits.
c.
one or more gill slits.
d.
one or more of the bones of the cranium.
e.
one or more of the vertebrae.
 

 18. 

All of these might have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans, except
a.
a mineralized, bony skeleton.
b.
scales.
c.
lungs.
d.
gills.
e.
a swim bladder.
 

 19. 

What is a distinctive feature of the chondrichthyans?
a.
an amniotic egg
b.
unpaired fins
c.
an acute sense of vision that includes the ability to distinguish colors
d.
a cartilaginous endoskeleton
e.
lack of jaws
 

 20. 

To which of these are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?
a.
osteichthyan scales
b.
reptilian scales
c.
mammalian scales
d.
bird scales
e.
chondrichthyan teeth
 

 21. 

Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and fishes?
a.
The skin is typically covered by flattened bony scales.
b.
They are equally able to exchange gases with the environment while stationary.
c.
They are highly maneuverable due to their flexibility.
d.
They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure.
e.
A swim bladder helps control buoyancy.
 

 22. 

Which group’s members had (have) both lungs and gills during their adult lives?
a.
sharks, skates, and rays
b.
lungfishes
c.
cephalochordates
d.
paramphibians
e.
ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs
 

 23. 

There is evidence that bony fishes (osteichthyans) originally evolved
a.
in response to a crisis that wiped out the chondrichthyans.
b.
directly from lampreys and hagfish.
c.
early in the Cambrian period.
d.
directly from cephalochordates.
e.
in freshwater environments.
 

 24. 

Which are the most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates?
a.
bony fishes
b.
avian reptiles
c.
amphibians
d.
non-avian reptiles
e.
mammals
 

 25. 

The bony fishes are characterized by
a.
a bony endoskeleton, operculum, and usually a swim bladder.
b.
a cartilaginous endoskeleton.
c.
an amniotic egg.
d.
teeth that are replaced regularly.
e.
a lateral line system and ears with three semicircular canals.
 

 26. 

The swim bladder of bony fishes
a.
was probably modified from simple lungs of freshwater fishes.
b.
developed into lungs in saltwater fishes.
c.
first appeared in sharks.
d.
provides buoyancy, but at a high energy cost.
e.
both C and D
 

 27. 

All of the following belong to the lobe-fin clade, except
a.
chondrichthyans.
b.
Australian lungfishes.
c.
African lungfishes.
d.
coelacanths.
e.
tetrapods.
 

 28. 

Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (i.e. most general) to least inclusive (i.e. most specific).
1.
lobe-fins
2.
amphibians
3.
gnathostomes
4.
osteichthyans
5.
tetrapods
a.
4, 3, 1, 5, 2
b.
4, 3, 2, 5, 1
c.
4, 2, 3, 5, 1
d.
3, 4, 1, 5, 2
e.
3, 4, 5, 1, 2
 

 29. 

An extinct transitional form linking aquatic and terrestrial lobe-fins is
a.
the coelacanth.
b.
Archaeopteryx.
c.
Haikouichthys.
d.
Acanthostega.
e.
Ardipithecus.
 

 30. 

A trend in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was
a.
the appearance of jaws.
b.
the appearance of bony vertebrae.
c.
feet with digits.
d.
the mineralization of the endoskeleton.
e.
the ability to move in a fish-like manner.
 

 31. 

What should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?
a.
They should show evidence of internal fertilization.
b.
They should show evidence of having produced shelled eggs.
c.
They should indicate limited adaptation to life on land.
d.
They should be transitional forms with the fossils of chondrichthyans that lived at the same time.
e.
They should feature the earliest indications of the appearance of jaws.
 

 32. 

What permits reptiles to thrive in arid environments?
a.
Their bright coloration reflects the intense UV radiation.
b.
A large number of prey and a limited number of predators are available in the desert.
c.
A cartilaginous endoskeleton provides needed flexibility for locomotion on sand.
d.
Their scales contain the protein keratin, which helps prevent dehydration.
e.
They have an acute sense of sight, especially in bright sunlight.
 

 33. 

Which of these is not considered an amniote?
a.
amphibians
b.
non-avian reptiles
c.
avian reptiles
d.
egg-laying mammals
e.
placental mammals
 

 34. 

Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough? It
a.
has a shell that increases gas exchange.
b.
allows incubation of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
c.
prolongs embryonic development.
d.
provides insulation to conserve heat.
e.
permits internal fertilization to be replaced by external fertilization.
 

 35. 

Which era is known as the "age of reptiles"?
a.
Cenozoic
b.
Mesozoic
c.
Paleozoic
d.
Precambrian
e.
Cambrian
 

 36. 

Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?
a.
the amniotic egg
b.
the ability to maintain a constant body temperature
c.
two pairs of appendages
d.
claws
e.
a four-chambered heart
 

 37. 

From which of the following groups are snakes most likely descended?
a.
dinosaurs
b.
plesiosaurs
c.
lizards
d.
crocodiles
e.
synapsids
 

 38. 

All of the following are characteristics of most extant non-avian reptiles, except
a.
ectothermy.
b.
brachiation.
c.
the amniotic egg.
d.
keratinized skin.
e.
conical teeth that are relatively uniform in size.
 

 39. 

When did dinosaurs and pterosaurs become extinct?
a.
Cretaceous "crisis"
b.
Permian extinctions
c.
Devonian "disaster"
d.
Phanerozoic eon
e.
Hadean eon
 

 40. 

Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?
a.
lizards
b.
crocodiles
c.
snakes
d.
birds
e.
mammals
 

 41. 

Examination of the fossils of Archaeopteryx reveals that, in common with extant birds, it had
a.
a long tail containing vertebrae.
b.
feathers.
c.
teeth.
d.
both A and B
e.
A, B, and C
 

 42. 

Why is the discovery of the fossil Archaeopteryx significant? It supports the
a.
phylogenetic relatedness of birds and reptiles.
b.
contention that birds are much older than we originally thought.
c.
claim that mammals and dinosaurs coexisted.
d.
idea that the first birds were ratites.
e.
hypothesis that some extinct reptiles were endothermic.
 

 43. 

What is the single unique characteristic that distinguishes extant birds from other extant animals?
a.
a hinged jaw
b.
feathers
c.
an amniotic egg
d.
flight
e.
a gizzard
 

 44. 

Which of the following structures are possessed only by birds?
a.
enlarged pectoral muscles and heavy bones
b.
a four-chambered heart
c.
feathers and keeled sternum
d.
a short tail and mammary glands
e.
a large brain and endothermy
 
 
Refer to the phylogenetic tree shown in the figure below to answer the following questions.
ap_unit9b_vertebrat_files/i0460000.jpg
 

 45. 

The organisms represented by 8 most likely are
a.
avian reptiles.
b.
mammals.
c.
non-avian, terrestrial reptiles.
d.
aquatic reptiles.
e.
all mammals except humans.
 

 46. 

Which organisms are represented by 6?
a.
avian reptiles
b.
mammals
c.
non-avian, terrestrial reptiles
d.
aquatic reptiles
e.
all mammals except humans
 

 47. 

Which pair of numbers represents extinct reptiles that had returned to an aquatic life?
a.
1 and 2
b.
3 and 4
c.
5 and 7
d.
6 and 8
e.
7 and 9
 

 48. 

Which pair of numbers most likely represents extant, non-avian reptiles?
a.
1 and 2
b.
3 and 4
c.
5 and 7
d.
6 and 8
e.
7 and 9
 

 49. 

Whose forelimbs are most analogous to those of keeled birds and bats?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
3
d.
7
e.
9
 

 50. 

Whose DNA would have had the most sequence homologies with amphibian DNA?
a.
5
b.
6
c.
7
d.
8
e.
9
 

 51. 

Which pair of numbers includes extant endotherms?
a.
3 and 4
b.
4 and 5
c.
6 and 8
d.
3 and 8
e.
6 and 7
 

 52. 

According to modern systematics, which of these terms is now more narrowly applied than it has been in the past?
a.
lobe-fins
b.
osteichthyans
c.
fishes
d.
reptiles
e.
gnathostomes
 

 53. 

During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose?
1.
amniotic egg
2.
paired fins
3.
jaws
4.
swim bladder
5.
four-chambered heart
a.
2, 3, 4, 1, 5
b.
3, 2, 4, 1, 5
c.
3, 2, 1, 4, 5
d.
2, 1, 4, 3, 5
e.
2, 4, 3, 1, 5
 

 54. 

Structures that are made of keratin include which of the following?
a.
avian feathers
b.
reptilian scales
c.
mammalian hair
d.
A and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 55. 

A sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in extant
a.
birds.
b.
mammals.
c.
non-avian reptiles.
d.
both A and B
e.
A, B, and C
 

 56. 

Differentiation of teeth is greatest in
a.
sharks.
b.
bony fishes.
c.
amphibians.
d.
reptiles.
e.
mammals.
 

 57. 

Which is not characteristic of all mammals?
a.
a four-chambered heart that prevents mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
b.
giving birth to live young (viviparous)
c.
having hair during at least some period of life
d.
having glands to produce nourishing milk for offspring
e.
having a diaphragm to assist in ventilating the lungs
 

 58. 

Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?
a.
Look for the presence of milk-producing glands.
b.
Look for the mammalian characteristics of a four-chambered heart and a diaphragm.
c.
Because mammals are eutherians, look for evidence of a placenta.
d.
Use molecular analysis to look for the protein keratin.
e.
Examine the teeth.
 

 59. 

Which of the following classifications do not apply to both dogs and humans?
a.
class Mammalia
b.
order Primates
c.
phylum Chordata
d.
kingdom Animalia
e.
subphylum Vertebrata
 

 60. 

Which of these is not a trend in primate evolution?
a.
enhanced depth perception
b.
well-developed claws for clinging to trees
c.
a shoulder joint adapted to brachiation
d.
increased brain to body ratio
e.
a long period of parental care of offspring
 

 61. 

How are primates different from all other mammals?
a.
placental embryonic development
b.
hairy bodies
c.
arboreal lifestyles
d.
ability to produce milk
e.
opposable thumbs in many species
 

 62. 

In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?
a.
chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and mammals
b.
amphibians, mammals, and reptiles
c.
chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and reptiles
d.
reptiles and mammals
e.
reptiles and amphibians
 
 
For the following items, match the vertebrate groups below with the descriptions that follow. Each choice may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
A.
amphibians
B.
non-avian reptiles
C.
chondrichthyans
D.
mammals
E.
avian reptiles
 

 63. 

their scales closely resemble teeth in both structure and origin
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 64. 

internal fertilization, amniotic egg, skin that resists drying, heavy bones
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 65. 

three major groups: egg-laying, pouched, and placental
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 66. 

may have lungs, or gills, and may use skin as a respiratory surface
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 67. 

honeycombed bones, females with one ovary, no teeth
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 68. 

Arrange the following taxonomic terms from most inclusive (i.e. most general) to least inclusive (i.e. most specific):
1.
hominoids
2.
hominids
3.
Homo
4
anthropoids
5.
primates
a.
5, 1, 4, 2, 3
b.
5, 4, 1, 2, 3
c.
5, 4, 2, 1, 3
d.
5, 2, 1, 4, 3
e.
5, 2, 4, 1, 3
 

 69. 

The adaptation to arboreal life by early human ancestors can explain, at least in part, all of the following human characteristics except
a.
limber shoulder joints.
b.
dexterous hands with opposable thumbs.
c.
excellent eye-hand coordination.
d.
enhanced depth perception.
e.
reduced body hair.
 

 70. 

Which of these hominid traits seems to have occurred before the others?
a.
tool use
b.
increased brain size
c.
symbolic thought
d.
language
e.
bipedalism
 

 71. 

Which of these traits is not directly associated with the adoption of bipedalism?
a.
shortening of jaw
b.
shortening of limbs
c.
straightening and shortening of digits
d.
loss of ability to oppose big toe
e.
repositioning of foramen magnum
 

 72. 

Which of the following statements about human evolution is correct?
a.
Modern humans are the only human species to have evolved on Earth.
b.
Human ancestors were virtually identical to chimpanzees.
c.
Human evolution occurred by anagenetic change within an unbranched lineage.
d.
The upright posture and enlarged brain of humans evolved simultaneously.
e.
Fossil evidence indicates that early anthropoids were arboreal, and cat-sized.
 

 73. 

Humans and apes are presently classified in the same category as all of the following levels except
a.
class.
b.
genus.
c.
kingdom.
d.
order.
e.
phylum.
 

 74. 

Which of the following are not considered hominoids?
a.
gibbons
b.
gorillas
c.
rhesus monkeys
d.
orangutans
e.
chimpanzees
 

 75. 

The most primitive hominid discovered to date
a.
may have hunted dinosaurs.
b.
lived 1.2 million years ago.
c.
closely resembled a chimpanzee.
d.
walked on two legs.
e.
had a relatively large brain.
 
 
Match the taxonomic terms below with the descriptions that follow. Options may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
A)
H. heidelbergensis
B)
H. erectus
C)
H. ergaster
D)
H. habilis
E)
H. sapiens
 

 76. 

the first of these species to have been adapted for long-distance bipedalism
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 77. 

the first of these species to craft stone tools
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 78. 

the first of these species to show a trend toward reduced sexual dimorphism
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 79. 

the first of these species to have some members migrate out of Africa
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 80. 

the species currently thought to be the direct ancestor of H. neanderthalensis
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 81. 

the species that demonstrates symbolic thought, art, and full-blown language
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 82. 

With which of the following statements would a biologist be most inclined to agree?
a.
Humans and apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor.
b.
Humans evolved from New World monkeys.
c.
Humans have stopped evolving and now represent the pinnacle of evolution.
d.
Apes evolved from humans.
e.
Humans and apes are the result of disruptive selection in a species of gorilla.
 

 83. 

Which of these statements about human evolution is true?
a.
The ancestors of Homo sapiens were chimpanzees and other apes.
b.
Human evolution has proceeded in an orderly fashion from an ancestral anthropoid to Homo sapiens.
c.
The evolution of upright posture and enlarged brain occurred simultaneously.
d.
Different features have evolved at different rates.
e.
Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that modern humans are genetically very similar to Neanderthals.
 

 84. 

Rank the following in terms of body-size differences that are attributed to sexual dimorphism, from most dimorphic to least dimorphic.
1.
Homo sapiens
2.
Chimpanzees and bonobos
3.
Australopithecus afarensis
4.
Homo habilis
a.
1, 2, 3, 4
b.
1, 3, 2, 4
c.
3, 2, 4, 1
d.
2, 3, 4, 1
e.
4, 3, 2, 1
 

 85. 

Based on current evidence, which of the following statements best describes the evolution of humans?
a.
Humans evolved from the chimpanzee.
b.
Humans evolved in a single, orderly series of stages in which each stage became more advanced than the predecessor.
c.
The various characteristics that we associate with humans evolved in unison over long periods of time.
d.
Humans and apes diverged from a common ancestor about 5-10 million years ago.
e.
Humans are more closely related to gorillas than to chimpanzees.
 

 86. 

The oldest fossil remains of Homo sapiens found so far date from about
a.
6 million years ago.
b.
1.6 million years ago.
c.
160,000 years ago.
d.
60,000 years ago.
e.
16,000 years ago.
 

 87. 

The common ancestors of all humans alive today lived in Africa until about
a.
5 million years ago.
b.
500,000 years ago.
c.
50,000 years ago.
d.
5,000 years ago.
e.
There is no evidence available that could answer this question.
 

 88. 

Which of the following statements is false in regards to Homo erectus?
a.
Their fossils are limited to Africa.
b.
On average, H. erectus had a larger brain than H. habilis.
c.
H. erectus had a level of sexual dimorphism similar to that of modern humans.
d.
H. erectus was able to use tools.
e.
H. erectus evolved after the rise of H. habilis.
 

 89. 

Why is it thought that the Neanderthals contributed little to the gene pool of modern humanity?
a.
Recent studies of human and Neanderthal DNA show significant differences in base sequences.
b.
The fossils found in the Neander Valley were a hoax and the "Neanderthals" never really existed.
c.
Neanderthals had degenerated brain capacity and thus could not have contributed to human ancestry.
d.
There is no evidence that Neanderthals were capable of walking upright or using tools.
e.
Humans, the "naked apes," have nothing in common with the Neanderthals, the "hairy apes."
 
 
Match the taxonomic terms below with the descriptions that follow. Each option may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
A)
hominoids
B)
Homo
C)
anthropoids
D)
hominids
E)
primates
 

 90. 

Which is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have foramina magna centrally positioned in the base of the cranium?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 91. 

Which term is most nearly synonymous with "apes"?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 92. 

Which is a genus that has only one extant species?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 93. 

Which is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fingernails instead of claws?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 94. 

Which is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fully opposable thumbs?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 95. 

Which is the most specific group in which prosimians can be included?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 96. 

Which is the most specific group that includes both the Old World monkeys and the New World monkeys?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 
 
Match the genes below with the descriptions that follow.
A)
Hox
B)
Dlx
C)
Otx
D)
FOXP2
E)
more than one of these
 

 97. 

At least one of these has been found in all species of animals studied thus far.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 98. 

This is a code for transcription factors involved in the evolution of innovations in early vertebrate nervous systems and vertebrae.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 99. 

This is a gene linked to the development of speech in hominids.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 


 
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