AP Biology Animations

 

BIOCHEMISTRY

The Chemical Basis of Life

Elements, Atoms, And Molecules

Chemical Bonds

Elements, Atoms, And Molecules

Periodic Table.swf

Elements, Atoms, And Molecules

Elements Song

2.1 Living organisms are composed of about 25 chemical elements

The Structure of Atoms

2.4 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons

Atomic Symbols, Atomic Numbers, and Mass Numbers

2.4 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons

Electron Arrangement

2.4 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons

Electron Configurations

2.6 Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom

Atomic Structure and Ionic Bonding

2.6 Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom
2.7 Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge

Ionic Bonds 1

2.7 Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge

Ionic Bonds 2

2.7 Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge

Covalent Bonds 1

2.8 Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing

Covalent Bonds 2

2.8 Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing

Hydrogen Bonding Attractive Force

2.10 Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds important in the chemistry of life

A Closer Look at Water

2.10 Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds important in the chemistry of life

Structure of Water

2.10 Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds important in the chemistry of life

Water and Life

Water’s Life-Supporting Properties

A Quick Look at How Ionic Compounds Dissolve

2.14 Water is the solvent of life

Molecular View of Solution Formation

2.14 Water is the solvent of life

Salt Dissolving in Water

2.14 Water is the solvent of life

Proton Exchange Between Water Molecules

2.15 The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and basic conditions

Water & pH

2.15 The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and basic conditions

Organic Molecules

Introduction To Organic Compounds

Carbon Skeletons

3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon

Isomers

3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon

Functional Groups 1

3.2 Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds

 Functional Groups 2

3.2 Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds

Macromolecules 1

Introduction To Organic Compounds

Macromolecules 2

Introduction To Organic Compounds

Biomolecules The Carbohydrates

Introduction To Organic Compounds

Polymers

3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules

Glucose Cyclization

3.4 Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates

Disaccharides

3.5 Cells link two single sugars to form disaccharides

Polysaccharides

3.7 Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units

Biomolecules – The Lipids

3.8 Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage molecules

Fats

3.8 Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage molecules

Amino Acid & Protein Structure

Proteins

Peptide Bond Formation

3.12 Proteins are made from amino acids linked by peptide bonds

Protein Denaturation

3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its function

Protein Denaturation

3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its function

Heat Changes Protein Structure: Frying an Egg

3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its function

Life Cycle of a Protein

3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its function

Protein Structure Intro

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Protein Primary Structure

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Protein Secondary Structure

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Protein Tertiary Structure

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Protein Quarternary Structure

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Structure of Proteins

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure

Protein Folding Interactive

3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure/

         
 

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CELLULAR TRANSPORT & WORK

Energy Concepts
5.1 Energy is the capacity to perform work
Enzymes and Metabolism
Energy And The Cell; How Enzymes Function
How Enzymes Work 1
Energy And The Cell; How Enzymes Function
Enzyme Catalysis 1
How Enzymes Function
Enzyme-Substrate Interaction
How Enzymes Function
The Purification of Hemoglobin
How Enzymes Function

How Enzymes Work 2
5.6 A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction

Enzyme Action and the Hydrolysis of Sucrose
5.6 A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction

Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes
5.7 The cellular environment affects enzyme activity
A Biochemical Pathway

5.7 The cellular environment affects enzyme activity

Enzyme Catalysis 2

5.8 Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action

Feedback Inhibition of Biochemical Pathways

5.8 Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action

Membranes and Transport
Membrane Structure And Function
Cell Membrane
Membrane Structure And Function
Cellular Transport
Membrane Structure And Function
Biological Membranes
Membrane Structure And Function
Membrane Transport

Membrane Structure And Function

Membrane Selectivity

5.10 Membranes organize the chemical activities of cells

Cell Membrane Composition

5.11 Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer
5.12 The membrane is a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins

Diffusion

5.14 Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane

How Diffusion Works

5.14 Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane

 

Passive Transport

5.14 Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane

How Facilitated Diffusion Works

5.15 Transport proteins may facilitate diffusion across membranes

How Osmosis Works

5.16 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane

Osmosis 1

5.16 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane

Osmosis 2

5.16 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane

Plasmolysis

5.17 Water balance between cells and their surroundings is crucial to organisms

Active Transport 1

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Active Transport 2

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Active Transport: The Sodium-Potassium Pump

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Active Transport by Group Translocation

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Active Transport by Group Translocation

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Antiport

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

ATPase

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

ATP-ADP Exchange

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Cotransport (Symport & Antiport)

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Glucose Transporter

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

How the Sodium Potassium Pump Works

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Lactose Permease

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Proton Pump 1

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Proton Pump 2

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Receptors Linked to a Channel Protein

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Receptors Linked to a Channel Protein

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Secondary Active Transport

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Symport

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Uniport

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Voltage-Gated Channels & the Action Potential

5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport

Endocytosis & Exocytosis

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Exocytosis

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Food Vacuoles Handle Digestion & Excretion

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Intro to Exocytosis and Endocytosis

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Phagocytosis 1

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Phagocytosis 2

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Pinocytosis

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules

Biology & Biologists

The Scope Of Biology

The Biological Hierarchy

1.1 Life’s levels of organization define the scope of biology

Shared Characteristic of Life

1.4 The unity of life: All forms of life have common features

Negative Feedback System

1.4 The unity of life: All forms of life have common features

Positive Feedback System

1.4 The unity of life: All forms of life have common features

Classification Schemes of Living Things

1.5 The diversity of life can be arranged into three domains

The Scientific Method 1

1.8 With hypothesis-based science, we pose and test hypotheses

The Scientific Method 2

1.8 With hypothesis-based science, we pose and test hypotheses

Model Organisms

1.9 Biology is connected to our lives in many ways

 
 

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CELLULAR STRUCTURE

Cells: The Basics

Introduction To The Cell

Cellular Organization

Introduction To The Cell

More About Cells

Chapter 4: A Tour of Cells

Cell Size & Scale

4.2 Most cells are microscopic Cell Size

Cell Structure and Function

4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments

Plant Cells

4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments

Protein Secretion

4.6 Overview: Many cell organelles are connected through the endomembrane system

Endomembrane System

4.6 Overview: Many cell organelles are connected through the endomembrane system

 Vesicular Budding and Fusing

4.6 Overview: Many cell organelles are connected through the endomembrane system

The Endoplasmic Reticulum & Golgi Apparatus

4.6 Overview: Many cell organelles are connected through the endomembrane system

Vesicular Maturation Model Animation

4.9 The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products

Golgi Apparatus

4.9 The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products

Cisternae Maturation Model Animation

4.9 The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products

Lysosomes

4.10 Lysosomes are digestive compartments within a cell

Lysosome Formation

4.10 Lysosomes are digestive compartments within a cell

Cytoplasmic Streaming

The Cytoskeleton And Related Structures

Cilia and Flagella

4.17 Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend

Flagella & Cilia Movement

4.17 Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend

Flagella & Cilia Movement

4.17 Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend

Cell Junctions

Cell Surfaces And Junctions

Tight Junctions

4.18 Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells

Desmosomes

4.18 Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells

 Gap Junction

4.18 Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells

 

 

 

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METABOLISM

An Overview of Metabolism

Introduction To Cellular Respiration

How the NAD+ Works

6.5 Cells tap energy from electrons “falling” from organic fuels to oxygen

Cellular Respiration

Introduction To Cellular Respiration
Stages Of Cellular Respiration And Fermentation

Glycolysis 1

Stages Of Cellular Respiration And Fermentation

Cellular Respiration Overview

6.6 Overview: Cellular respiration occurs in three main stages

How Glycolysis Works

6.7 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

Glycolysis 2

6.7 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

Glycolysis 3

6.7 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

Glycolysis 4

6.7 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

The TCA Cycle

Stages Of Cellular Respiration And Fermentation

Citric Acid Cycle

6.8 Pyruvate is chemically groomed for the citric acid cycle
6.9 The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules

Krebs Citric Acid Cycle

6.8 Pyruvate is chemically groomed for the citric acid cycle
6.9 The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules

How the Krebs Cycle Works

6.8 Pyruvate is chemically groomed for the citric acid cycle
6.9 The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)

6.8 Pyruvate is chemically groomed for the citric acid cycle
6.9 The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules
 

ATP Synthesis

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Electron Transport Chain 1

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Electron Transport Chain 2

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Electron Transport: Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Electron Transport, ATP Synthesis, and Chemiosmosis

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Electron Transport System & ATP Synthesis

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Electron Transport System and Formation of ATP

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Mitochondria/Electron Transport

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Mitochondrial Electron Transport

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Two Experiments Demonstrate the Chemiosmotic Mechanism

6.10 Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation

Fermentation Overview

6.13 Fermentation is an anaerobic alternative to cellular respiration

Introduction to Photosynthesis

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food

Photosynthesis

An Overview Of Photosynthesis

The Light Reactions

The Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy To Chemical Energy

Light and Pigments

7.6 Visible radiation drives the light reactions

Cyclic & Noncyclic Photophosphoylation

7.7 Photosystems capture solar power
7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Photosynthetic Electron Transport & ATP Synthesis

7.7 Photosystems capture solar power
7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Light Reactions

7.7 Photosystems capture solar power
7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Light Reactions in Photosynthesis

7.7 Photosystems capture solar power
7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Photosynthesis Light Reactions

7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Photosynthetic Electron Transport

7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

The Source of the Oxygen Produced by Photosynthesis

7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH

Photophosphorylation

7.9 Chemiosmosis powers ATP synthesis in the light reactions

Calvin Cycle

The Calvin Cycle: Converting CO2 To Sugars

The Calvin-Benson Cycle

7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle

Carbon Fixation in Photosynthesis

7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle

Dark Reactions/Calvin Cycle

7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle

How the Calvin Cycle Works

7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle

Tracing the Pathway of CO2

7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle

Cell Division 2

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis

     
 

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CELLULAR DIVISION

Cell Division 1

Connections Between Cell Division And Reproduction
The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis

The Cell Cycle & Mitosis #1

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis

How the Cell Cycle Works

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis

Mitosis = Detailed All Stages

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis

Cell Cycle and Mitosis #2

8.5 The cell cycle multiplies cells – Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Mitosis Overview

8.5 The cell cycle multiplies cells

Animated Mitosis

8.6 Cell division is a continuum of dynamic changes

Mitosis 2

8.6 Cell division is a continuum of dynamic changes

Mitosis 1

8.6 Cell division is a continuum of dynamic changes
8.7 Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells

Mitosis & Cytokinesis

8.6 Cell division is a continuum of dynamic changes
8.7 Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells

Cytokinesis 1

8.7 Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells

Cytokinesis 2

8.7 Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells

Cell Proliferation Signaling Pathway

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system

Control of the Cell Cycle

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system

The Function of Cohesion

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system

How Tumor Suppressor Genes Block Cell Division

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system

Stimulation of Cell Replication

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system

Comparison of Mitosis & Meiosis

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis
Meiosis and Crossing Over

Mitosis and Meiosis

The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle And Mitosis
Meiosis and Crossing Over

How Meiosis Works

Meiosis and Crossing Over

Sexual Life Cycle & Meiosis

Meiosis and Crossing Over

Meiosis Overview

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Meiosis I

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Meiosis 1

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Meiosis II

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Meiosis 3

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Meiosis 2

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Stages of Meiosis

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Independent Assortment and Gamete Diversity

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring

Random Orientation of Chromosomes During Meiosis

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring

Genetic Variation

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring
8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Genetic Variation in Meiosis

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring
8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Unique Features of Meiosis

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring
8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Crossing Over

8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Crossing Over

8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Meiosis with Crossing Over

8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic variability

Mistakes in Meiosis

Alterations Of Chromosome Number And Structure

The Consequence of Inversion

8.23 Alterations of chromosome structure can cause birth defects and cancer

       

 

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GENETICS

Genes & Chromosomes

Chapter 9: Patterns of Inheritance

Mendel’s Experiments

Mendel’s Laws

The Mendelian Model of Inheritance

Mendel’s Laws

Independent Assortment of Alleles

9.5 The law of independent assortment is revealed by tracking two characteristics at once

Inheritance of Several Diseases Based on Genetic Mechanisms

9.9 Many inherited disorders in humans are controlled by a single gene

Alleles That Do Not Sort Independently

9.11 The relationship of genotype to phenotype is rarely simple

Virtual Fly Lab

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes

         

 

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NUCLEIC ACIDS

DNA Replication 5

Chapter 10: Molecular Biology of the Gene

 

DNA Discovery & Structure

The Structure of the Genetic Material

 

Hershey-Chase Experiment

10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material

 

Hershey & Chase Experiment

10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material

 

Phage T2 Replication

10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material

 

Steps in the Replication of T4 Phage in E. Coli

10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material

 

Virus

10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material

From Cell to DNA

10.2 DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides

DNA & RNA Structure

10.2 DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides

DNA Anatomy

10.2 DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides
10.3 DNA is a double-stranded helix

DNA Double Helix

10.3 DNA is a double-stranded helix

DNA Structure

10.3 DNA is a double-stranded helix

DNA Replication 6

DNA Replication

DNA Replication Overview

DNA Replication

Overview of Replication

DNA Replication

Meselson & Stahl Experiment

10.4 DNA replication depends on specific base pairing

The Meselson-Stahl Experiment

10.4 DNA replication depends on specific base pairing

Prokaryotic DNA Replication

10.4 DNA replication depends on specific base pairing

Structural Basis of DNA Replication

10.4 DNA replication depends on specific base pairing

DNA Replication (E. coli)

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Bidirectional Replication of DNA 1

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Bidirectional Replication of DNA 2

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

DNA Replication 1

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

DNA Replication 2

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

DNA Replication 3

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

DNA Replication 4

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Origins of Replication

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

DNA Replication Fork 1

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

DNA Replication Fork 2

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Coordination of Leading and Lagging Strand Synthesis
How Nucleotides are Added in DNA Replication

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Leading Strand

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Lagging Strand

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Nucleotide Polymerization by DNA Polymerase

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Proofreading Function of DNA Polymerase

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Telomerase Function

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Direct Repair

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Methyl-directed Mismatch Repair

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

Nucleotide Excision Repair

10.5 DNA replication: A closer look

DNA Replication Review

DNA Replication

Overview of Eukaryotic Gene Expression

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Simple Gene Expression

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

The Transcription of DNA to RNA

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Processing of Gene Information – Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes

10.6 The DNA genotype is expressed as proteins, which provide the molecular basis for phenotypic traits

Deciphering the Genetic Code

10.7 Genetic information written in codons is translated into amino acid sequences
10.8 The genetic code is the Rosetta stone of life

DNA Transcription 1

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

DNA Transcription 2

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

mRNA Synthesis (Transcription)

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

Stages of Transcription

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

Transcription 2

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

Transcription 3

10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA

Overview of mRNA Processing

10.10 Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus

RNA Splicing 1

10.10 Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus

RNA Translation

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Translation 1

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Translation 2

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

How Spliceosomes Process RNA

10.10 Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus

Polyribosomes

10.12 Ribosomes build polypeptides

Polyribosomes

10.12 Ribosomes build polypeptides

Protein Synthesis 1

The Flow of Genetic Information From DNA to RNA to Protein

Translation Initiation

10.13 An initiation codon marks the start of an mRNA message

How Translation Works

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Protein Synthesis 2

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Translation Elongation

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Translation: Protein Synthesis

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Translation Termination

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase

10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation

Protein Synthesis: At the Ribosome

10.15 Review: The flow of genetic information in the cell is DNA → RNA → protein

Protein Synthesis 3

10.15 Review: The flow of genetic information in the cell is DNA → RNA → protein

Addition and Deletion Mutations

10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes

Changes in Chromosome Structure

10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes

Mutation by Base Substitution

10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes

Slipped-strand Mispairing

10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes

Thymine Dimers

10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes

Viral & Bacterial Genomes

Microbial Genetics

Simple Viral Reproduction

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Viral Infection

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Lytic Cycle

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

The Lytic Cycle

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Life Cycle of T2 Phage

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Lysogeny

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Lysogenic Cycle

10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome

Entry of Virus into Host Cell

10.18 Many viruses cause disease in animals

Mechanism for Releasing Enveloped Viruses

10.18 Many viruses cause disease in animals

How Prions Arise

10.20 Emerging viruses threaten human health

Prion Diseases

10.20 Emerging viruses threaten human health

HIV Replication

10.21 The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA template

How the HIV Infection Cycle Works

10.21 The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA template

Replication Cycle of a Retrovirus

10.21 The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA template

Treatment of HIV

10.21 The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA template

Integration and Excision of a Plasmid

10.22 Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways

Bacterial Transformation 1

10.22 Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways

Bacterial Transformation 2

10.22 Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways

DNA Transformation 1

10.22 Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways

DNA Transformation 2

10.22 Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways

Bacterial Conjugation

10.23 Bacterial plasmids can serve as carriers for gene transfer

 

Bacterial Conjugation – Transfer of a Plasmid

10.23 Bacterial plasmids can serve as carriers for gene transfer

Mechanisms of Transposition Transposons: Shifting Segments of the Genome      

 

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DNA TECHNOLOGY

Principles of Biotechnology

Chapter 12: DNA Technology & Genomics

Early Genetic Engineering Experiment

12.1 Plasmids are used to customize bacteria: An overview

Construction of a Plasmid Vector

12.2 Enzymes are used to “cut and paste” DNA

DNA Restriction

12.2 Enzymes are used to “cut and paste” DNA

Restriction Endonucleases

12.2 Enzymes are used to “cut and paste” DNA

Restriction Enzymes

12.2 Enzymes are used to “cut and paste” DNA

Plasmid Cloning

12.3 Genes can be cloned in recombinant plasmids: A closer look

Construction of a DNA Library

12.4 Cloned genes can be stored in genomic libraries

Steps in Cloning a Gene 1

12.4 Cloned genes can be stored in genomic libraries

Steps in Cloning a Gene 2

12.4 Cloned genes can be stored in genomic libraries

cDNA

12.5 Reverse transcriptase helps make genes for cloning

DNA Testing by Allele-Specific Cleavage

12.7 DNA technology is changing the pharmaceutical industry and medicine

DNA Probe (DNA hybridization)

12.8 Nucleic acid probes identify clones carrying specific genes

FISH

12.8 Nucleic acid probes identify clones carrying specific genes

DNA Arrays

12.9 DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once

DNA Chip Technology

12.9 DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once

GeneChips®

12.9 DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once0

Microarray

12.9 DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once

Electrophoresis

12.10 Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size

Gel Electrophoresis 1

12.10 Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size

Gel Electrophoresis 2

12.10 Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size

DNA Fingerprinting

12.12 DNA technology is used in courts of law

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms

12.12 DNA technology is used in courts of law

Southern Blot

12.12 DNA technology is used in courts of law

How Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are Made

12.13 Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases

Human Embryonic Stem Cells 1

12.13 Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases

Human Embryonic Stem Cells 2

12.13 Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases

The Potential Use of Embryonic Stem Cells in Medicine

12.13 Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases

PCR Reactions

12.14 The PCR method is used to amplify DNA sequences

Polymerase Chain Reaction 1

12.14 The PCR method is used to amplify DNA sequences

Polymerase Chain Reaction 2

12.14 The PCR method is used to amplify DNA sequences

Polymerase Chain Reaction 3

12.14 The PCR method is used to amplify DNA sequences Polymerase Chain Reaction

Polymerase Chain Reaction 4 Cycle Sequencing

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology

Early DNA Sequencing

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology

Sanger Sequencing

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology

Sequencing of DNA

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology; Sequencing of DNA

Sequencing the Genome

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology

High-Throughput Sequencing

12.15 The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology

 Applications of Biotechnology

Genetically Modified Organisms Connection

Antisense RNA Technology

12.18 Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture

 Genes into Plants Using the Ti-plasmid

12.18 Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture

 

Cloning 101

12.18 Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture

 

         

 

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EVOLUTION

Mechanisms of Evolution 2

Chapter 13: Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

Darwin in Historical Context

Darwin’s Theory Of Evolution

Evolutionary Changes Video

Population Genetics And The Modern Synthesis

Mechanisms of Evolution 1

Population Genetics And The Modern Synthesis

Hardy-Weinberg Conditions Animation

13.7 The gene pool of a non-evolving population remains constant over the generations

The Hardy-Weinberg Law and the Effects of Inbreeding and Natural Selection

13.7 The gene pool of a non-evolving population remains constant over the generations

Population Genetics and Evolution

13.7 The gene pool of a non-evolving population remains constant over the generations
13.8 The Hardy-Weinberg equation is useful in public health science

Simulation of Genetic Drift

13.9 In addition to natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow can contribute to evolution

Natural Selection

13.16 Natural selection can alter variation in a population in three ways

Assessing the Costs of Adaptations

13.18 Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms

Models of Speciation

Mechanisms Of Speciation

Speciation

Mechanisms Of Speciation

Speciation Models

Mechanisms Of Speciation

Founder Events Lead to Allopatric Speciation

14.5 Reproductive barriers may evolve as populations diverge

Speciation by Ploidy / Adaptive Radiation in Anoles

14.7 Polyploid plants clothe and feed us
14.8 Adaptive radiation may occur in new or newly vacated habitats

Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium

14.10 The tempo of speciation can appear steady or jumpy

Macroevolution Video Evolution of the Continents

16.1 Life began on a young Earth

Evolution of the Continents

16.1 Life began on a young Earth

         
 

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MICROORGANISMS

Pasteur’s Experiment

16.2 How did life originate?

Miller-Urey Experiment

16.3 Stanley Miller’s experiments showed that organic molecules could have arisen on a lifeless Earth

Synthesis of Prebiotic Molecules in an Experimental Atmosphere

16.3 Stanley Miller’s experiments showed that organic molecules could have arisen on a lifeless Earth

Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes

Bacterial Endospore Formation

16.10 Various structural features contribute to the success of prokaryotes

The Simplest Eukaryotes – Protists & Fungi

Protists

Unicellular Eukaryotes

Protists

Malaria: Life Cycle of Plasmodium

16.21 Alveolates have sacs beneath the plasma membrane and include dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates

       

 

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FUNGI

The Fungi

Fungi

The Fungi Kingdom – Common Characteristics of Fungi

17.15 Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies
17.16 Fungi produce spores in both asexual and sexual lifecycles

Chytridiomycetes

17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups

The Zygomycetes

17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups

Life Cycle & Conjugation in a Zygomycete

17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups

The Ascomycetes

17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups

The Basidiomycetes of the Fungi Kingdom

17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups

         

 

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ANIMALS

An Introduction to the Animals

Animal Evolution And Diversity

Overview of Invertebrates

Animal Evolution And Diversity

Life Cycle of a Cnidarian

18.6 Cnidarians are radial animals with tentacles and stinging cells

From Invertebrates to Vertebrates

Invertebrates; Vertebrates

Life Cycle of a Frog

18.18 Amphibians were the first tetrapods–vertebrates with two pairs of limbs

Marine Iguanas

18.19 Reptiles are amniotes–tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg

Tortoise

18.19 Reptiles are amniotes–tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg

Bat Pollinating

18.21 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk

Animal Form and Function

Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure & Function

 

Organization in Living Things

The Hierarchy of Structural Organization in An Animal

 

Specialized Plant and Animal Cells

20.2 Animal structure has a hierarchy

 

 

 

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PLANTS

Plants and Their Relatives

Plant Evolution and Diversity
Alternation of Generations and Plant Life Cycles

Plant Life Cycles

Alternation of Generations and Plant Life Cycles

The Plant Kingdom – An Introduction

Plant Evolution and Diversity

Life Cycle of a Moss

17.5 Mosses have a dominant gametophyte

Moss Life Cycle

17.5 Mosses have a dominant gametophyte

Fern Life Cycle

17.6 Ferns, like most plants, have a dominant sporophyte

Gymnosperms: Seeds in Cones

17.8 A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones

Life Cycle of a Conifer

17.8 A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones

Pine Life Cycle

17.8 A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones

Life Cycle of a Angiosperm

17.10 The angiosperm plant is a sporophyte with gametophytes in its flowers

Fruit – Triumph of the Angiosperms

17.11 The structure of a fruit reflects its function in seed dispersal

Section Through a Leaf

31.6 Three tissue systems make up the plant body

Cambium Growth

31.8 Secondary growth increases the girth of woody plants

Secondary Growth – The Vascular Cambium

31.8 Secondary growth increases the girth of woody plants

Plant Reproduction and Development

Reproduction of Flowering Plants

Parts of a Flower

31.9 Overview: The sexual life cycle of a flowering plant

Chapter 31: Double Fertilization in Flowering Plants

31.10 The development of pollen and ovules culminates in fertilization

Plant Fertilization

31.10 The development of pollen and ovules culminates in fertilization

Plant Reproduction

31.10 The development of pollen and ovules culminates in fertilization
31.11 The ovule develops into a seed

 

Seed Development

31.11 The ovule develops into a seed

Fruit Development

31.12 The ovary develops into a fruit

Angiosperms: Seeds in Fruit

31.13 Seed germination continues the life cycle

Plant Nutrition

Chapter 32: Plant Nutrition & Transport

 

Transpiration in Plants

The Uptake and Transport of Plant Nutrients

 

Transport in Roots

32.2 The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake

Water Uptake

32.2 The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake

Cohesion Adhesion Tension Model

32.3 Transpiration pulls water up xylem vessels

Transpiration 1

32.3 Transpiration pulls water up xylem vessels
32.4 Guard cells control transpiration

Phloem Loading

32.5 Phloem transports sugars

Phloem Translocation in Summer

32.5 Phloem transports sugars

Phloem Translocation in Spring

32.5 Phloem transports sugars

The Pressure Flow Model

32.5 Phloem transports sugars

Sugar Transport in Plants

32.5 Phloem transports sugars

Nitrogen & Iron Deficiencies

32.6 Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients
32.7 You can diagnose some nutrient deficiencies in your own plants

Minerals from Soil

32.8 Fertile soil supports plant growth

 

Mineral Uptake

32.8 Fertile soil supports plant growth

 

Control Systems in Plants

Chapter 33: Control Systems in Plants

Auxin Affects Cell Walls

33.3 Auxin stimulates the elongation of cells in young shoots

Tropisms

3.9 Tropisms orient plant growth toward or away from environmental stimuli

Went’s Experiment

33.9 Tropisms orient plant growth toward or away from environmental stimuli

The Effect of Interrupted Days & Nights

3.10 Plants have internal clocks

Phytochrome Signaling

33.12 Phytochrome is a light detector that may help set the biological clock

Signaling between Plants & Pathogens

33.14 Defenses against herbivores and infectious microbes have evolved in plants

         

 

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DIGESTION & NUTRITION

The Digestive System

Chapter 21: Nutrition & Digestion

Diet and Feeding Mechanisms

Obtaining and Processing Food
Nutrition

Organs of Digestion

Human Digestive System

Hormones & Gastric Secretions

21.9 The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes

Hormones and Gastric Secretion

21.9 The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes

Hydrochloric Acid Production… of the Stomach

21.9 The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes

Three Phases of Gastric Secretion

21.9 The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes

Reflexes in the Colon

21.12 The large intestine reclaims water and compacts the feces

B Vitamins

21.18 A healthy diet includes 13 vitamins

     

 

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RESPIRATION

The Respiratory System

Chapter 22: Gas Exchange

Airflow in Mammals

22.2 Animals exchange O2 and CO2 across moist body surfaces
22.5 Terrestrial vertebrates have lungs

Alveolar Pressure Changes During Inspiration and Expiration

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Changes in the Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Gas Exchange During Respiration

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Airflow in Birds

22.2 Animals exchange O2 and CO2 across moist body surfaces
22.5 Terrestrial vertebrates have lungs

Movement of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Path of Blood: Review

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Blood to Tissues

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Tissues to Blood

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Blood to Lungs

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

Lungs to Blood

22.9 Blood transports respiratory gases

 

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CIRCULATION

The Circulatory System #1

Chapter 23: Circulation

The Circulatory System #2

The Mammalian Cardiovascular System

 

Blood Flow through the Human Heart

23.4 The human heart and cardiovascular system are typical of mammals

The Cardiac Cycle

23.4 The human heart and cardiovascular system are typical of mammals

Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle

23.6 The heart contracts and relaxes rhythmically

Conducting System of the Heart

23.7 The pacemaker sets the tempo of the heartbeat

Baroreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure

23.9 Blood exerts pressure on vessel walls

Chemoreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure

23.9 Blood exerts pressure on vessel walls

Measuring Blood Pressure

23.9 Blood exerts pressure on vessel walls
23.10 Measuring blood pressure can reveal cardiovascular problems

Hemoglobin Breakdown

23.14 Too few or too many red blood cells can be unhealthy

   
 

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IMMUNE SYSTEM

Cells & Organs of the Immune System

Chapter 24: The Immune System

Nonspecific Immune Defenses

Innate Defenses Against Infection

Phagocytosis

24.1 Innate defenses against infection include the skin and mucous membranes, phagocytes cells, and antimicrobial proteins

Nonspecific Inflammatory Response

24.2 The inflammatory response mobilizes nonspecific defense forces

The Lymphatic System and the Blood

24.3 The lymphatic system becomes a crucial battleground during infection

T-Cell Dependent Antigens

24.5 Lymphocytes mount a dual defense

Humoral Immune Response

Acquired Immunity

The Immune Response

Acquired Immunity

Specific Immune Defenses

Acquired Immunity

Antigenic Determinants (Epitopes)

24.6 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them

 

Humoral Immunity – The Role of B Cells

24.7 Clonal selection musters defensive forces against specific antigens

A B-Cell Builds an Antibody

24.8 Antibodies are the weapons of humoral immunity

Antibodies

24.9 Antibodies mark antigens for elimination

Pregancy Test

24.10 Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic

ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

24.10 Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic

Monoclonal Antibody Production

24.10 Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic

Helper T Cells

24.11 Helper T cells stimulate humoral and cell-mediated immunity

The Cellular Immune Response

24.13 Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells

Cytotoxic T-cell Activity Against Target Cells

24.13 Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells

Cell-Mediated Immunity – Cytotoxic T Cells

24.13 Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells
24.14 Cytotoxic T cells may help prevent cancer

Allergic Response

24.17 Allergies are overreactions to certain environmental antigens

IgE Mediated Hypersensitivity

24.17 Allergies are overreactions to certain environmental antigens

   

 

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ENDOCRINE

The Actions of Hormones on Target Cells

The Nature of Chemical Regulation

Hormones

The Nature of Chemical Regulation

Endocrine System Orientation

Hormones and Homeostasis

Positive and Negative Feedback

Hormones and Homeostasis

Lipid Soluble Hormones

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Intracellular Receptor Model

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Mechanism of Action of Lipid-Soluble Messengers

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Mechanism of Steroid Hormone Action

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Water Soluble Hormones

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Membrane-Bound Receptors, G Proteins, and Ca2+ Channels

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Membrane-Bound Receptors that Activate G Proteins

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Second Messengers – The cAMP and Ca++ Pathways

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

Signaling via G-Protein

26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms

The Endocrine System

The Vertebrate Endocrine System

 

Hormonal Communication

26.4 The hypothalamus, closely tied to the pituitary, connects the nervous and endocrine systems

The Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Endocrine Axis Biochemistry, Secretion, & Transport of Hormones

Hormones and Homeostasis

Thyroid Gland Functioning

26.5 The thyroid regulates development and metabolism

Mechanism of Thyroxine Action Hormonal Regulation of Calcium

26.6 Hormones from the thyroid and parathyroids maintain calcium homeostasis

Blood Sugar Regulation in Diabetics

26.8 Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder

Respose to Stress

26.9 The adrenal glands mobilize responses to stress

Action of Epinephrine on a Liver Cell

Action of Glucocorticoid Hormone

 

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NERVOUS & MUSCULAR

The Nervous System

Nervous Systems and Sensation

Chapter 28: The Nervous System

Reflex Arcs

Reflex Arc

28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands

Parts of a Neuron

28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems

How Nerves Work

28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems

Resting Membrane Potential

28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane

Resting Potential

28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane

Action Potential

The Action Potential

Voltage Gated Channels and the Action Potential

28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential

Sodium-Potassium Exchange

28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential

Action Potential Propagation in an Unmyelinated Axon

28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron

Action Potentials

28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential
28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron

The Nerve Impulse

28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane
28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential
28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron

The Nerve Impulse

28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane
28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential
28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron

Synapse

Synapse

Synaptic Transmission #1

Synaptic Transmission #2

Chemical Synapse

Transmission Across a Synapse

Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Illustration

Function of the Neuromuscular Junction

Membrane-Bound Receptors G Proteins and Ca2 Channels

Information Processing in the Spinal Cord

28.8 A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters

Role of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

28.13 Opposing actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons regulate the internal environment

Circadian Rhythms

Time-Compensated Solar Compass

28.18 Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and arousal

 

Receptors of the Skin

29.3 Specialized sensory receptors detect five categories of stimuli

The Senses: Seeing

Light Refraction

Pupil Dilation

Nearsightedness

Farsightedness

Vision

Near and Distant Vision

How to Find Your Dominant Eye

Astigmatism

Astigmatism Contacts

29.6 To focus, a lens changes position or shape

Artificial Corrective Lens

LASIK Surgery

Microchip Retina Implant

29.7 Artificial lenses or surgery can correct focusing problems

Information Processing in the Retina

29.8 Our photoreceptors are rods and cones

Visual Pathways

29.6 To focus, a lens changes position or shape
29.8 Our photoreceptors are rods and cones

 

The Senses: Hearing

Hearing and Balance

Sound Transduction

Sound Transduction in the Human Ear

Effect of Sound Waves on Cochlear Structures

Skeletons

Chapter 30: Movement and Locomotion

Bone Growth in Width

30.4 Bones are complex living organs

Osteoporosis

30.6 Weak, brittle bones are a serious health problem, even in young people

Muscle Structure and Contraction

Muscle Contraction and Movement

Action Potentials and Muscle Contraction

30.10 Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction

Breakdown of ATP and Cross-Bridge Movement During Muscle Contraction

30.9 A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide across thick filaments

Myofilament Contraction Function of a Neuromuscular Junction

30.10 Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction

Sarcomere Shortening Smooth Muscle Action Molecular Mechanisms of Muscle Contraction

30.8 Each muscle cell has its own contractile apparatus
30.9 A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide across thick filaments
30.10 Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction

 
 

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ECOLOGY

The Natural Setting

The Biosphere: An Introduction to Earth’s Diverse Environments

Ecosystems

34.4 Physical and chemical factors influence life in the biosphere
34.5 Organisms are adapted to abiotic and biotic factors by natural selection

 Earth Has Four Giant Convection Cells

A Rain Shadow

34.6 Regional climate influences the distribution of biological communities

Aquatic Ecosystems

Aquatic Biomes

 

Biomes #1

Biomes #2

Biomes #3

Terrestrial Biomes

Biomes & Climate Zones

Terrestrial Biomes

Basics of Behavior

Behavioral Adaptations to the Environment

Foraging Behavior

35.12 Behavioral ecologists use cost-benefit analysis in studying foraging

Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior

35.13 Mating behaviors enhance reproductive success

Social Behvaior

Social Behavior and Sociobiology

The Cost of Defending a Territory

35.16 Territorial behavior parcels space and resources

Population Ecology

Population Dynamics

Animation – r and K Strategies

36.4 Idealized models help us understand population growth

Population Growth

36.5 Multiple factors may limit population growth

Population Cycles

Predator-Prey Interactions

36.6 Some populations have “boom-and-bust” cycles

Human Population Growth

The Human Population

World Hunger Community Ecology

Structural Features of Communities

Symbiosis

37.6 Symbiotic relationships help structure communities

 

Succession

37.7 Disturbance is a prominent feature of most communities

Primary Succession on a Glacial Moraine

Changes in Ecosystems

37.7 Disturbance is a prominent feature of most communities

Food Chains  

Food Chain Reaction

Working on the Food Chain

37.9 Trophic structure is a key factor in community dynamics

Food Webs

A Food Web

Rainforest Food Web

37.10 Food chains interconnect, forming food webs

Ecosystem

Ecosystems

Structural Features of Communities
Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics

Chemical Element Cycles

Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics

An Idealized Energy Pyramid

Energy Flow and the Water Cycle

The Global Hydrological Cycle

37.13 Energy supply limits the length of food chains

The Sulfur Cycle

Water Cycle

The Water Cycle

Carbon Cycle

The Carbon Cycle #1

The Carbon Cycle #2

37.15 Chemicals are recycled between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs

The Global Carbon Cycle

37.17 The carbon cycle depends on photosynthesis and respiration

The Global Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle

37.18 The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria

The Nitrogen Cycle #1

37.18 The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria

The Nitrogen Cycle #2

37.18 The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteriaa

The Phosphorus Cycle

37.19 The phosphorus cycle depends on the weathering of rock

Conservation Biology

Conservation Biology

Land Transformation: A City Growing Over Time

The Biodiversity Crisis: An Overview

Habitat Fragmentation

38.3 Habitat destruction, introduced species, and overexploitation are the major threats to biodiversity

Are Global Temperatures Rising?

38.5 Rapid global warming could alter the entire biosphere

Climate Change Over Time Greenhouse Effect