Unit 8A Plants I

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Unit 8A Plants I


Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

One of the major distinctions between plants and the green algae is that
a.
only green algae have flagellated, swimming sperm.
b.
embryos are not retained within parental tissues in green algae.
c.
meiosis proceeds at a faster pace in green algae than in plants.
d.
chlorophyll pigments in green algae are different from those in green plants.
e.
only plants form a cell plate during cytokinesis.
 

 2. 

Peptidoglycan is to the structural integrity of bacteria as ____ is to the structural integrity of plant spores.
a.
lignin
b.
cellulose
c.
terpene
d.
tannin
e.
sporopollenin
 

 3. 

Which kind of plant tissue should lack phragmoplasts?
a.
bryophyte tissues of the gametophyte generation
b.
diploid tissues of charophyceans
c.
spore-producing tissues of all land plants
d.
tissues performing nuclear division without intervening cytokineses
e.
the meristematic tissues of fern gametophytes
 

 4. 

The following are common to both charophyceans and land plants except
a.
sporopollenin.
b.
lignin.
c.
chlorophyll a.
d.
cellulose.
e.
chlorophyll b.
 

 5. 

A number of characteristics are very similar between charophyceans and members of the kingdom Plantae. Of the following, which characteristic does not provide evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between these two groups?
a.
alternation of generations
b.
chloroplast structure
c.
cell plate formation during cytokinesis
d.
sperm cell structure
e.
ribosomal RNA nucleotide sequences
 

 6. 

A researcher wants to develop an assay (test) that will distinguish charophyceans and land plants from chlorophyte green algae. Which of the following chemicals would be the best subject for such an assay?
a.
chlorophyll b -an accessory photosynthetic pigment
b.
carotenoids-a class of accessory photosynthetic pigments
c.
amylopectin-a starch-like food storage material
d.
glycolate oxidase-an enzyme of peroxisomes that is associated with photorespiration
e.
flavonoids-a class of phenolic compounds that is often associated with chemical signaling
 

 7. 

In animal cells and in the meristem cells of land plants, the nuclear envelope disintegrates during mitosis. This disintegration does not occur in the cells of most protists and fungi. According to our current knowledge of plant evolution, which group of organisms should feature a mitosis most similar to that of land plants?
a.
unicellular chlorophytes
b.
diatoms
c.
charophyceans
d.
red algae
e.
multicellular chlorophytes
 

 8. 

On a field trip, a student in a marine biology class collects an organism that has differentiated organs, cell walls of cellulose, and chloroplasts with chlorophyll a. Based on this description, the organism could be a brown alga, a red alga, a green alga, a charophycean recently washed into the ocean from a freshwater or brackish water source, or a land plant washed into the ocean. Which of the following features would definitively identify this organism as a land plant?
a.
presence of alternation of generations
b.
presence of sporopollenin
c.
presence of rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes
d.
presence of flagellated sperm
e.
presence of embryos
 

 9. 

The figure below indicates varying cellulose contents among five different organisms. You are given five samples (A-E) of equal dry weights of a brown alga, a red alga, a marine green alga, a land plant, and a charophycean. Chemical analysis reveals the cellulose contents shown here. Which samples are probably from streptophytes?

mc009-1.jpg

a.
samples A and C
b.
samples C and D
c.
samples B and E
d.
samples, A, C, and D
e.
There is not enough information to tell.
 

 10. 

Which of the following is characteristic of alternation of generations in land plants?
a.
Haploid sporophytes make haploid spores.
b.
Gametophytes produce spores that develop into gametes.
c.
Sporophytes and gametophytes are typically similar in appearance.
d.
Meiosis in sporophytes produces haploid spores.
e.
Either the gametophyte or the sporophyte is unicellular.
 

 11. 

Bryophytes have all of the following characteristics except
a.
multicellularity.
b.
specialized cells and tissues.
c.
lignified vascular tissue.
d.
walled spores in sporangia.
e.
a reduced, dependent sporophyte.
 

 12. 

Which of the following characteristics, if observed in an unidentified green organism, would make it unlikely to be a charophycean?
a.
phragmoplast
b.
peroxisome
c.
apical meristem
d.
chlorophylls a and b
e.
rosette cellulose-synthesizing complex
 

 13. 

Whereas the zygotes of charophyceans may remain within maternal tissues during their initial development, one should not expect to observe
a.
any nutrients from maternal tissues being used by the zygotes.
b.
specialized placental transfer cells surrounding the zygotes.
c.
the zygotes undergoing nuclear division.
d.
mitochondria in the maternal tissues, or in the tissues of the zygotes.
e.
the zygotes digested by enzymes from maternal lysosomes.
 

 14. 

Which putative taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"?
a.
Viridiplantae
b.
Plantae
c.
Pterophyta
d.
Streptophyta
e.
Charophycea
 
 
Choose the adaptation below that best meets each particular challenge for life on land. Choices may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A. nonflagellated sperm
B. tracheids and phloem
C. secondary compounds
D. cuticle
E. alternation of generations
 

 15. 

protection from predators
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 16. 

protection from desiccation
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 17. 

transport of water, minerals, and nutrients
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 18. 

reproduction away from water
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 19. 

Which of the following was not a challenge for survival of the first land plants?
a.
sources of water
b.
sperm transfer
c.
desiccation
d.
animal predation
e.
absorbing enough light
 

 20. 

The following are all adaptations to life on land except
a.
rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes.
b.
cuticles.
c.
tracheids.
d.
reduced gametophyte generation.
e.
seeds.
 

 21. 

Mitotic activity by the apical meristem of a root makes all of the following more possible except
a.
increased length of the above-ground stem.
b.
increased absorption of mineral nutrients.
c.
increased absorption of water.
d.
increased number of chloroplasts in roots.
e.
more effective anchoring of plant in substrate.
 

 22. 

Which event during the evolution of land plants probably made the synthesis of secondary compounds most beneficial?
a.
the greenhouse effect present throughout the Devonian period
b.
the reverse-greenhouse effect during the Carboniferous period
c.
the association of the roots of land plants with fungi
d.
the rise of herbivory
e.
the rise of wind pollination
 

 23. 

If one were attempting to catalog the largest amount of genetic diversity among plant-like organisms, then which group of organisms should one choose?
a.
Embryophyta
b.
Viridiplantae
c.
Plantae
d.
Streptophyta
e.
Tracheophyta
 

 24. 

Which of these should have had gene sequences most similar to the charophycean that was the common ancestor of the land plants?
a.
early angiosperms
b.
early bryophytes
c.
early gymnosperms
d.
early lycophytes
e.
early pterophytes
 

 25. 

Plant spores give rise directly to
a.
sporophytes.
b.
gametes.
c.
gametophytes.
d.
sporophylls.
e.
seeds.
 

 26. 

Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction?
a.
"Embryophytes" are small because they are in an early developmental stage.
b.
Both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia.
c.
Gametangia protect gametes from excess water.
d.
Eggs and sperm of bryophytes swim toward one another.
e.
Bryophytes are limited to asexual reproduction.
 

 27. 

Assuming that they all belong to the same plant, arrange the following structures from smallest to largest.

1. antheridia
2. gametes
3. gametophytes
4. gametangia
a.
1, 4, 3, 2
b.
3, 1, 2, 4
c.
3, 4, 2, 1
d.
3, 4, 1, 2
e.
4, 3, 1, 2
 

 28. 

The leaflike appendages of moss gametophytes may be one- to two-cell-layers thick. Consequently, which of these is least likely to be found associated with such appendages?
a.
cuticle
b.
rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes
c.
stomata
d.
peroxisomes
e.
phenolics
 

 29. 

Each of the following is a general characteristic of bryophytes except
a.
a cellulose cell wall.
b.
vascular tissue.
c.
chlorophylls a and b.
d.
being photosynthetic autotrophs.
e.
being eukaryotic.
 

 30. 

The following are all true about the life cycle of mosses except
a.
external water is required for fertilization.
b.
flagellated sperm are produced.
c.
antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.
d.
gametes are directly produced by meiosis.
e.
gametophytes germinate from spores.
 

 31. 

Beginning with the germination of a moss spore, what is the sequence of structures that develop after germination?

1. embryo
2. gametes
3. sporophyte
4. protonema
5. gametophore
a.
4, 1, 3, 5, 2
b.
4, 3, 5, 2, 1
c.
4, 5, 2, 1, 3
d.
3, 4, 5, 2, 1
e.
3, 1, 4, 5, 2
 

 32. 

Bryophytes may feature all of the following at some time during their existence except
a.
microphylls.
b.
rhizoids.
c.
archegonia.
d.
sporangia.
e.
conducting tissues.
 

 33. 

A fungal infection damages all calyptra, preventing them from performing their function. Which process will be directly hindered as a result?
a.
growth of the sporophyte
b.
ability of sperm to locate eggs
c.
growth of the protonema
d.
lengthening of rhizoids
e.
broadcast of spores
 

 34. 

Two, small, poorly drained lakes lie close to each other in a northern forest. The basins of both lakes are composed of the same geologic substratum. One lake is surrounded by a dense Sphagnum mat; the other is not. Compared with the pond without Sphagnum, the pond surrounded by the moss should have
a.
a lower pH.
b.
lower numbers of bacteria.
c.
reduced rates of decomposition.
d.
A and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 35. 

If you are looking for structures that transfer water and nutrients from a bryophyte gametophyte to a bryophyte sporophyte, then on which part of the sporophyte should you focus your efforts?
a.
spores
b.
seta
c.
foot
d.
calyptra
e.
peristome
 

 36. 

Bryophytes never formed forests (mats maybe, but not forests) because
a.
they possess flagellated sperms.
b.
not all are heterosporous.
c.
they lack lignified vascular tissue.
d.
they have no adaptations to prevent desiccation.
e.
the sporophyte is too weak.
 

 37. 

In which of the following does the sporophyte depend on the gametophyte for nutrition?
a.
fern
b.
moss
c.
horsetail (Equisetum)
d.
both A and C
e.
A, B, and C
 

 38. 

All things being equal, except the number of sporangia initially present, which of the following land plants should be most able to continue producing spores following an episode of herbivory that leaves the plant alive?
a.
club moss
b.
horsetail
c.
whisk fern
d.
moss sporophyte
e.
hornwort sporophyte
 

 39. 

Of the following list, flagellated (swimming) sperm are generally present in which groups?

1. Lycophyta
2. Bryophyta
3. Angiosperms
4. Chlorophyta
5. Pterophyta
a.
1, 2, 3
b.
1, 2, 4, 5
c.
1, 3, 4, 5
d.
2, 3, 5
e.
2, 3, 4, 5
 

 40. 

The following characteristics all helped seedless plants become better-adapted to land except
a.
a dominant gametophyte.
b.
vascular tissue.
c.
a waxy cuticle.
d.
stomata.
e.
a branched sporophyte.
 

 41. 

The sori of ferns are both homologous and analogous to which structures?
a.
spores of bryophytes
b.
capsules of moss sporophytes
c.
gametangia of hornwort gametophytes
d.
protonemata of moss gametophytes
e.
cones (strobili) of gymnosperm sporophytes
 

 42. 

A major change that occurred during the evolution of plants from their algal ancestors was the origin of a branched sporophyte. What advantage would branched sporophytes provide in this stage of the life cycle?
a.
increased gamete production
b.
increased spore production
c.
increased potential for independence of the diploid stage from the haploid stage
d.
increased fertilization rate
e.
increased size of the diploid stage
 

 43. 

Sporophylls can be found in which of the following?
a.
mosses
b.
liverworts
c.
hornworts
d.
pterophytes
e.
charophyceans
 

 44. 

Which of the following types of plants would not have been present in the forests that became coal deposits?
a.
horsetails
b.
lycophytes
c.
pine trees
d.
tree ferns
e.
whisk ferns
 
 
Use the description below to answer the following questions.

A biology student hiking in a northern forest happens upon an erect, 15-cm-tall plant that bears a pinecone-like structure at its tallest point. When disturbed, the cone emits a cloud of brownish dust. A pocket magnifying glass reveals the dust to be composed of tiny spheres with a high oil content.

 

 45. 

This student has probably found a(n)
a.
immature pine tree.
b.
moss sporophyte.
c.
fern sporophyte.
d.
horsetail gametophyte.
e.
club moss sporophyte.
 

 46. 

Closer observation reveals that these small spheres are produced on tiny extensions of the stem, each of which helps compose the pinecone-like structure. Research would reveal that the cone-like structures are called ____, whereas the small, spore-producing extensions of the stem are called ____.
a.
pine cones; scales
b.
sori; sporangia
c.
strobili; sporophylls
d.
sporophylls; sporangia
e.
sporangia; strobili
 

 47. 

A dissection of the interior of the stem should reveal
a.
lignified vascular tissues.
b.
cuticle.
c.
gametangia.
d.
that it is composed of only a single, long cell.
e.
a relatively high proportion of dead, water-filled cells.
 

 48. 

If one were building a large, log structure during the Carboniferous period, which plant type(s) would be suitable sources of logs?
a.
ferns and epiphytes
b.
horsetails and bryophytes
c.
lycophytes and bryophytes
d.
horsetails and lycophytes
e.
hornworts and gymnosperms
 

 49. 

Which of the following is true of seedless vascular plants?
a.
Extant seedless vascular plants are larger than the extinct varieties.
b.
Whole forests were once dominated by large, seedless vascular plants.
c.
They produce many spores, which are really the same as seeds.
d.
Seedless vascular plants are all homosporous.
e.
Sphagnum is an economically and ecologically important example.
 

 50. 

Working from deep geologic strata toward shallow geologic strata, what is the sequence in which fossils of these groups should make their first appearance?

1. charophyceans
2. single-celled green algae
3. hornworts
4. plants with a dominant sporophyte
a.
1, 3, 2, 4
b.
3, 1, 2, 4
c.
2, 1, 3, 4
d.
3, 2, 4, 1
e.
2, 4, 1, 3
 

 51. 

All of the following cellular structures are found in cells of angiosperm and gymnosperm gametophytes except
a.
haploid nuclei.
b.
mitochondria.
c.
cell walls.
d.
chloroplasts.
e.
peroxisomes.
 

 52. 

Plants with a dominant sporophyte are successful on land partly because
a.
having no stomata, they lose less water.
b.
they all disperse by means of seeds.
c.
diploid plants experience fewer mutations than do haploid plants.
d.
their gametophytes are protected by, and obtain nutrition from, the sporophytes.
e.
eggs and sperm need not be produced.
 

 53. 

Seeds commonly provide for each of the following except
a.
a choice of germination location.
b.
dispersal.
c.
dormancy.
d.
a nutrient supply for the embryo.
e.
desiccation resistance.
 

 54. 

In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing plants?
a.
a haploid gametophyte retained within tissues of the diploid sporophyte
b.
lignin present in cell walls
c.
pollen
d.
A and C only
e.
A, B, and C
 

 55. 

Which of the following most closely represents the male gametophyte of seed-bearing plants?
a.
ovule
b.
microspore mother cell
c.
pollen grain
d.
embryo sac
e.
fertilized egg
 

 56. 

Suppose that the cells of seed plants, like the skin cells of humans, produce a pigment upon increased exposure to UV radiation. Rank the cells below, from greatest to least, in terms of the likelihood of producing this pigment.

1. cells of sporangium
2. cells in the interior of a subterranean root
3. epidermal cells of sporophyte megaphylls
4. cells of a gametophyte
a.
3, 4, 1, 2
b.
3, 4, 2, 1
c.
3, 1, 4, 2
d.
3, 2, 1, 4
e.
3, 1, 2, 4
 
 
The following questions refer to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure below. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

nar003-1.jpg

 

 57. 

Which number represents the mature gametophyte?
a.
1
b.
3
c.
5
d.
7
e.
11
 

 58. 

Meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number(s)?
a.
2
b.
4
c.
2 and 8
d.
4 and 8
e.
10 and 12
 

 59. 

Which number represents a megaspore mother cell?
a.
1
b.
3
c.
5
d.
7
e.
11
 

 60. 

Which numbers represent haploid cells or tissues?
a.
1, 3, and 5
b.
7, 9, and 11
c.
1, 3, and 11
d.
1, 5, and 7
e.
5, 7, and 9
 

 61. 

The embryo sac of an angiosperm flower is best represented by which number?
a.
1
b.
3
c.
7
d.
9
e.
11
 

 62. 

In angiosperms, which number represents the event that initiates the formation of endosperm?
a.
4
b.
6
c.
8
d.
10
e.
12
 

 63. 

In seed plants, which structure or material is considered part of a pollen grain?
a.
sporophyll
b.
male gametophyte
c.
sporopollenin
d.
stigma
e.
both B and C
 

 64. 

In terms of alternation of generations, the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a
a.
moss sporophyte.
b.
moss gametophyte bearing both male and female gametangia.
c.
fern sporophyte.
d.
hermaphroditic fern gametophyte.
e.
fern gametophyte that will bear only antheridia.
 

 65. 

Which of these is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the typical spore?
a.
a different type of sporopollenin
b.
an internal reservoir of liquid water
c.
integument(s)
d.
ability to be dispersed
e.
waxy cuticle
 

 66. 

Generally, wind pollination is most likely to be found in seed plants that grow
a.
close to the ground.
b.
in dense, single-species stands.
c.
in relative isolation from other members of the same species.
d.
along coastlines where prevailing winds blow from the land out to sea.
e.
in well-drained soils.
 

 67. 

Which of the following statements does not describe a portion of the pine life cycle?
a.
Female gametophytes use meiosis to produce eggs.
b.
Seeds are produced in ovulate (ovule-bearing) cones.
c.
Meiosis occurs in sporangia.
d.
Pollen grains contain male gametophytes.
e.
A pollen tube enters an ovule through a micropyle in the single integument.
 

 68. 

Which of the following statement is not generally true of the pine life cycle?
a.
Cones are short stems with spore-bearing, leaflike structures.
b.
The pine tree is a sporophyte.
c.
Male and female gametophytes are in close proximity during fertilization.
d.
Pollen grains are very different from pine male gametophytes.
e.
Double fertilization is a relatively rare phenomenon.
 

 69. 

Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear during development, assuming that fertilization occurs?

1. sporophyte embryo
2. female gametophyte
3. egg cell
4. megaspore
a.
4, 3, 2, 1
b.
4, 2, 3, 1
c.
4, 1, 2, 3
d.
1, 4, 3, 2
e.
1, 4, 2, 3
 

 70. 

Arrange the following structures, which can be found on male pine trees, from the largest structure to the smallest structure (or from most inclusive to least inclusive).

1. sporophyte
2. microspores
3. microsporangia
4. pollen cone
5. pollen nuclei
a.
1, 4, 3, 2, 5
b.
1, 4, 2, 3, 5
c.
1, 2, 3, 5, 4
d.
4, 1, 2, 3, 5
e.
4, 3, 2, 5, 1
 

 71. 

Which of the following statements is false?
a.
A female pine cone is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
b.
A male pine cone is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
c.
A flower is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
d.
A strobilus is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
e.
A mature fruit is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
 

 72. 

Before pollination occurs, what does an individual flower potentially have that an individual pine cone does not have?
a.
sporophylls
b.
both male and female gametophytes
c.
sporangia
d.
structures for dispersing seed or pollen grains
e.
spore mother cells
 

 73. 

Which trait(s) is (are) shared by modern gymnosperms and angiosperms?

1. pollen transported by wind
2. tracheids
3. microscopic gametophytes
4. sterile sporophylls, modified to attract pollinators
5. endosperm
a.
1
b.
1 and 3
c.
1, 2, and 3
d.
1, 3, and 5
e.
2, 4, and 5
 

 74. 

A botanist discovers a new species of land plant with a dominant sporophyte, chlorophylls a and b, and a cell wall made of cellulose. In assigning this plant to a phylum, all of the following would provide useful information except whether or not the plant has
a.
endosperm.
b.
seeds.
c.
flagellated sperm.
d.
flowers.
e.
spores.
 

 75. 

What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, and pine cone scales?
a.
They are female reproductive parts.
b.
None are capable of photosynthesis.
c.
They are modified leaves.
d.
They are found on flowers.
e.
They are found on angiosperms.
 

 76. 

Reptilian embryos are protected from desiccation by a leathery shell. Similarly, sporophytes of both gymnosperms and angiosperms protect embryos within ____, and they also protect male gametophytes against desiccation using ____.
a.
ovules; waxy cuticle
b.
ovaries; filaments
c.
fruits; stamens
d.
pollen grains; waxy cuticle
e.
integuments; sporopollenin
 
 
For the following questions, match the various structures of seed plants with the proper sex and generation (A-D) that most directly produces them.

A. male gametophyte
B. female gametophyte
C. male sporophyte
D. female sporophyte
 

 77. 

scale of ovulate (ovule-bearing) pine cone
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
 

 78. 

integument of pine nut
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
 

 79. 

egg cell in the embryo sac
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
 

 80. 

fruit
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
 

 81. 

Which of these would have been the most likely dietary staple for a 20-foot-tall, bipedal, herbivorous dinosaur of about 100 million years ago?
a.
moss gametophytes (Bryophyta)
b.
corn plants (Zea maize)
c.
cycads (Cycadophyta)
d.
giant club mosses (Lycophyta)
e.
watermelons (Anthophyta)
 

 82. 

All of the following are sporophyte structures except
a.
immature ovules.
b.
pollen tubes.
c.
ovaries.
d.
stamens.
e.
sepals.
 

 83. 

Which of the following statements is not true of monocots?
a.
They are currently thought to be polyphyletic.
b.
The veins of their leaves are parallel to each other.
c.
They, along with the eudicots and basal angiosperms, are currently placed in the phylum Anthophyta.
d.
They possess a single cotyledon.
e.
All of the statements are true.
 

 84. 

Carpels and stamens are
a.
sporophyte plants in their own right.
b.
gametophyte plants in their own right.
c.
gametes.
d.
spores.
e.
modified sporophylls.
 

 85. 

All of the following statements are true of angiosperm carpels except that they
a.
are features of the sporophyte generation.
b.
consist of stigma, style, and ovary.
c.
are structures that directly produce female gametes.
d.
surround and nourish the female gametophyte.
e.
consist of highly modified sporophylls.
 

 86. 

A hypothetical angiosperm opens its flowers only at night. The flowers are brown and emit a putrid odor. The pollinator is most likely to be which organism?
a.
nectar-eating hummingbird
b.
nectar-eating bee
c.
pollen-eating moth
d.
fruit-eating bat
e.
detritivorous (scavenging) animal
 

 87. 

How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms?
a.
by nourishing the plants that make them
b.
by facilitating dispersal of seeds
c.
by attracting insects to the pollen inside
d.
by producing sperm and eggs inside a protective coat
e.
by producing triploid cells via double fertilization
 

 88. 

Arrange the following structures from largest to smallest, assuming that they belong to two generations of the same angiosperm.

1. ovary
2. ovule
3. egg
4. carpel
5. embryo sac
a.
4, 2, 1, 5, 3
b.
4, 5, 2, 1, 3
c.
5, 4, 3, 1, 2
d.
5, 1, 4, 2, 3
e.
4, 1, 2, 5, 3
 

 89. 

Which structure(s) must pass through the micropyle for successful fertilization to occur in angiosperms?
a.
one sperm nucleus
b.
two sperm nuclei
c.
the pollen tube
d.
both A and C
e.
both B and C
 
 
In onions (Allium), cells of the sporophyte have 16 chromosomes within each nucleus. Match the number of chromosomes present in each of the onion tissues listed below.

A. 4
B. 8
C. 16
D. 24
E. 32
 

 90. 

How many chromosomes should be in an endosperm nucleus?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 91. 

How many chromosomes should be in a generative cell nucleus?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 92. 

How many chromosomes should be in an embryo sac nucleus?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 93. 

How many chromosomes should be in an embryo nucleus?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 94. 

Double fertilization means that angiosperms
a.
are the only plants that can produce dizygotic twins.
b.
have embryos that are triploid.
c.
have two sperm nuclei, both of which unite with nuclei of the female gametophyte.
d.
have two sperm nuclei, which simultaneously fertilize the single egg.
e.
produce twice as many embryos per fertilization event as do gymnosperms.
 

 95. 

Hypothetically, one of the major benefits of double fertilization in angiosperms is to
a.
decrease the potential for mutation by insulating the embryo with other cells.
b.
increase the number of fertilization events and offspring produced.
c.
promote diversity in flower shape and color.
d.
coordinate developmental timing between the embryo and its food stores.
e.
emphasize embryonic survival by increasing embryo size.
 

 96. 

Which of the following flower parts develops into a fruit?
a.
stigma
b.
style
c.
ovule
d.
ovary
e.
receptacle
 

 97. 

All of the following are found in angiosperms except
a.
tracheids.
b.
triploid endosperm tissues.
c.
fruits.
d.
flagellated sperm.
e.
carpels.
 

 98. 

Angiosperms are the most successful terrestrial plants. This success is due to all of the following except
a.
animal pollination.
b.
reduced gametophytes.
c.
fruits enclosing seeds.
d.
highly efficient xylem.
e.
sperm cells with flagella.
 

 99. 

A plant whose reproductive parts produce nectar should be expected to
a.
have brightly colored reproductive parts.
b.
produce sweet-tasting fruit.
c.
rely on wind pollination.
d.
have no parts that can perform photosynthesis.
e.
suffer significant seed loss to sugar-seeking insects.
 

 100. 

If the "mostly male" hypothesis for the origin of flowers is correct, then the development of which gymnosperm structure below should be controlled by genes most similar to those that control the development of bisexual flowers?
a.
microsporangium
b.
megasporangium
c.
ovule
d.
scale of ovulate (ovule-bearing) pine cone
e.
embryo
 

 101. 

Many mammals have skins and mucous membranes that are sensitive to phenolic secretions of plants like poison oak (Rhus). These secondary compounds are probably an adaptation that
a.
promotes grazing.
b.
favors pollination.
c.
fosters seed dispersal.
d.
decreases competition.
e.
inhibits herbivory.
 

 102. 

Which feature of honeybees probably arose under the mutual evolutionary influence of flowering plants that are not wind pollinated?
a.
possessing three pairs of legs
b.
possessing a metabolism whose rate is influenced by environmental temperature
c.
possessing an exoskeleton made of chitin
d.
possessing an abdomen that is densely covered with short bristles
e.
possessing an ovipositor modified as a non-reusable stinger
 

 103. 

The fruit of the mistletoe, a parasitic angiosperm, is a one-seeded berry. In members of the genus Viscum, the outside of the seed is viscous (sticky), which permits the seed to adhere to surfaces, such as the branches of host plants or the beaks of birds. What should be expected of the pericarp if the viscosity of Viscum seeds is primarily an adaptation for dispersal rather than an adaptation for infecting host plant tissues?
a.
It should be drab in color.
b.
It should be colored so as to provide it with camouflage.
c.
It should be nutritious.
d.
It should secrete enzymes that can digest bark.
e.
It should contain chemicals that cause birds to fly to the ground and vomit.
 
 
For the following questions, match the adaptations of the various fruits below with the most likely means used by the fruit to disperse the seeds contained within the fruit (A-E).

A. animal skin, fur, or feathers
B. animal digestive tract
C. water currents
D. gravity and terrain
E. air currents
 

 104. 

The fruit is covered with spines or hooks.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 105. 

Over human history, which process has been most important in improving the features of plants that have long been used by humans as staple foods?
a.
genetic engineering
b.
artificial selection
c.
natural selection
d.
sexual selection
e.
pesticide and herbicide application
 

 106. 

Which of the following is not a valid argument for preserving tropical forests?
a.
People in the tropics do not need to increase agricultural output.
b.
Many organisms are becoming extinct.
c.
Plants that are possible sources of medicines are being lost.
d.
Plants that could be developed into new crops are being lost.
e.
Clearing land for agriculture results in soil destruction.
 

 107. 

Assume that a botanist was visiting a tropical region for the purpose of discovering plants with medicinal properties. All of the following might be ways of identifying potentially useful plants except
a.
observing which plants sick animals seek out.
b.
observing which plants are the most used food plants.
c.
observing which plants animals do not eat.
d.
collecting plants and subjecting them to chemical analysis.
e.
asking local people which plants they use as medicine.
 

 108. 

Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?
a.
taproots
b.
root hairs
c.
the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem
d.
storage roots
e.
sections of the root that have secondary xylem
 

 109. 

An evolutionary adaptation that increases exposure of a plant to light in a dense forest is
a.
closing of the stomata.
b.
lateral buds.
c.
apical dominance.
d.
absence of petioles.
e.
intercalary meristems.
 

 110. 

Land plants are composed of all the following tissue types except
a.
mesodermal.
b.
epidermal.
c.
meristematic.
d.
vascular.
e.
ground tissue.
 

 111. 

Vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except
a.
vessel elements.
b.
sieve cells.
c.
tracheids.
d.
companion cells.
e.
cambium cells.
 

 112. 

Which functional plant cells lack a nucleus?
a.
xylem only
b.
sieve cells only
c.
companion cells only
d.
both companion and parenchyma cells
e.
both xylem and sieve-tube cells
 
 
Use the answers below to answer the following questions. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A. parenchyma
B. collenchyma
C. sclerenchyma
D. tracheids
E. sieve cells
 

 113. 

long, thin tapered cells with lignified cell walls that function in support and permit water to flow through pits
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 114. 

living cells that lack nuclei and ribosomes; they transport sugars and other organic nutrients
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 115. 

the least specialized plant cells, which serve general metabolic, synthetic, and storage functions
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 116. 

cells with unevenly thickened primary walls that support still-elongating parts of the plant
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 117. 

mature cells without protoplasts with thick, lignified secondary walls that may or may not function in transport
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 118. 

Which of the following tissues is incorrectly matched with its characteristics?
a.
collenchyma-uniformly thick-walled supportive tissue
b.
epidermis-protective outer covering of plant body
c.
sclerenchyma-heavily lignified secondary walls
d.
meristematic tissue-undifferentiated tissue capable of cell division
e.
parenchyma-thin-walled, loosely packed, unspecialized cells
 

 119. 

The fiber cells of plants are a type of
a.
parenchyma.
b.
sclerenchyma.
c.
collenchyma.
d.
meristematic cell.
e.
phloem
 

 120. 

The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the
a.
cortex.
b.
stele.
c.
endodermis.
d.
periderm.
e.
pith.
 

 121. 

One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that
a.
only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem.
b.
the cells of roots have cell walls and leaf cells do not.
c.
a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent in roots.
d.
vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves.
e.
leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not.
 

 122. 

The photosynthetic cells in the interior of a leaf are what kind of cells?
a.
parenchyma
b.
collenchyma
c.
sclerenchyma
d.
phloem
e.
endodermis
 

 123. 

A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many loosely packed cells with relatively thin cell walls. The cells have numerous chloroplasts. What type of cells are these?
a.
parenchyma
b.
xylem
c.
endodermis
d.
collenchyma
e.
sclerenchyma
 

 124. 

Which of the following is true about secondary growth in plants?
a.
Flowers may have secondary growth.
b.
Secondary growth is a common feature of eudicot leaves.
c.
Secondary growth is produced by both the vascular cambium and the cork cambium.
d.
Primary growth and secondary growth alternate in the life cycle of a plant.
e.
Plants with secondary growth are typically the smallest ones in an ecosystem.
 

 125. 

A friend has discovered a new plant and brings it to you to classify. The plant has the following characteristics: a taproot system with growth rings evident in cross section and a layer of bark around the outside. Which of the following best describes the new plant?
a.
herbaceous eudicot
b.
woody eudicot
c.
woody monocot
d.
herbaceous monocot
e.
woody annual
 

 126. 

The driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is due primarily to
a.
continuous cell division in the root cap at the tip of the root.
b.
continuous cell division just behind the root cap in the center of the apical meristem.
c.
elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem.
d.
A and B only.
e.
A, B, and C.
 

 127. 

Shoot elongation in a growing bud is due primarily to
a.
cell division at the shoot apical meristem.
b.
cell elongation directly behind the shoot apical meristem.
c.
cell division localized in each internode.
d.
cell elongation localized in each internode.
e.
A and B only.
 
 
The following question is based on parts of a growing primary root.

I. root cap
II. zone of elongation
III. zone of cell division
IV. zone of cell maturation
V. apical meristem
 

 128. 

Which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upward?
a.
I, II, V, III, IV
b.
III, V, I, II, IV
c.
II, IV, I, V, III
d.
IV, II, III, I, V
e.
I, V, III, II, IV
 

 129. 

Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its structure and function?
a.
sclerenchyma-supporting cells with thick secondary walls
b.
periderm-protective coat of woody stems and roots
c.
pericycle-waterproof ring of cells surrounding the central stele in roots
d.
mesophyll-parenchyma cells functioning in photosynthesis in leaves
e.
ground meristem-primary meristem that produces the ground tissue system
 

 130. 

Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots?
a.
endodermis
b.
phloem
c.
cortex
d.
epidermis
e.
pericycle
 
 
The following questions are based on the drawing of root or stem cross sections shown in the figure below.

nar009-1.jpg

 

 131. 

A woody eudicot is represented by
a.
I only.
b.
II only.
c.
III only.
d.
IV only.
e.
both I and III.
 

 132. 

A monocot stem is represented by
a.
I only.
b.
II only.
c.
III only.
d.
IV only.
e.
both I and III.
 

 133. 

A plant that is at least three years old is represented by
a.
I only.
b.
II only.
c.
III only.
d.
IV only.
e.
both I and III.
 

 134. 

A leaf primordium is initiated as a small mound of tissue on the flank of a dome-shaped shoot apical meristem. The earliest physical evidence of the site of a newly forming leaf primordium would be
a.
development of chloroplasts in a surface cell of the shoot apical meristem.
b.
cell division in the shoot apical meristem with the newly forming walls perpendicular to the surface of the meristem.
c.
pre-prophase bands parallel to the surface of the meristem in subsurface cells of the shoot apical meristem.
d.
elongation of epidermal cells perpendicular to the surface of the shoot apical meristem.
e.
formation of stomata in the epidermal layer of the shoot apical meristem.
 

 135. 

Pores on the leaf surface that function in gas exchange are called
a.
hairs.
b.
xylem cells.
c.
phloem cells.
d.
stomata.
e.
sclereids.
 

 136. 

Which of the following is a true statement about growth in plants?
a.
Only primary growth is localized at meristems.
b.
Some plants lack secondary growth.
c.
Only stems have secondary growth.
d.
Only secondary growth produces reproductive structures.
e.
Monocots have only primary growth, and eudicots have only secondary growth.
 

 137. 

All of the following cell types are correctly matched with their functions except
a.
mesophyll-photosynthesis
b.
guard cell-regulation of transpiration
c.
sieve-tube member-translocation
d.
vessel element-water transport
e.
companion cell-formation of secondary xylem and phloem
 

 138. 

A short branch was cut into three segments as shown in the figure below to root some cuttings. Roots will form at which position(s)?

mc138-1.jpg

a.
A only
b.
A and B
c.
A, B, and C
d.
A, C, and E
e.
A, B, C, D, and E
 

 139. 

What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree?
a.
primary xylem
b.
secondary xylem
c.
secondary phloem
d.
mesophyll cells
e.
vascular cambium
 

 140. 

The vascular system of a three-year-old eudicot stem consists of
a.
3 rings of xylem and 3 of phloem.
b.
2 rings of xylem and 2 of phloem.
c.
2 rings of xylem and 1 of phloem.
d.
2 rings of xylem and 3 of phloem.
e.
3 rings of xylem and 1 of phloem.
 

 141. 

If you were able to walk into an opening cut into the center of a large redwood tree, when you exit from the middle of the trunk (stem) outward, you would cross, in order,
a.
the annual rings, phloem, and bark.
b.
the newest xylem, oldest phloem, and periderm.
c.
the vascular cambium, oldest xylem, and newest xylem.
d.
the secondary xylem, secondary phloem, and vascular cambium.
e.
the summer wood, bark, and phloem.
 

 142. 

Which of the following is true of bark?
a.
It is composed of phloem plus periderm.
b.
It is associated with annuals but not perennials.
c.
It is formed by the apical meristems.
d.
It has no identifiable function in trees.
e.
It forms annual rings in deciduous trees.
 

 143. 

Suppose George Washington completely removed the bark from around the base of a cherry tree but was stopped by his father before cutting the tree down. The leaves retained their normal appearance for several weeks, but the tree eventually died. The tissue(s) that George left functional was (were) the
a.
phloem.
b.
xylem.
c.
cork cambium.
d.
cortex.
e.
companion and sieve-tube members.
 

 144. 

Additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a root originates from which cells?
a.
vascular cambium
b.
apical meristem
c.
endodermis
d.
phloem
e.
xylem
 

 145. 

While studying the plant Arabidopsis, a botanist finds that an RNA probe produces colored spots in the sepals of the plant. From this information, what information can be inferred?
a.
The differently colored plants will attract different pollinating insects.
b.
The RNA probe is transported only to certain tissues.
c.
The colored regions were caused by mutations that occurred in the sepals.
d.
The RNA probe is specific to a gene active in sepals.
e.
More research needs to be done on the sepals of Arabidopsis.
 

 146. 

Before differentiation can begin during the processes of plant cell and tissue culture, parenchyma cells from the source tissue must
a.
differentiate into procambium.
b.
undergo dedifferentiation.
c.
increase the number of chromosomes in their nuclei.
d.
enzymatically digest their primary cell walls.
e.
establish a new polarity in their cytoplasm.
 

 147. 

The polarity of a plant is established when
a.
the zygote divides.
b.
cotyledons form at the shoot end of the embryo.
c.
the shoot-root axis is established in the embryo.
d.
the primary root breaks through the seed coat.
e.
the shoot first breaks through the soil into the light as the seed germinates.
 

 148. 

Each of the patterns indicated in the figure below occurred as a sector during clonal analysis of several corn plants. Based on this data, a growth module in corn must consist of

mc148-1.jpg

      Sectors of corn plants

a.
a leaf only.
b.
a leaf and its associated node.
c.
a leaf, its associated node, and the internode below.
d.
a leaf, its associated node, the internode below, and the bud below the leaf.
e.
a leaf and its associated node and axillary bud, and the internode below the leaf.
 

 149. 

"Totipotency" is a term used to describe the ability of a cell to give rise to a complete new organism. In plants, this means that
a.
plant development is not under genetic control.
b.
the cells of shoots and the cells of roots have different genes.
c.
cell differentiation depends largely on the control of gene expression.
d.
a cell's environment has no effect on its differentiation.
e.
sexual reproduction is not necessary in plants.
 

 150. 

According to the ABC model of floral development, a showy ornamental flower with multiple sepals and petals but no stamens or carpels would express
a.
A genes only.
b.
B genes only.
c.
C genes only.
d.
A and B genes only.
e.
A and C genes only.
 


 
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