ap lectureguide19

AP Biology: CHAPTER 19

CONTROL OF EUKARYOTIC GENOME

1. Outline the levels of DNA packing within the eukaryote nucleus.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. What is the difference between heterochromatin and euchromatin? Which is transcribed?

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3. Which regions of the chromosome will typically be in the form of hererochromatin?

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4. How do the coding regions and genome sizes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes compare?

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5. Much of mammalian non-coding DNA is in the form of ______________________________

6. What is the cause of Fragile X?

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7. What is the cause of Huntington’s disease?

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8. Discuss an example of interspersed repetitive DNA?

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9. What is a multigene family?

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10. Multigene families are hypothesized to have evolved from…

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11. How is the globulin multigene family an adaptive to mammals?

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12. Explain how gene amplification can regulate gene expression.

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13. How can transposons alter gene expression?

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14. How do immunoglobulin genes code for a seemingly infinite variety of antibodies?

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15. Review the opportunities for gene regulation in eukaryotes in the diagram.

16. Where is the most important step in gene regulation?

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17. Describe the effect of each of the following control mechanisms.

a. DNA methylation ________________________________________________________

b. Histone acetylation _______________________________________________________

c. Transcription factors ______________________________________________________

d. Control elements ________________________________________________________

e. Enhancers _____________________________________________________________

f. Activators ______________________________________________________________

g. DNA-binding domain _____________________________________________________

18. How does alternative RNA splicing affect gene expression?

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19. How does RNA degradation affect gene expression?

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20. How does protein processing and degradation affect gene expression?

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21. Identify the opportunities to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes.

22. Typically, what happens to cell function when cells become cancerous?

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23. What is a proto-oncogene? What happens to them when cancer occurs?

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24. List the three events that can turn proto-oncogenes into oncogenes.

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25. Identify and describe mutations in specific proteins that can lead to cancer.

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26. What is p53?

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27. Why is it said that cancer formation is a multi-step process?

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