AP Chapter 42 RETEST

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AP Chapter 42 RETEST
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body’s cells are likely to have which of the following?
a.
an open circulatory system
b.
a closed circulatory system
c.
a gastrovascular cavity
d.
branched tracheae
e.
hemolymph
 2.
In which animal does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?
a.
annelid
b.
mollusc
c.
fish
d.
frog
e.
insect
 3.
Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?
a.
amphibians
b.
birds
c.
fishes
d.
mammals
e.
reptiles
 4.
To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n)
a.
open circulatory system.
b.
hemocoel.
c.
lymphatic system.
d.
two-chambered heart.
e.
four-chambered heart.
 5.
Diffusion rate is proportional to the square of the distance molecules/ions travel. Which of the following would therefore be preferable for a mid-size multicellular organism?
a.
direct exchange of nutrients with the surrounding medium
b.
a system for bringing nutrients into contact with cells, and another system for bringing to cells
c.
a system to circulate gases, nutrients, and wastes to and from cells
d.
a system for facilitated diffusion to maximize materials that could be exchanged
e.
a system of individualized exchange tubules for each cell group
 6.
An anthropologist discovers fossilized animal remains that give strong evidence that the organism had a large, well-formed, most likely 4-chambered heart, with no connection between the right and left sides. Which of the following could most reasonably be hypothesized from this observation?
a.
that the animal and its relatives had evolved from birds
b.
that the animal had a high energy requirement and was endothermic
c.
that the animal was most closely related to reptiles such as alligators and crocodiles
d.
that the animal was a kind of invertebrate
e.
that the species had little to no need to regulate blood pressure
 7.
Which of the following would be described as a portal system?
a.
an area connecting arterioles to venules
b.
a series of vessels that returns blood to the heart in an animal with an open circulatory system
c.
a space within or between organs where blood is allowed to pool
d.
a slightly muscular vessel that has minimal pumping action in an organism with no heart
e.
a vessel or vessels connecting two capillary beds
 8.
A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. From this point in the artery, how many capillary beds must this red blood cell pass through before it returns to the left ventricle of the heart?
a.
one
b.
two
c.
three
d.
four
e.
five
 9.
Which sequence of blood flow can be observed in either a reptile or a mammal?
a.
left ventricle ® aorta ® lungs ®systemic circulation
b.
right ventricle ® pulmonary vein ® pulmocutaneous circulation
c.
pulmonary vein ® left atrium ® ventricle ® pulmonary circuit
d.
vena cava ® right atrium ® ventricle ® pulmonary circuit
e.
right atrium ® pulmonary artery ® left atrium ® ventricle
 10.
A patient has a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 40 beats/min, a stroke volume of 70 mL/beat, and a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/min. This person’s cardiac output per minute will be
a.
500 mL.
b.
1,000 mL.
c.
1,750 mL.
d.
2,800 mL.
e.
4,800 mL.
 11.
Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans
a.
is a major contributor to heart attacks.
b.
would block conductance between the bundle branches and the Purkinje fibers.
c.
would have a negative effect on peripheral resistance.
d.
would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions.
e.
would have a direct effect on blood pressure monitors in the aorta.
 12.
If the atrioventricular node could be surgically removed from the heart without disrupting signal transmission to the Purkinje fibers, what would be the effect?
a.
No apparent effect on heart activity would be observed.
b.
The heart rate would be decreased.
c.
Only the ventricles would contract.
d.
Only the atria would contract.
e.
Atria and ventricles would contract at about the same time.
 13.
A nonfunctional sinoatrial node would
a.
have no adverse effects on heart contraction.
b.
cause the heart to stop beating in an autorhythmic fashion.
c.
result in a block in ventricular contractions.
d.
cause no effects because hormones will take over regulation of the heartbeat.
e.
have little significant effect on stroke volume.
 14.
Which of the following is measured by an electrocardiogram?
a.
impulses from the AV node
b.
impulses of the parasympathetic nervous system that control heart beat
c.
the spread of impulses from the SA node
d.
contraction of the two atria
e.
systole and diastole
 15.
The average resting stroke volume of the heart is 70 mL and it beats ~72 times per minute. This would result in which cardiac output?
a.
5 L/minute
b.
504 mL/minute
c.
0.5 L/minute
d.
50 L/minute
e.
500 L/minute
 16.
Where are semilunar valves to be found in the mammalian heart?
a.
where blood goes from atria to ventricles
b.
on the right side of the heart only
c.
where the pulmonary veins attach to the heart
d.
at the places where blood leaves via the aorta and pulmonary arteries
e.
at the places where the anterior and posterior venae cavae enter
 17.
Why is the velocity of blood flow the lowest in capillaries?
a.
The capillary walls are not thin enough to allow oxygen to exchange with the cells.
b.
Capillaries are far from the heart, and blood flow slows as distance from the heart increases.
c.
The diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to the capillaries at a high flow rate.
d.
The systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower cardiac output than the right ventricle.
e.
The total surface area of the capillaries is larger than the total surface area of the arterioles.
 18.
The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot consists mostly of which protein?
a.
fibrinogen
b.
fibrin
c.
thrombin
d.
prothrombin
e.
collagen
 19.
Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs?
a.
Water is less dense than air.
b.
Water contains much less than air per unit volume.
c.
Gills have less surface area than lungs.
d.
Gills allow only unidirectional transport
e.
Gills allow water to flow in one direction
 20.
Which of the following is an example of countercurrent exchange?
a.
the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills
b.
the flow of blood in the dorsal vessel of an insect and that of air within its tracheae
c.
the flow of air within the primary bronchi of a human and that of blood within the pulmonary veins
d.
the flow of water across the skin of a frog and that of blood within the ventricle of its heart
e.
the flow of fluid out of the arterial end of a capillary and that of fluid back into the venous end of the same capillary
 21.
Where do air-breathing insects carry out gas exchange?
a.
in specialized external gills
b.
in specialized internal gills
c.
in the alveoli of their lungs
d.
across the membranes of cells
e.
across the thin cuticular exoskeleton
 22.
Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because
a.
the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume.
b.
pressure in the alveoli increases.
c.
gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure.
d.
pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs.
e.
a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes.
 23.
Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs?
a.
The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.
b.
The residual volume of the lungs decreases.
c.
The diaphragm contracts.
d.
The epiglottis closes.
e.
The rib cage expands.
 24.
Which of the following lung volumes would be different in a person at rest compared with when the person exercises?
a.
tidal volume
b.
vital capacity
c.
residual volume
d.
total lung capacity
e.
All of the above would be different.
 25.
The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate?
a.
nitric acid
b.
nitrogen
c.
oxygen
d.
carbon dioxide
e.
carbon monoxide

 

        
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