AP Biology Animations

 

BIOCHEMISTRY

CELLULAR STRUCTURE
CELLULAR TRANSPORT

METABOLISM NUCLEIC ACIDS
DNA TECHNOLOGY
CELL DIVISION

GENETICS

EVOLUTION  MICROORGANISMS FUNGI ANIMALS PLANTS ECOLOGY
DIGESTION RESPIRATION CIRCULATION IMMUNE SYSTEM ENDOCRINE NERVOUS & MUSCULAR

 

BIOCHEMISTRY

Web Link The Chemical Basis of Life

Elements, Atoms, And Molecules

Web Link Chemical Bonds

Elements, Atoms, And Molecules

Web Link Periodic Table.swf

Elements, Atoms, And Molecules

Web Link Elements Song

2.1 Living organisms are composed of about 25 chemical elements

Web Link The Structure of Atoms

2.4 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons

Web Link Atomic Symbols, Atomic Numbers, and Mass Numbers

2.4 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons

Web Link Electron Arrangement

2.4 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons

Web Link Electron Configurations

2.6 Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom

Web Link Atomic Structure and Ionic Bonding

2.6 Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom
2.7
Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge

Web Link Ionic Bonds 1

2.7 Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge

Web Link Ionic Bonds 2

2.7 Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge

Web Link Covalent Bonds 1

2.8 Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing

Web Link Covalent Bonds 2

2.8 Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing

Web Link Hydrogen Bonding Attractive Force

2.10 Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds important in the chemistry of life

Web Link A Closer Look at Water

2.10 Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds important in the chemistry of life

Web Link Structure of Water

2.10 Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds important in the chemistry of life

Web Link Water and Life

Water’s Life-Supporting Properties

Web Link A Quick Look at How Ionic Compounds Dissolve

2.14 Water is the solvent of life

Web Link Molecular View of Solution Formation

2.14 Water is the solvent of life

Web Link Salt Dissolving in Water

2.14 Water is the solvent of life

Web Link Proton Exchange Between Water Molecules

2.15 The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and basic conditions

Web Link Water & pH

2.15 The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and basic conditions

Web Link Organic Molecules

Introduction To Organic Compounds

Web Link Carbon Skeletons

3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon

Web Link Isomers

3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon

Web Link Functional Groups 1

3.2 Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds

 Web LinkFunctional Groups 2

3.2 Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds

Web Link Macromolecules 1

Introduction To Organic Compounds

Web Link Macromolecules 2

Introduction To Organic Compounds

Web Link Biomolecules The Carbohydrates

Introduction To Organic Compounds

Web Link Polymers

3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules

Web Link Glucose Cyclization

3.4 Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates

Web Link Disaccharides

3.5 Cells link two single sugars to form disaccharides

Web Link Polysaccharides

3.7 Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units

Web Link Biomolecules - The Lipids

3.8 Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage molecules

Web Link Fats

3.8 Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage molecules

Web Link Amino Acid & Protein Structure

Proteins

Web Link Peptide Bond Formation

3.12 Proteins are made from amino acids linked by peptide bonds

Web Link Protein Denaturation

3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its function

Web Link Protein Denaturation

3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its function

Web Link Heat Changes Protein Structure: Frying an Egg

3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its function

Web Link Life Cycle of a Protein

3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its function

Web Link Protein Structure Intro

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Web Link Protein Primary Structure

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Web Link Protein Secondary Structure

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Web Link Protein Tertiary Structure

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Web Link Protein Quarternary Structure

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Web Link Structure of Proteins

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Web Link Protein Folding Interactive

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure/

         
 
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CELLULAR TRANSPORT & WORK

Web Link Energy Concepts
5.1 Energy is the capacity to perform work
Web Link Enzymes and Metabolism
Energy And The Cell; How Enzymes Function
Web Link How Enzymes Work 1
Energy And The Cell; How Enzymes Function
Web Link Enzyme Catalysis 1
How Enzymes Function
Web Link Enzyme-Substrate Interaction
How Enzymes Function
Web Link The Purification of Hemoglobin
How Enzymes Function

Web Link How Enzymes Work 2
5.6 A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction

Web Link Enzyme Action and the Hydrolysis of Sucrose
5.6 A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction

Web Link Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes
5.7 The cellular environment affects enzyme activity
Web Link A Biochemical Pathway

5.7 The cellular environment affects enzyme activity

Web Link Enzyme Catalysis 2

5.8 Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action

Web Link Feedback Inhibition of Biochemical Pathways

5.8 Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action

Web Link Membranes and Transport
Membrane Structure And Function
Web Link Cell Membrane
Membrane Structure And Function
Web Link Cellular Transport
Membrane Structure And Function
Web Link Biological Membranes
Membrane Structure And Function
Web Link Membrane Transport

Membrane Structure And Function

Web Link Membrane Selectivity

5.10 Membranes organize the chemical activities of cells

Web Link Cell Membrane Composition

5.11 Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer
5.12
The membrane is a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins

Web Link Diffusion

5.14 Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane

Web Link How Diffusion Works

5.14 Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane

 

Web Link Passive Transport

5.14 Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane

Web Link How Facilitated Diffusion Works

5.15 Transport proteins may facilitate diffusion across membranes

Web Link How Osmosis Works

5.16 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane

Web Link Osmosis 1

5.16 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane

Web Link Osmosis 2

5.16 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane

Web Link Plasmolysis

5.17 Water balance between cells and their surroundings is crucial to organisms

Web Link Active Transport 1

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Active Transport 2

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Active Transport: The Sodium-Potassium Pump

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Active Transport by Group Translocation

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Active Transport by Group Translocation

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Antiport

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link ATPase

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link ATP-ADP Exchange

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Cotransport (Symport & Antiport)

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Glucose Transporter

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link How the Sodium Potassium Pump Works

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Lactose Permease

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Proton Pump 1

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Proton Pump 2

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Receptors Linked to a Channel Protein

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Receptors Linked to a Channel Protein

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Secondary Active Transport

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Symport

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Uniport

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Voltage-Gated Channels & the Action Potential

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Web Link Endocytosis & Exocytosis

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Web Link Exocytosis

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Web Link Food Vacuoles Handle Digestion & Excretion

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Web Link Intro to Exocytosis and Endocytosis

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Web Link Phagocytosis 1

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Web Link Phagocytosis 2

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Web Link Pinocytosis

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Web Link Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Web Link Biology & Biologists

The Scope Of Biology

Web Link The Biological Hierarchy

1.1 Life’s levels of organization define the scope of biology

Web Link Shared Characteristic of Life

1.4 The unity of life: All forms of life have common features

Web Link Negative Feedback System

1.4 The unity of life: All forms of life have common features

Web Link Positive Feedback System

1.4 The unity of life: All forms of life have common features

Web Link Classification Schemes of Living Things

1.5 The diversity of life can be arranged into three domains

Web Link The Scientific Method 1

1.8 With hypothesis-based science, we pose and test hypotheses

Web Link The Scientific Method 2

1.8 With hypothesis-based science, we pose and test hypotheses

Web Link Model Organisms

1.9 Biology is connected to our lives in many ways

 
 
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CELLULAR STRUCTURE

Web Link Cells: The Basics

Introduction To The Cell

Web Link Cellular Organization

Introduction To The Cell

Web Link More About Cells

Chapter 4: A Tour of Cells

Web Link Cell Size & Scale

4.2 Most cells are microscopic Cell Size

Web Link Cell Structure and Function

4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments

Web Link Plant Cells

4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments

Web Link Protein Secretion

4.6 Overview: Many cell organelles are connected through the endomembrane system

Web Link Endomembrane System

4.6 Overview: Many cell organelles are connected through the endomembrane system

 Web LinkVesicular Budding and Fusing

4.6 Overview: Many cell organelles are connected through the endomembrane system

Web Link The Endoplasmic Reticulum & Golgi Apparatus

4.6 Overview: Many cell organelles are connected through the endomembrane system

Web Link Vesicular Maturation Model Animation

4.9 The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products

Web Link Golgi Apparatus

4.9 The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products

Web Link Cisternae Maturation Model Animation

4.9 The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products

Web Link Lysosomes

4.10 Lysosomes are digestive compartments within a cell

Web Link Lysosome Formation

4.10 Lysosomes are digestive compartments within a cell

Web Link Cytoplasmic Streaming

The Cytoskeleton And Related Structures

Web Link Cilia and Flagella

4.17 Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend

Web Link Flagella & Cilia Movement

4.17 Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend

Web Link Flagella & Cilia Movement

4.17 Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend

Web Link Cell Junctions

Cell Surfaces And Junctions

Web Link Tight Junctions

4.18 Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells

Web Link Desmosomes

4.18 Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells

 Web LinkGap Junction

4.18 Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells

 

 

 

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METABOLISM
Web Link An Overview of Metabolism

Introduction To Cellular Respiration

Web Link How the NAD+ Works

6.5 Cells tap energy from electrons “falling” from organic fuels to oxygen

Web Link Cellular Respiration

Introduction To Cellular Respiration
Stages Of Cellular Respiration And Fermentation

Web Link Glycolysis 1

Stages Of Cellular Respiration And Fermentation

Web Link Cellular Respiration Overview

6.6 Overview: Cellular respiration occurs in three main stages

Web Link How Glycolysis Works

6.7 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

Web Link Glycolysis 2

6.7 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

Web Link Glycolysis 3

6.7 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

Web Link Glycolysis 4

6.7 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

Web Link The TCA Cycle

Stages Of Cellular Respiration And Fermentation

Web Link Citric Acid Cycle

6.8 Pyruvate is chemically groomed for the citric acid cycle
6.9
The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules

Web Link Krebs Citric Acid Cycle

6.8 Pyruvate is chemically groomed for the citric acid cycle
6.9
The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules

Web Link How the Krebs Cycle Works

6.8 Pyruvate is chemically groomed for the citric acid cycle
6.9
The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules

Web Link Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)

6.8 Pyruvate is chemically groomed for the citric acid cycle
6.9
The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules
 

Web Link ATP Synthesis

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Electron Transport Chain 1

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Electron Transport Chain 2

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Electron Transport: Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Electron Transport, ATP Synthesis, and Chemiosmosis

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Electron Transport System & ATP Synthesis

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Electron Transport System and Formation of ATP

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Mitochondria/Electron Transport

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Mitochondrial Electron Transport

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Two Experiments Demonstrate the Chemiosmotic Mechanism

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Web Link Fermentation Overview

6.13 Fermentation is an anaerobic alternative to cellular respiration

Web Link Introduction to Photosynthesis

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food

Web Link Photosynthesis

An Overview Of Photosynthesis

Web Link The Light Reactions

The Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy To Chemical Energy

Web Link Light and Pigments

7.6 Visible radiation drives the light reactions

Web Link Cyclic & Noncyclic Photophosphoylation

7.7 Photosystems capture solar power
7.8
In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Web Link Photosynthetic Electron Transport & ATP Synthesis

7.7 Photosystems capture solar power
7.8
In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Web Link Light Reactions

7.7 Photosystems capture solar power
7.8
In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Web Link Light Reactions in Photosynthesis

7.7 Photosystems capture solar power
7.8
In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Web Link Photosynthesis Light Reactions

7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Web Link Photosynthetic Electron Transport

7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Web Link The Source of the Oxygen Produced by Photosynthesis

7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Web Link Photophosphorylation

7.9 Chemiosmosis powers ATP synthesis in the light reactions

Web Link Calvin Cycle

The Calvin Cycle: Converting CO2 To Sugars

Web Link The Calvin-Benson Cycle

7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle

Web Link Carbon Fixation in Photosynthesis

7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle

Web Link Dark Reactions/Calvin Cycle

7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle

Web Link How the Calvin Cycle Works

7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle

Web Link Tracing the Pathway of CO2

7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle

Web Link Cell Division 2

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis

     
 
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CELLULAR DIVISION

Web Link Cell Division 1

Connections Between Cell Division And Reproduction
The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis

Web Link The Cell Cycle & Mitosis #1

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis

Web Link How the Cell Cycle Works

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis

Web Link Mitosis = Detailed All Stages

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis

Web Link Cell Cycle and Mitosis #2

8.5 The cell cycle multiplies cells - Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Web Link Mitosis Overview

8.5 The cell cycle multiplies cells

Web Link Animated Mitosis

8.6 Cell division is a continuum of dynamic changes

Web Link Mitosis 2

8.6 Cell division is a continuum of dynamic changes

Web Link Mitosis 1

8.6 Cell division is a continuum of dynamic changes
8.7
Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells

Web Link Mitosis & Cytokinesis

8.6 Cell division is a continuum of dynamic changes
8.7
Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells

Web Link Cytokinesis 1

8.7 Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells

Web Link Cytokinesis 2

8.7 Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells

Web Link Cell Proliferation Signaling Pathway

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system

Web Link Control of the Cell Cycle

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system

Web Link The Function of Cohesion

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system

Web Link How Tumor Suppressor Genes Block Cell Division

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system

Web Link Stimulation of Cell Replication

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system

Web Link Comparison of Mitosis & Meiosis

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis
Meiosis and Crossing Over

Web Link Mitosis and Meiosis

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis
Meiosis and Crossing Over

Web Link How Meiosis Works

Meiosis and Crossing Over

Web Link Sexual Life Cycle & Meiosis

Meiosis and Crossing Over

Web Link Meiosis Overview

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Web Link Meiosis I

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Web Link Meiosis 1

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Web Link Meiosis II

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Web Link Meiosis 3

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Web Link Meiosis 2

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Web Link Stages of Meiosis

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Web Link Independent Assortment and Gamete Diversity

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring

Web Link Random Orientation of Chromosomes During Meiosis

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring

Web Link Genetic Variation

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring
8.18
Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Web Link Genetic Variation in Meiosis

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring
8.18
Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Web Link Unique Features of Meiosis

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring
8.18
Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Web Link Crossing Over

8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Web Link Crossing Over

8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Web Link Meiosis with Crossing Over

8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Web Link Mistakes in Meiosis

Alterations Of Chromosome Number And Structure

Web Link The Consequence of Inversion

8.23 Alterations of chromosome structure can cause birth defects and cancer

       
 
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GENETICS

Web Link Genes & Chromosomes

Chapter 9: Patterns of Inheritance

Web Link Mendel's Experiments

Mendel’s Laws

Web Link The Mendelian Model of Inheritance

Mendel’s Laws

Web Link Independent Assortment of Alleles

9.5 The law of independent assortment is revealed by tracking two characteristics at once

Web Link Inheritance of Several Diseases Based on Genetic Mechanisms

9.9 Many inherited disorders in humans are controlled by a single gene

Web Link Alleles That Do Not Sort Independently

9.11 The relationship of genotype to phenotype is rarely simple

Web Link Virtual Fly Lab

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes

         

 

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NUCLEIC ACIDS

Web Link DNA Replication 5

Chapter 10: Molecular Biology of the Gene

 

Web Link DNA Discovery & Structure

The Structure of the Genetic Material

 

Web Link Hershey-Chase Experiment

10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material

 

Web Link Hershey & Chase Experiment

10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material

 

Web Link Phage T2 Replication

10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material

 

Web Link Steps in the Replication of T4 Phage in E. Coli

10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material

 

Web Link Virus

10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material

Web Link From Cell to DNA

10.2 DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides

Web Link DNA & RNA Structure

10.2 DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides

Web Link DNA Anatomy

10.2 DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides
10.3
DNA is a double-stranded helix

Web Link DNA Double Helix

10.3 DNA is a double-stranded helix

Web Link DNA Structure

10.3 DNA is a double-stranded helix

Web Link DNA Replication 6

DNA Replication

Web Link DNA Replication Overview

DNA Replication

Web Link Overview of Replication

DNA Replication

Web Link Meselson & Stahl Experiment

10.4 DNA replication depends on specific base pairing

Web Link The Meselson-Stahl Experiment

10.4 DNA replication depends on specific base pairing

Web Link Prokaryotic DNA Replication

10.4 DNA replication depends on specific base pairing

Web Link Structural Basis of DNA Replication

10.4 DNA replication depends on specific base pairing

Web Link DNA Replication (E. coli)

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Bidirectional Replication of DNA 1

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Bidirectional Replication of DNA 2

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link DNA Replication 1

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link DNA Replication 2

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link DNA Replication 3

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link DNA Replication 4

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Origins of Replication

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link DNA Replication Fork 1

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link DNA Replication Fork 2

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Coordination of Leading and Lagging Strand Synthesis
Web Link How Nucleotides are Added in DNA Replication

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Leading Strand

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Lagging Strand

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Nucleotide Polymerization by DNA Polymerase

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Proofreading Function of DNA Polymerase

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Telomerase Function

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Direct Repair

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Methyl-directed Mismatch Repair

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link Nucleotide Excision Repair

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Web Link DNA Replication Review

DNA Replication

Web Link Overview of Eukaryotic Gene Expression

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Web Link Simple Gene Expression

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Web Link The Transcription of DNA to RNA

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Web Link Processing of Gene Information - Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes

10.6 The DNA genotype is expressed as proteins, which provide the molecular basis for phenotypic traits

Web Link Deciphering the Genetic Code

10.7 Genetic information written in codons is translated into amino acid sequences
10.8
The genetic code is the Rosetta stone of life

Web Link DNA Transcription 1

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

Web Link DNA Transcription 2

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

Web Link mRNA Synthesis (Transcription)

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

Web Link Stages of Transcription

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

Web Link Transcription 2

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

Web Link Transcription 3

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

Web Link Overview of mRNA Processing

10.10 Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus

Web Link RNA Splicing 1

10.10 Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus

Web Link RNA Translation

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Web Link Translation 1

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Web Link Translation 2

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Web Link How Spliceosomes Process RNA

10.10 Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus

Web Link Polyribosomes

10.12 Ribosomes build polypeptides

Web Link Polyribosomes

10.12 Ribosomes build polypeptides

Web Link Protein Synthesis 1

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Web Link Translation Initiation

10.13 An initiation codon marks the start of an mRNA message

Web Link How Translation Works

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Web Link Protein Synthesis 2

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Web Link Translation Elongation

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Web Link Translation: Protein Synthesis

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Web Link Translation Termination

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Web Link Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Web Link Protein Synthesis: At the Ribosome

10.15 Review: The flow of genetic information in the cell is DNA → RNA → protein

Web Link Protein Synthesis 3

10.15 Review: The flow of genetic information in the cell is DNA → RNA → protein

Web Link Addition and Deletion Mutations

10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes

Web Link Changes in Chromosome Structure

10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes

Web Link Mutation by Base Substitution

10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes

Web Link Slipped-strand Mispairing

10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes

Web Link Thymine Dimers

10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes

Web Link Viral & Bacterial Genomes

Microbial Genetics

Web Link Simple Viral Reproduction

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Web Link Viral Infection

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Web Link Lytic Cycle

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Web Link The Lytic Cycle

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Web Link Life Cycle of T2 Phage

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Web Link Lysogeny

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Web Link Lysogenic Cycle

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Web Link Entry of Virus into Host Cell

10.18 Many viruses cause disease in animals

Web Link Mechanism for Releasing Enveloped Viruses

10.18 Many viruses cause disease in animals

Web Link How Prions Arise

10.20 Emerging viruses threaten human health

Web Link Prion Diseases

10.20 Emerging viruses threaten human health

Web Link HIV Replication

10.21 The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA template

Web Link How the HIV Infection Cycle Works

10.21 The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA template

Web Link Replication Cycle of a Retrovirus

10.21 The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA template

Web Link Treatment of HIV

10.21 The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA template

Web Link Integration and Excision of a Plasmid

10.22 Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways

Web Link Bacterial Transformation 1

10.22 Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways

Web Link Bacterial Transformation 2

10.22 Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways

Web Link DNA Transformation 1

10.22 Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways

Web Link DNA Transformation 2

10.22 Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways

Web Link Bacterial Conjugation

10.23 Bacterial plasmids can serve as carriers for gene transfer

 

Web Link Bacterial Conjugation - Transfer of a Plasmid

10.23 Bacterial plasmids can serve as carriers for gene transfer

Web Link Mechanisms of Transposition Web Link Transposons: Shifting Segments of the Genome      

 

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DNA TECHNOLOGY
Web Link Principles of Biotechnology

Chapter 12: DNA Technology & Genomics

Web Link Early Genetic Engineering Experiment

12.1 Plasmids are used to customize bacteria: An overview

Web Link Construction of a Plasmid Vector

12.2 Enzymes are used to “cut and paste” DNA

Web Link DNA Restriction

12.2 Enzymes are used to “cut and paste” DNA

Web Link Restriction Endonucleases

12.2 Enzymes are used to “cut and paste” DNA

Web Link Restriction Enzymes

12.2 Enzymes are used to “cut and paste” DNA

Web Link Plasmid Cloning

12.3 Genes can be cloned in recombinant plasmids: A closer look

Web Link Construction of a DNA Library

12.4 Cloned genes can be stored in genomic libraries

Web Link Steps in Cloning a Gene 1

12.4 Cloned genes can be stored in genomic libraries

Web Link Steps in Cloning a Gene 2

12.4 Cloned genes can be stored in genomic libraries

Web Link cDNA

12.5 Reverse transcriptase helps make genes for cloning

Web Link DNA Testing by Allele-Specific Cleavage

12.7 DNA technology is changing the pharmaceutical industry and medicine

Web Link DNA Probe (DNA hybridization)

12.8 Nucleic acid probes identify clones carrying specific genes

Web Link FISH

12.8 Nucleic acid probes identify clones carrying specific genes

Web Link DNA Arrays

12.9 DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once

Web Link DNA Chip Technology

12.9 DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once

Web Link GeneChips®

12.9 DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once0

Web Link Microarray

12.9 DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once

Web Link Electrophoresis

12.10 Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size

Web Link Gel Electrophoresis 1

12.10 Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size

Web Link Gel Electrophoresis 2

12.10 Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size

Web Link DNA Fingerprinting

12.12 DNA technology is used in courts of law

Web Link Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms

12.12 DNA technology is used in courts of law

Web Link Southern Blot

12.12 DNA technology is used in courts of law

Web Link How Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are Made

12.13 Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases

Web Link Human Embryonic Stem Cells 1

12.13 Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases

Web Link Human Embryonic Stem Cells 2

12.13 Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases

Web Link The Potential Use of Embryonic Stem Cells in Medicine

12.13 Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases

Web Link PCR Reactions

12.14 The PCR method is used to amplify DNA sequences

Web Link Polymerase Chain Reaction 1

12.14 The PCR method is used to amplify DNA sequences

Web Link Polymerase Chain Reaction 2

12.14 The PCR method is used to amplify DNA sequences

Web Link Polymerase Chain Reaction 3

12.14 The PCR method is used to amplify DNA sequences Polymerase Chain Reaction

Web Link Polymerase Chain Reaction 4 Web Link Cycle Sequencing

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology

Web Link Early DNA Sequencing

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology

Web Link Sanger Sequencing

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology

Web Link Sequencing of DNA

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology; Sequencing of DNA

Web Link Sequencing the Genome

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology

Web Link High-Throughput Sequencing

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology

 Web LinkApplications of Biotechnology

Genetically Modified Organisms Connection

Web Link Antisense RNA Technology

12.18 Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture

 Web LinkGenes into Plants Using the Ti-plasmid

12.18 Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture

 

Web Link Cloning 101

12.18 Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture

 

         

 

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EVOLUTION

Web Link Mechanisms of Evolution 2

Chapter 13: Darwin's Theory of Evolution

Web Link Darwin in Historical Context

Darwin’s Theory Of Evolution

Web Link Evolutionary Changes Video

Population Genetics And The Modern Synthesis

Web Link Mechanisms of Evolution 1

Population Genetics And The Modern Synthesis

Web Link Hardy-Weinberg Conditions Animation

13.7 The gene pool of a non-evolving population remains constant over the generations

Web Link The Hardy-Weinberg Law and the Effects of Inbreeding and Natural Selection

13.7 The gene pool of a non-evolving population remains constant over the generations

Web Link Population Genetics and Evolution

13.7 The gene pool of a non-evolving population remains constant over the generations
13.8
The Hardy-Weinberg equation is useful in public health science

Web Link Simulation of Genetic Drift

13.9 In addition to natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow can contribute to evolution

Web Link Natural Selection

13.16 Natural selection can alter variation in a population in three ways

Web Link Assessing the Costs of Adaptations

13.18 Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms

Web Link Models of Speciation

Mechanisms Of Speciation

Web Link Speciation

Mechanisms Of Speciation

Web Link Speciation Models

Mechanisms Of Speciation

Web Link Founder Events Lead to Allopatric Speciation

14.5 Reproductive barriers may evolve as populations diverge

Web Link Speciation by Ploidy / Adaptive Radiation in Anoles

14.7 Polyploid plants clothe and feed us
14.8
Adaptive radiation may occur in new or newly vacated habitats

Web Link Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium

14.10 The tempo of speciation can appear steady or jumpy

Web Link Macroevolution Video Web Link Evolution of the Continents

16.1 Life began on a young Earth

Web Link Evolution of the Continents

16.1 Life began on a young Earth

         
 
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MICROORGANISMS

Web Link Pasteur's Experiment

16.2 How did life originate?

Web Link Miller-Urey Experiment

16.3 Stanley Miller’s experiments showed that organic molecules could have arisen on a lifeless Earth

Web Link Synthesis of Prebiotic Molecules in an Experimental Atmosphere

16.3 Stanley Miller’s experiments showed that organic molecules could have arisen on a lifeless Earth

Web Link Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes

Web Link Bacterial Endospore Formation

16.10 Various structural features contribute to the success of prokaryotes

Web Link The Simplest Eukaryotes - Protists & Fungi

Protists

Web Link Unicellular Eukaryotes

Protists

Web Link Malaria: Life Cycle of Plasmodium

16.21 Alveolates have sacs beneath the plasma membrane and include dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates

       

 

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FUNGI

Web Link The Fungi

Fungi

Web Link The Fungi Kingdom - Common Characteristics of Fungi

17.15 Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies
17.16
Fungi produce spores in both asexual and sexual lifecycles

Web Link Chytridiomycetes

17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups

Web Link The Zygomycetes

17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups

Web Link Life Cycle & Conjugation in a Zygomycete

17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups

Web Link The Ascomycetes

17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups

Web Link The Basidiomycetes of the Fungi Kingdom

17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups

         

 

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ANIMALS

Web Link An Introduction to the Animals

Animal Evolution And Diversity

Web Link Overview of Invertebrates

Animal Evolution And Diversity

Web Link Life Cycle of a Cnidarian

18.6 Cnidarians are radial animals with tentacles and stinging cells

Web Link From Invertebrates to Vertebrates

Invertebrates; Vertebrates

Web Link Life Cycle of a Frog

18.18 Amphibians were the first tetrapods–vertebrates with two pairs of limbs

Web Link Marine Iguanas

18.19 Reptiles are amniotes–tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg

Web Link Tortoise

18.19 Reptiles are amniotes–tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg

Web Link Bat Pollinating

18.21 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk

Web Link Animal Form and Function

Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure & Function

 

Web Link Organization in Living Things

The Hierarchy of Structural Organization in An Animal

 

Web Link Specialized Plant and Animal Cells

20.2 Animal structure has a hierarchy

 

 

 

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PLANTS

Web Link Plants and Their Relatives

Plant Evolution and Diversity
Alternation of Generations and Plant Life Cycles

Web Link Plant Life Cycles

Alternation of Generations and Plant Life Cycles

Web Link The Plant Kingdom - An Introduction

Plant Evolution and Diversity

Web Link Life Cycle of a Moss

17.5 Mosses have a dominant gametophyte

Web Link Moss Life Cycle

17.5 Mosses have a dominant gametophyte

Web Link Fern Life Cycle

17.6 Ferns, like most plants, have a dominant sporophyte

Web Link Gymnosperms: Seeds in Cones

17.8 A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones

Web Link Life Cycle of a Conifer

17.8 A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones

Web Link Pine Life Cycle

17.8 A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones

Web Link Life Cycle of a Angiosperm

17.10 The angiosperm plant is a sporophyte with gametophytes in its flowers

Web Link Fruit - Triumph of the Angiosperms

17.11 The structure of a fruit reflects its function in seed dispersal

Web Link Section Through a Leaf

31.6 Three tissue systems make up the plant body

Web Link Cambium Growth

31.8 Secondary growth increases the girth of woody plants

Web Link Secondary Growth - The Vascular Cambium

31.8 Secondary growth increases the girth of woody plants

Web Link Plant Reproduction and Development

Reproduction of Flowering Plants

Web Link Parts of a Flower

31.9 Overview: The sexual life cycle of a flowering plant

Web Link Chapter 31: Double Fertilization in Flowering Plants

31.10 The development of pollen and ovules culminates in fertilization

Web Link Plant Fertilization

31.10 The development of pollen and ovules culminates in fertilization

Web Link Plant Reproduction

31.10 The development of pollen and ovules culminates in fertilization
31.11 The ovule develops into a seed

 

Web Link Seed Development

31.11 The ovule develops into a seed

Web Link Fruit Development

31.12 The ovary develops into a fruit

Web Link Angiosperms: Seeds in Fruit

31.13 Seed germination continues the life cycle

Web Link Plant Nutrition

Chapter 32: Plant Nutrition & Transport

 

Web Link Transpiration in Plants

The Uptake and Transport of Plant Nutrients

 

Web Link Transport in Roots

32.2 The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake

Web Link Water Uptake

32.2 The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake

Web Link Cohesion Adhesion Tension Model

32.3 Transpiration pulls water up xylem vessels

Web Link Transpiration 1

32.3 Transpiration pulls water up xylem vessels
32.4 Guard cells control transpiration

Web Link Phloem Loading

32.5 Phloem transports sugars

Web Link Phloem Translocation in Summer

32.5 Phloem transports sugars

Web Link Phloem Translocation in Spring

32.5 Phloem transports sugars

Web Link The Pressure Flow Model

32.5 Phloem transports sugars

Web Link Sugar Transport in Plants

32.5 Phloem transports sugars

Web Link Nitrogen & Iron Deficiencies

32.6 Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients
32.7 You can diagnose some nutrient deficiencies in your own plants

Web Link Minerals from Soil

32.8 Fertile soil supports plant growth

 

Web Link Mineral Uptake

32.8 Fertile soil supports plant growth

 

Web Link Control Systems in Plants

Chapter 33: Control Systems in Plants

Web Link Auxin Affects Cell Walls

33.3 Auxin stimulates the elongation of cells in young shoots

Web Link Tropisms

3.9 Tropisms orient plant growth toward or away from environmental stimuli

Web Link Went's Experiment

33.9 Tropisms orient plant growth toward or away from environmental stimuli

Web Link The Effect of Interrupted Days & Nights

3.10 Plants have internal clocks

Web Link Phytochrome Signaling

33.12 Phytochrome is a light detector that may help set the biological clock

Web Link Signaling between Plants & Pathogens

33.14 Defenses against herbivores and infectious microbes have evolved in plants

         

 

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DIGESTION & NUTRITION

Web Link The Digestive System

Chapter 21: Nutrition & Digestion

Web Link Diet and Feeding Mechanisms

Obtaining and Processing Food
Nutrition

Web Link Organs of Digestion

Human Digestive System

Web Link Hormones & Gastric Secretions

21.9 The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes

Web Link Hormones and Gastric Secretion

21.9 The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes

Web Link Hydrochloric Acid Production... of the Stomach

21.9 The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes

Web Link Three Phases of Gastric Secretion

21.9 The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes

Web Link Reflexes in the Colon

21.12 The large intestine reclaims water and compacts the feces

Web Link B Vitamins

21.18 A healthy diet includes 13 vitamins

     
 
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RESPIRATION
Web Link The Respiratory System

Chapter 22: Gas Exchange

Web Link Airflow in Mammals

22.2 Animals exchange O2 and CO2 across moist body surfaces
22.5
Terrestrial vertebrates have lungs

Web Link Alveolar Pressure Changes During Inspiration and Expiration

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Web Link Changes in the Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Web Link Gas Exchange During Respiration

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Web Link Airflow in Birds

22.2 Animals exchange O2 and CO2 across moist body surfaces
22.5
Terrestrial vertebrates have lungs

Web Link Movement of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Web Link Path of Blood: Review

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Web Link Blood to Tissues

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Web Link Tissues to Blood

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Web Link Blood to Lungs

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Web Link Lungs to Blood

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

 

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CIRCULATION
Web Link The Circulatory System #1

Chapter 23: Circulation

Web Link The Circulatory System #2

The Mammalian Cardiovascular System

 

Web Link Blood Flow through the Human Heart

23.4 The human heart and cardiovascular system are typical of mammals

Web Link The Cardiac Cycle

23.4 The human heart and cardiovascular system are typical of mammals

Web Link Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle

23.6 The heart contracts and relaxes rhythmically

Web Link Conducting System of the Heart

23.7 The pacemaker sets the tempo of the heartbeat

Web Link Baroreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure

23.9 Blood exerts pressure on vessel walls

Web Link Chemoreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure

23.9 Blood exerts pressure on vessel walls

Web Link Measuring Blood Pressure

23.9 Blood exerts pressure on vessel walls
23.10
Measuring blood pressure can reveal cardiovascular problems

Web Link Hemoglobin Breakdown

23.14 Too few or too many red blood cells can be unhealthy

   
 
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IMMUNE SYSTEM
Web Link Cells & Organs of the Immune System

Chapter 24: The Immune System

Web Link Nonspecific Immune Defenses

Innate Defenses Against Infection

Web Link Phagocytosis

24.1 Innate defenses against infection include the skin and mucous membranes, phagocytes cells, and antimicrobial proteins

Web Link Nonspecific Inflammatory Response

24.2 The inflammatory response mobilizes nonspecific defense forces

Web Link The Lymphatic System and the Blood

24.3 The lymphatic system becomes a crucial battleground during infection

Web Link T-Cell Dependent Antigens

24.5 Lymphocytes mount a dual defense

Web Link Humoral Immune Response

Acquired Immunity

Web Link The Immune Response

Acquired Immunity

Web Link Specific Immune Defenses

Acquired Immunity

Web Link Antigenic Determinants (Epitopes)

24.6 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them

 

Web Link Humoral Immunity - The Role of B Cells

24.7 Clonal selection musters defensive forces against specific antigens

Web Link A B-Cell Builds an Antibody

24.8 Antibodies are the weapons of humoral immunity

Web Link Antibodies

24.9 Antibodies mark antigens for elimination

Web Link Pregancy Test

24.10 Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic

Web Link ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

24.10 Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic

Web Link Monoclonal Antibody Production

24.10 Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic

Web Link Helper T Cells

24.11 Helper T cells stimulate humoral and cell-mediated immunity

Web Link The Cellular Immune Response

24.13 Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells

Web Link Cytotoxic T-cell Activity Against Target Cells

24.13 Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells

Web Link Cell-Mediated Immunity - Cytotoxic T Cells

24.13 Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells
24.14
Cytotoxic T cells may help prevent cancer

Web Link Allergic Response

24.17 Allergies are overreactions to certain environmental antigens

Web Link IgE Mediated Hypersensitivity

24.17 Allergies are overreactions to certain environmental antigens

   

 

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ENDOCRINE

Web Link The Actions of Hormones on Target Cells

The Nature of Chemical Regulation

Web Link Hormones

The Nature of Chemical Regulation

Web Link Endocrine System Orientation

Hormones and Homeostasis

Web Link Positive and Negative Feedback

Hormones and Homeostasis

Web Link Lipid Soluble Hormones

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Web Link Intracellular Receptor Model

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Web Link Mechanism of Action of Lipid-Soluble Messengers

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Web Link Mechanism of Steroid Hormone Action

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Web Link Water Soluble Hormones

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Web Link Membrane-Bound Receptors, G Proteins, and Ca2+ Channels

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Web Link Membrane-Bound Receptors that Activate G Proteins

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Web Link Second Messengers - The cAMP and Ca++ Pathways

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Web Link Signaling via G-Protein

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Web Link The Endocrine System

The Vertebrate Endocrine System

 

Web Link Hormonal Communication

26.4 The hypothalamus, closely tied to the pituitary, connects the nervous and endocrine systems

Web Link The Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis Web Link Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Endocrine Axis Web Link Biochemistry, Secretion, & Transport of Hormones

Hormones and Homeostasis

Web Link Thyroid Gland Functioning

26.5 The thyroid regulates development and metabolism

Web Link Mechanism of Thyroxine Action Web Link Hormonal Regulation of Calcium

26.6 Hormones from the thyroid and parathyroids maintain calcium homeostasis

Web Link Blood Sugar Regulation in Diabetics

26.8 Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder

Web Link Respose to Stress

26.9 The adrenal glands mobilize responses to stress

Web Link Action of Epinephrine on a Liver Cell

Web Link Action of Glucocorticoid Hormone

 
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NERVOUS & MUSCULAR

Web Link The Nervous System

Web Link Nervous Systems and Sensation

Chapter 28: The Nervous System
Web Link Reflex Arcs

Web Link Reflex Arc

28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands

Web Link Parts of a Neuron

28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems

Web Link How Nerves Work

28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems

Web Link Resting Membrane Potential

28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane

Web Link Resting Potential

28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane

Web Link Action Potential

Web Link The Action Potential

Web Link Voltage Gated Channels and the Action Potential

28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential

Web Link Sodium-Potassium Exchange

28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential

Web Link Action Potential Propagation in an Unmyelinated Axon

28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron

Web Link Action Potentials

28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential
28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron

Web Link The Nerve Impulse

28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane
28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential
28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron

Web Link The Nerve Impulse

28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane
28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential
28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron

Web Link Synapse

Web Link Synapse

Web Link Synaptic Transmission #1

Web Link Synaptic Transmission #2

Web Link Chemical Synapse

Web Link Transmission Across a Synapse

Web Link Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Illustration

Web Link Function of the Neuromuscular Junction

Web Link Membrane-Bound Receptors G Proteins and Ca2 Channels

Web Link Information Processing in the Spinal Cord

28.8 A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters
Web Link Role of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

28.13 Opposing actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons regulate the internal environment

Web LinkCircadian Rhythms

Web Link Time-Compensated Solar Compass

28.18 Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and arousal

 

Web Link Receptors of the Skin

29.3 Specialized sensory receptors detect five categories of stimuli

Web Link The Senses: Seeing

Web Link Light Refraction

Web Link Pupil Dilation

Web Link Nearsightedness

Web Link Farsightedness

Vision

Web Link Near and Distant Vision

Web Link How to Find Your Dominant Eye

Web Link Astigmatism

Web Link Astigmatism Contacts

29.6 To focus, a lens changes position or shape

Web Link Artificial Corrective Lens

Web Link LASIK Surgery

Web Link Microchip Retina Implant

29.7 Artificial lenses or surgery can correct focusing problems
Web Link Information Processing in the Retina

29.8 Our photoreceptors are rods and cones

Web Link Visual Pathways

29.6 To focus, a lens changes position or shape
29.8 Our photoreceptors are rods and cones

 

Web Link The Senses: Hearing

Hearing and Balance

Web Link Sound Transduction

Web Link Sound Transduction in the Human Ear

Web Link Effect of Sound Waves on Cochlear Structures

Web Link Skeletons

Chapter 30: Movement and Locomotion

Web Link Bone Growth in Width

30.4 Bones are complex living organs

Web Link Osteoporosis

30.6 Weak, brittle bones are a serious health problem, even in young people

Web Link Muscle Structure and Contraction

Muscle Contraction and Movement

Web Link Action Potentials and Muscle Contraction

30.10 Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction

Web Link Breakdown of ATP and Cross-Bridge Movement During Muscle Contraction

30.9 A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide across thick filaments

Web Link Myofilament Contraction Web Link Function of a Neuromuscular Junction

30.10 Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction

Web Link Sarcomere Shortening Web Link Smooth Muscle Action Web Link Molecular Mechanisms of Muscle Contraction

30.8 Each muscle cell has its own contractile apparatus
30.9 A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide across thick filaments
30.10 Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction

 
 
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ECOLOGY
Web Link The Natural Setting

The Biosphere: An Introduction to Earth’s Diverse Environments

Web Link Ecosystems

34.4 Physical and chemical factors influence life in the biosphere
34.5 Organisms are adapted to abiotic and biotic factors by natural selection

 Web LinkEarth Has Four Giant Convection Cells

Web Link A Rain Shadow

34.6 Regional climate influences the distribution of biological communities

Web Link Aquatic Ecosystems

Aquatic Biomes

 

Web Link Biomes #1

Web Link Biomes #2

Web Link Biomes #3

Web Link Terrestrial Biomes

Web Link Biomes & Climate Zones

Terrestrial Biomes

Web Link Basics of Behavior

Behavioral Adaptations to the Environment

Web Link Foraging Behavior

35.12 Behavioral ecologists use cost-benefit analysis in studying foraging

Web Link Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior

35.13 Mating behaviors enhance reproductive success

Web Link Social Behvaior

Social Behavior and Sociobiology

Web Link The Cost of Defending a Territory

35.16 Territorial behavior parcels space and resources

Web Link Population Ecology

Population Dynamics

Web Link Animation - r and K Strategies

36.4 Idealized models help us understand population growth

Web Link Population Growth

36.5 Multiple factors may limit population growth

Web Link Population Cycles

Web Link Predator-Prey Interactions

36.6 Some populations have “boom-and-bust” cycles

Web Link Human Population Growth

The Human Population

Web Link World Hunger Community Ecology

Structural Features of Communities

Web Link Symbiosis

37.6 Symbiotic relationships help structure communities

 

Web Link Succession

37.7 Disturbance is a prominent feature of most communities

Web Link Primary Succession on a Glacial Moraine

Web Link Changes in Ecosystems

37.7 Disturbance is a prominent feature of most communities

Web Link Food Chains  

Web Link Food Chain Reaction

Web Link Working on the Food Chain

37.9 Trophic structure is a key factor in community dynamics

Web Link Food Webs

Web Link A Food Web

Web Link Rainforest Food Web

37.10 Food chains interconnect, forming food webs

Web Link Ecosystem

Web Link Ecosystems

Structural Features of Communities
Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics

Web Link Chemical Element Cycles

Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics

Web Link An Idealized Energy Pyramid

Web Link Energy Flow and the Water Cycle

Web Link The Global Hydrological Cycle

37.13 Energy supply limits the length of food chains

Web Link The Sulfur Cycle

Web Link Water Cycle

Web Link The Water Cycle

Web Link Carbon Cycle

Web Link The Carbon Cycle #1

Web Link The Carbon Cycle #2

37.15 Chemicals are recycled between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs

Web Link The Global Carbon Cycle

37.17 The carbon cycle depends on photosynthesis and respiration

Web Link The Global Nitrogen Cycle

Web Link Nitrogen Cycle

37.18 The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria

Web Link The Nitrogen Cycle #1

37.18 The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria

Web Link The Nitrogen Cycle #2

37.18 The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteriaa
Web Link The Phosphorus Cycle

37.19 The phosphorus cycle depends on the weathering of rock

Web Link Conservation Biology

Conservation Biology

Web Link Land Transformation: A City Growing Over Time

The Biodiversity Crisis: An Overview

Web Link Habitat Fragmentation

38.3 Habitat destruction, introduced species, and overexploitation are the major threats to biodiversity

Web Link Are Global Temperatures Rising?

38.5 Rapid global warming could alter the entire biosphere

Web Link Climate Change Over Time Web Link Greenhouse Effect