ap lectureguide25


AP Biology: CHAPTER 25: PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS

1. What is phylogeny?

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2. How are fossils significant to our study of biology?

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3. Review these key points in the study of fossils:

a. Sedimentary rocks are the richest source of fossils.

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b. Paleontologists use a variety of methods to date fossils.

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c. The fossil record is a substantial, but incomplete, chronicle of evolutionary history.

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d. Phylogeny has a biogeographic basis in continental drift.

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e. The history of life is punctuated by mass extinctions.

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4. List examples of fossils. ______________________________________________________

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5. What techniques do relative dating use to place fossils in their place in geologic time?

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6. What marks the separation between the major eras in the geologic time scale?

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7. How does absolute dating compare to relative dating?

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8. Describe the two main characteristics of the Linnaean system of classification.

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9. What modern techniques are used as the basis for grouping creatures with modern

phylogenetic systematics?

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10. What does a phylogenic tree show?

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11. When classifying organisms in a cladistic diagram, identify three pitfalls scientists might

encounter classifying creatures.

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12. What do scientists use when placing an organism on a cladistic diagram?

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13. How have molecular clocks influenced our thoughts on evolutionary paths?

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14. Why is the four chamber heart a poor choice of structure to place creatures on a phylogenic

tree?

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15. Why are crocodiles now thought to be closer to birds than other reptiles?

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