Bacterial Cell Evolution
1. Bacteria are microscopic _____________.
2. Fossils evidence shows bacteria are about __________ years old, while eukaryotes are about __________ years old.
3. Discuss where bacteria can be found.
4. Ribosomal differences have put bacteria into what two kingdoms? Which is the older group?
5. What is absent in the cell wall of Archaebacteria? Describe this substance.
6. Describe the environments in which you would find Archaebacteria.
7. Compare & contrast these tree groups of Archaebacteria — methanogens, extreme halophiles, and thermoacidophiles.
8. Most bacteria are found in what kingdom?
9. Name & describe the three shapes of Eubacteria.
10. Are Eubacteria aerobic or anaerobic? Explain.
11. Eubacteria may be heterotrophic or photosynthetic. Explain what this means & give an example of each type.
12. What type of staining is used to group Eubacteria?
13. Describe the appearance of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria under a microscope.
14. Explain why Eubacteria do not all stain the same color during Gram staining.
15. Describe, in detail, cyanobacteria.
16. Cyanobacteria, also known as ______________ bacteria lack a membrane bound __________ & _____________.
17. How are heterocysts helpful to cyanobacteria?
18. What is eutrophication?
19. Explain the role of cyanobacteria in eutrophication.
20. What bacterium causes syphilis? Describe this bacteria.
21. Streptococci bacteria causing strep throat are in what group?
22. Why are actinomycete bacteria important?
23. Compare & contrast these three groups of Proteobacteria — enteric bacteria, chemoautotrophs, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
24.Name a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria found on the roots of soybeans in our area.
Characteristics of Bacteria
25. Name the three main parts of all bacteria.
26. Describe the cell wall of bacteria. How does this differ from a plant cell wall?
27. Compare & contrast the cell membrane of Eubacteria with that of other eukaryotes.
28.Are Gram positive or negative bacteria more protected against antibiotics & why?
29. Where does cell respiration take place in eukaryotes? in bacteria?
30. Describe how the cell membrane of photosynthetic bacteria are adapted for this process. Where does this process take place in plants?
31. Compare & contrast the cytoplasm of bacteria with that of eukaryotes.
32. Describe the DNA (hereditary material) found in bacteria. Make a sketch of what you think this would look like.
33. Where is the capsule of a bacteria, what is it made of, and give two ways it helps a bacterium?
34. Where is the glycoclayx of a bacteria, what is it made of, and how does it help a bacterium?
35. How do pili help the bacteria that have them?
36. How do Gram positive bacteria protect themselves against harsh environments?
37. Describe two methods of locomotion in bacteria.
38. Compare & contrast saprophytic and photoautotrophic bacterial nutrition.
39. Distinguish among these three bacteria & give an example of each — obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, & obligate aerobes.
40. Compare & contrast these three methods of bacterial reproduction — transformation, conjugation, and transduction.
Bacteria and Humans
41. What does a pathologist do for a living?
42. Compare & contrast the two types of toxins bacteria produce.
43. Besides injuring the body by releasing toxins, how else do bacteria hurt the body?
44. Describe four antibiotics against bacteria.
45. Explain how antibiotic resistance occurs.
46. Name two bacterial diseases carried by ticks.
47. name two bacterial diseases caused by eating contaminated food.
48. Name a sexually transmitted bacterial disease.
49. Name a bacterium that can cause disease whenever it gets into deep wounds.
50. Name a bacterium that is transmitted by coughing & infects the lungs.
51. Describe, in detail, how bacteria can be useful to humans.