ap study guide unit 3 cell energetics

Unit 3     Cellular Energetics

What form of energy is the most random?
What changes occur in H, S, and G when a protein forms from amino acids?
How does an enzyme catalyze a reaction?
Explain the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
Is a chemical reaction with a positive G endergonic or exergonic?
List the properties of enzymes.
Why is ATP an important metabolic molecule?
Describe the change in free energy at equilibrium.
Increasing substrate concentration has what effect on competitive inhibition?
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
When energy is transformed, what is the effect on entropy in the system?
If temperature is kept uniform in a system, free energy will be what?
If products have less free energy than reactants, is the reaction endergonic or exergonic?
What is catabolism?
How is energy obtained from ATP to energize cellular processes?
If the concentration of reactants is decreased, what effect will this have on the rate of the reaction/
What type of pathways are coupled with anabolic pathways to supply ATP to cells?
Explain enzyme cooperativity & allosteric sites.
Explain the induced fit explanation for enzymes & substrates.
What is free energy?
Describe CO2 fixation & the Calvin cycle in CAM plants.
Photorespiration decrease the efficiency of photosynthesis because it removes what from the Calvin cycle?
What is synthesize across thylakoid membranes?
Why can C4 plants better at photosynthesis without photorespiration?
What pigments can absorb light energy?
Proton gradient are responsible for producing what energy molecules?
Give 2 examples of products of the Calvin cycle that are used in the light reactions?
What 2 main energy molecules are products of the light reactions?
Is glucose required for the Calvin cycle? Explain.
In what reactions is glyceraldehyde phosphate produced?
If a pigment appears red to your eyes, what color of light is not being absorbed?
During what process is CO2 incorporated into PGA?
The chemiosomotic process in chloroplasts occurs when what type of gradient is established?
Name the most abundant protein (enzyme) in the world.
In what tissue does carbon fixation occur in C4 plants before being transferred to bundle-sheath cells?
Photosystem II uses which chlorophyll a molecule?
What gas is required and which gas is not required for photosynthesis to occur?
What is the primary energy source for plants? for animals?
What enzyme catalyzes phosphorylation?
Where in the chloroplast does the Calvin cycle occur?
What type of plants fix CO2 into organic acids during the day?
When does the Calvin cycle in most plants occur?
Which color of light is least effective in driving photosynthesis?
Cyclic electron flow in chloroplasts produces what energy molecule?
Where does the ETS in plants occur?
In terms of energy how are photosynthesis & cellular respiration related?
In what 2 membranes in plant cells is ATP synthetase found?
Is oxygen released in the light or dark reactions of photosynthesis?
Does photophosphorylation occur in Photosystem II?
In which photosystem is water split?
Which process does not give a net gain in ATP —glycolysis, aerobic respiration, or fermentation?
Which would release more energy from glucose — combustion or cellular respiration?
Is ATP a product of lactate fermentation?
If a metabolic poison interferes with glycolysis, what must its structure be most like?
Are water and CO2 end products of glycolysis?
Which has more energy —NAD or NADH?
Oxidative phosphorylation occurs across ___________in a cell.
which has more energy — glucose at the start of glycolysis or the 2 pyruvate molecules at the end of glycolysis?
Molecular oxygen supplies the oxygen atoms during oxidative phosphorylation to form what?
What is chemiosmosis?
Lactate is a byproduct of fermentation in what type of animal cells?
What type of enzyme in cellular respiration helps remove electrons from organic molecules?
The ETS helps a cell generate what energy molecule?
Will glycolysis occur if oxygen is present? Is oxygen needed for the process?
The difference in H+ concentration of either side of the mitochondrial membrane drives the synthesis of what molecule?
Where in a cell will the enzymes needed for glycolysis be found?
Citric acid has 6 carbons. In the Krebs cycle 2 CO2 molecules are given off before succinic acid is formed. How many carbons will succinic acid have?
During substrate-phosphorylation, how many ATP molecules are made each cycle?
Isocritic acid has 6 carbons while ketoglutaric acid in the Krebs cycle only has 5 carbons. What happened to the "missing" carbon?
What gas accepts electrons at the end of the ETS?
Substrate-level phosphorylation during fermentation generates what molecule?
Acetyl CoA is made in muscle cells only under what conditions?
The end products of glycolysis are ATP, NADH, and what carbon molecule?
What 2 electron acceptor molecules in the Krebs cycle convert their energy to ATP in the ETS?
In chemiosmotic phosphorylation what is the direct energy source that drives the conversion of ADP + free P into ATP?
The glycolysis of glucose by a yeast cell nets how many ATP’s?
What intermediary metabolite of pyruvate enters the Krebs cycle?
How is a proton gradient established in the mitochondria?
How many O2 molecules are produced from the complete oxidation of glucose?
What type of animal tissue has a high ATP requirement?