ap lectureguide17

AP Biology: CHAPTER 17

FROM GENE TO PROTEIN

1. How did diseases involving metabolic pathways lead to hypotheses about the nature of

genes?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

2. Identify some genetic diseases that occur along metabolic pathways.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

3. What was Beadle and Tatum’s hypothesis regarding enzymes?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

4. How has that hypothesis been modified?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

5. What occurs during transcription?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

6. What occurs during translation?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

7. How does the protein process differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

8. Briefly explain how Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei “cracked the genetic code?”

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

9. What is the genetic code and why is said to be universal?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

10. List several features about the genetic code.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

11. Give an example of what happens if reading frames are altered?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

12. List the highlights of the three stages of transcription.

a. Initiation _______________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

b. Elongation ______________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

c. Termination _____________________________________________________________

13. What happens to the transcript RNA before it leaves the nucleus?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

14. What is the advantage of the 5’ cap and poly A tail?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

15. Distinguish between exons and introns.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

16. Describe the mechanism for splicing RNA.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

17. What does alternative RNA processing do for cells?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

18. Identify the roles of the players of the translation process.

a. Transfer RNA ___________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

b. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase _______________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

c. Ribosomes _____________________________________________________________

19. Identify and briefly describe the steps of translation. Initiation Elongation Termination

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

20. What is the advantage of polyribosomes?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

21. Give an example of how a polypeptide gets into the ER for additional processing.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

22. How does protein synthesis differ between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

23. Define point mutations. ______________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

24. Define mutations that are:

a. Missense ______________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

b. Nonsense ______________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

c. Insertion or deletion ______________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

25. Use the diagram to trace the flow of chemical information from the gene to the protein product.